Definition and measurementof marine black carbonemissions                  Ray Minjares & Galen HonIMO BLG 16London, UK30 ...
Overview   Background   Properties   Definition   Measurement   Findings   Impacts
Background
Background
Background         Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index, 1880-2011  Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., and Lo, K. (2012). Glo...
Background2011 Annual Mean Surface Temperature Anomaly relative to 1951-1980 base period         Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sa...
BackgroundIPCC showsblack carbon hasalreadycontributedsignificantly toclimate warming   ICCT graphical representation of F...
Properties  Quinn, P., Stohl, A., Arneth, A., Berntsen, T., Burkhart, J. F., Christensen, J., Flanner, M., et al. (2011). ...
Properties1. Solid carbonaceous fraction of   particulate matter emissions2. Strongly light-absorbing3. At least 80 percen...
DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created th...
DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created th...
DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created th...
DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created th...
DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created th...
DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created th...
DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created th...
Other Commonly Used Terms Soot  Particles formed during the quenching of gases at the outer edge of flames of organic  va...
Measurement   Filter-Based   In-Situ
MeasurementFilter-Based Methods Transmittance/reflectance methods     Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP)     Ae...
Measurement In-situ methods   Photo-acoustic     Micro-soot sensor (AVL 483)     Photo-acoustic soot spectrometer (PAS...
MeasurementEvaluation of techniques for measurement of BC emissions from international shipping
Findings1.   Black carbon is well defined and can be effectively measured.2.   The photo-acoustic technique is the preferr...
ImpactsForcing of black carbon in the atmosphere and cryosphere in the year 2000       Adapted from Fig 3 in Bond, T. C., ...
Impacts Global average forcing of black carbon per unit mass, by region      Fig 5 in Bond, T. C., Zarzycki, C., Flanner, ...
Impacts   Average Monthly Arctic Sea Ice Extent, Sep 1979-2010   National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2008
ImpactsMarine BC emissions north of 60° (2005-2050), BAU and high growth scenarios         Corbett, J., Lack, D., & Winebr...
For further information please contact  Ray Minjares, Climate and Health ProgramInternational Council on Clean Transportat...
ReferencesArctic Council An Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Options for Black Carbon for the Arctic Council.(2011)....
Additional Slides
ImpactsCountry contributions to anthropogenic BC emissions north of 40°C in the year 2000         Quinn, P., Stohl, A., Ar...
ImpactsTrends in marine emissions of BC for 2000 to 2007 related to activities at Svalbard      Quinn, P., Stohl, A., Arne...
Estimated health impacts of carbonaceousparticle emissions north of 40°in the year 2012       Prevention of air pollution ...
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Definition and measurement of marine black carbon emissions

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ICCT and IMarEST presentation on the definition of marine black carbon emissions at the IMO on 30 January 2012.

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Definition and measurement of marine black carbon emissions

  1. 1. Definition and measurementof marine black carbonemissions Ray Minjares & Galen HonIMO BLG 16London, UK30 January 2012
  2. 2. Overview Background Properties Definition Measurement Findings Impacts
  3. 3. Background
  4. 4. Background
  5. 5. Background Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index, 1880-2011 Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., and Lo, K. (2012). Global Temperature in 2011, Trends and Prospects. http://columbia.us1.list- manage.com/track/click?u=0ebaeb14fdbf5dc65289113c1&id=f1a50c4e9f&e=03b924f976
  6. 6. Background2011 Annual Mean Surface Temperature Anomaly relative to 1951-1980 base period Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., and Lo, K. (2012). Global Temperature in 2011, Trends and Prospects. http://columbia.us1.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0ebaeb14fdbf5dc65289113c1&id=f1a50c4e9f&e=03b924f976
  7. 7. BackgroundIPCC showsblack carbon hasalreadycontributedsignificantly toclimate warming ICCT graphical representation of Figure 2.22 contained in Forster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D.C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz and R. Van Dorland, 2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Slide 7
  8. 8. Properties Quinn, P., Stohl, A., Arneth, A., Berntsen, T., Burkhart, J. F., Christensen, J., Flanner, M., et al. (2011). The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate ( No. 4). AMAP Technical Report (pp. 1–74). Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.
  9. 9. Properties1. Solid carbonaceous fraction of particulate matter emissions2. Strongly light-absorbing3. At least 80 percent carbon by mass4. Stable at high temperatures (refractory)5. Insoluble in water6. Product of pyrolisis7. Exists as chain aggregates of spherules 20-50nm in diameter8. Molecular structure dominated by sp2 bonds9. Absorbs radiation across a wide spectrum
  10. 10. DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created through incomplete combustion ofcarbon-based fuels. BC contains more than 80percent carbon by mass, a high fraction of which issp2-bonded carbon, and when emitted formsaggregates of primary spherules between 20 and 50nm in aerodynamic diameter. BC absorbs solarradiation across all visible wavelengths and freshlyemitted BC has a mass absorption efficiency of 5m2/g at the mid-visible wavelength of 550 nm. Thestrength of this light absorption varies with thecomposition, shape, size distribution, and mixing stateof the particle.
  11. 11. DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created through incomplete combustion ofcarbon-based fuels. BC contains more than 80percent carbon by mass, a high fraction of which issp2-bonded carbon, and when emitted formsaggregates of primary spherules between 20 and 50nm in aerodynamic diameter. BC absorbs solarradiation across all visible wavelengths and freshlyemitted BC has a mass absorption efficiency of 5m2/g at the mid-visible wavelength of 550 nm. Thestrength of this light absorption varies with thecomposition, shape, size distribution, and mixing stateof the particle.
  12. 12. DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created through incomplete combustion ofcarbon-based fuels. BC contains more than 80percent carbon by mass, a high fraction of which issp2-bonded carbon, and when emitted formsaggregates of primary spherules between 20 and 50nm in aerodynamic diameter. BC absorbs solarradiation across all visible wavelengths and freshlyemitted BC has a mass absorption efficiency of 5m2/g at the mid-visible wavelength of 550 nm. Thestrength of this light absorption varies with thecomposition, shape, size distribution, and mixing stateof the particle.
  13. 13. DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created through incomplete combustion ofcarbon-based fuels. BC contains more than 80percent carbon by mass, a high fraction of which issp2-bonded carbon, and when emitted formsaggregates of primary spherules between 20 and 50nm in aerodynamic diameter. BC absorbs solarradiation across all visible wavelengths and freshlyemitted BC has a mass absorption efficiency of 5m2/g at the mid-visible wavelength of 550 nm. Thestrength of this light absorption varies with thecomposition, shape, size distribution, and mixing stateof the particle.
  14. 14. DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created through incomplete combustion ofcarbon-based fuels. BC contains more than 80percent carbon by mass, a high fraction of which issp2-bonded carbon, and when emitted formsaggregates of primary spherules between 20 and 50nm in aerodynamic diameter. BC absorbs solarradiation across all visible wavelengths and freshlyemitted BC has a mass absorption efficiency of 5m2/g at the mid-visible wavelength of 550 nm. Thestrength of this light absorption varies with thecomposition, shape, size distribution, and mixing stateof the particle.
  15. 15. DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created through incomplete combustion ofcarbon-based fuels. BC contains more than 80percent carbon by mass, a high fraction of which issp2-bonded carbon, and when emitted formsaggregates of primary spherules between 20 and 50nm in aerodynamic diameter. BC absorbs solarradiation across all visible wavelengths and freshlyemitted BC has a mass absorption efficiency of 5m2/g at the mid-visible wavelength of 550 nm. Thestrength of this light absorption varies with thecomposition, shape, size distribution, and mixing stateof the particle.
  16. 16. DefinitionBlack carbon (BC) is strongly light-absorbingcarbonaceous material emitted as solid particulatematter created through incomplete combustion ofcarbon-based fuels. BC contains more than 80percent carbon by mass, a high fraction of which issp2-bonded carbon, and when emitted formsaggregates of primary spherules between 20 and 50nm in aerodynamic diameter. BC absorbs solarradiation across all visible wavelengths and freshlyemitted BC has a mass absorption efficiency of 5m2/g at the mid-visible wavelength of 550 nm. Thestrength of this light absorption varies with thecomposition, shape, size distribution, and mixing stateof the particle.
  17. 17. Other Commonly Used Terms Soot Particles formed during the quenching of gases at the outer edge of flames of organic vapours, consisting predominantly of carbon, with lesser amounts of oxygen and hydrogen present as carboxyl and phenolic groups and exhibiting an imperfect graphitic structure. (Charlson and Heinstzenberg, 1995, p.406) Elemental carbon Carbonaceous material that does not oxidize below a temperature threshold of 350 degrees C (Cachier, H., Brémond, M.-P., and Buat-Ménard, P. (1989) Graphitic carbon An allotrope of carbon defined by a molecular structure that consists of planar layers of sp2 carbon bonds.
  18. 18. Measurement Filter-Based In-Situ
  19. 19. MeasurementFilter-Based Methods Transmittance/reflectance methods  Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP)  Aethalometer (AE31)  Multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP 5012) Thermal speciation methods  DRI carbon analyzer (IMPROVE_A)
  20. 20. Measurement In-situ methods  Photo-acoustic  Micro-soot sensor (AVL 483)  Photo-acoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-1)  Refractive index-based  Not commercially available  Laser-induced incandescence  Single particle soot photometer (SP2)  Difference method  Not commercially available
  21. 21. MeasurementEvaluation of techniques for measurement of BC emissions from international shipping
  22. 22. Findings1. Black carbon is well defined and can be effectively measured.2. The photo-acoustic technique is the preferred method, although other techniques reviewed can provide reasonably precise measurements.3. Parallel measurement of light absorption using the IMPROVE_A protocol provides data useful to correlate with ambient air quality measurements4. A review of mass absorption efficiency of BC emissions from international shipping would provide further measurement validation5. A protocol for sampling BC emissions from international shipping can provide measurement consistency6. Measurement methods should be re-evaluated periodically to account for scientific advances
  23. 23. ImpactsForcing of black carbon in the atmosphere and cryosphere in the year 2000 Adapted from Fig 3 in Bond, T. C., Zarzycki, C., Flanner, M. G., & Koch, D. M. (2011). Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by black carbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(4), 1505–1525. doi:10.5194/acp-11-1505-2011
  24. 24. Impacts Global average forcing of black carbon per unit mass, by region Fig 5 in Bond, T. C., Zarzycki, C., Flanner, M. G., & Koch, D. M. (2011). Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by black carbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(4), 1505–1525. doi:10.5194/acp-11-1505-2011
  25. 25. Impacts Average Monthly Arctic Sea Ice Extent, Sep 1979-2010 National Snow and Ice Data Center, 2008
  26. 26. ImpactsMarine BC emissions north of 60° (2005-2050), BAU and high growth scenarios Corbett, J., Lack, D., & Winebrake, J. (2010). Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, (10), 9689–9704.
  27. 27. For further information please contact Ray Minjares, Climate and Health ProgramInternational Council on Clean Transportation ray@theicct.org +1 415.202.5748 Galen Hon, Starcrest Consulting Group ghon@starcrestllc.com +1 206.819.1723
  28. 28. ReferencesArctic Council An Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Options for Black Carbon for the Arctic Council.(2011). An Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Options for Black Carbon for the Arctic Council. A TechnicalReport of the Arctic Council Task Force on Short-Lived Climate Forcers (pp. 1–178). Arctic Council.Bond, T. C., & Bergstrom, R. (2006). Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review.Aerosol Science and Technology, 40(1), 27–67.Bond, T. C., Zarzycki, C., Flanner, M. G., & Koch, D. M. (2011). Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by blackcarbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(4), 1505–1525. doi:10.5194/acp-11-1505-2011Corbett, J., Lack, D., & Winebrake, J. (2010). Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, (10), 9689–9704.Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T. K., Betts, R., Fahey, D., Haywood, J., et al. (2007). Chap02: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M., and Lo, K. (2012). Global Temperature in 2011, Trends and Prospects.http://columbia.us1.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0ebaeb14fdbf5dc65289113c1&id=f1a50c4e9f&e=03b924f976Moosmüller, H., Chakrabarty, R., & Arnott, W. (2009). Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review.Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 110(11), 844–878.Quinn, P., Stohl, A., Arneth, A., Berntsen, T., Burkhart, J. F., Christensen, J., Flanner, M., et al. (2011). TheImpact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate ( No. 4). AMAP Technical Report (pp. 1–74). Arctic Monitoring andAssessment Programme.Watson, J., and Chow, J. (2010) Defining elemental and black carbon in the atmosphere. Presentation to theAWMA International Specialty Conference on Leapfrogging Opportunities for Air Quality Improvement, 10-14May, Xi’an, China.
  29. 29. Additional Slides
  30. 30. ImpactsCountry contributions to anthropogenic BC emissions north of 40°C in the year 2000 Quinn, P., Stohl, A., Arneth, A., Berntsen, T., Burkhart, J. F., Christensen, J., Flanner, M., et al. (2011). The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate ( No. 4). AMAP Technical Report (pp. 1–74). Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.
  31. 31. ImpactsTrends in marine emissions of BC for 2000 to 2007 related to activities at Svalbard Quinn, P., Stohl, A., Arneth, A., Berntsen, T., Burkhart, J. F., Christensen, J., Flanner, M., et al. (2011). The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate ( No. 4). AMAP Technical Report (pp. 1–74). Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.
  32. 32. Estimated health impacts of carbonaceousparticle emissions north of 40°in the year 2012 Prevention of air pollution from ships. Submission of Clean Shipping Coalition to 62nd session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee. 6 May 2011. MEPC 62/INF.32

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