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Cumplimiento y Verificación 
(Compliance and Enforcement)! 
Francisco Posada, PhD! 
July 10, 2014! 
Mexico DF!
Slide 2 
Que son los programas de cumplimiento y 
verificación?! 
§ Este programa asegura que las normas para 
vehículos ...
Slide 3 
Diferencias entre laboratorio y uso real! 
§ Mediciones con Remote Sensing y con PEMS! 
Chen & Borken-Kleefeld, ...
Slide 4 
Diferencias entre laboratorio y uso real! 
§ Mediciones con Remote Sensing y con PEMS! 
PEMS testing in Europe 
...
Slide 5 
Diferencias entre laboratorio y uso real! 
§ Mediciones con Remote Sensing y con PEMS! 
Vehicle A Vehicle B Vehi...
§ 1) Preproduction certification [Fabricante], ! 
§ 2) Confirmatory testing [EPA], ! 
§ 3) Selective Enforcement Audit ...
Slide 7 
Componentes del C&E EPA!
Slide 8 
Pruebas de pre-produccion (preproduction 
testing)! 
§ Preproduction testing is conducted by manufacturers to 
s...
Slide 9 
Pruebas de Confirmación (Confirmatory 
testing)! 
§ Confirmatory tests are targeted and random tests 
performed ...
Slide 10 
Auditorias Selectivas (Selective 
Enforcement Audit - SEA)! 
§ The SEA aims to identify cases where 
prototype ...
§ The IUVP is manufacturer-conducted testing of both 
low-mileage (10,000 miles, or 16,000km) and high-mileage 
(50,000 m...
§ Targets vehicle classes that are suspected of having emission-related 
problems, based on:! 
§ 1) manufacturer defect ...
§ The main goal of an I/M program is to identify 
gross polluters—vehicles that emit well beyond 
standards—and to get th...
§ In the US, about 20% of malfunctioning 
vehicles emit about 80% of all in-use 
emissions. ! 
§ Extremely important to ...
Slide 15 
I/M programs! 
http://www.aircare.ca/pdfs/2011-2012-Report-Full.pdf
Slide 16 
Pruebas de I/M en algunos paises! 
Country(/ 
Region 
Vehicle( 
Type Sub6type(/(manufacture(date Test(Method CO ...
§ Sistema de diagnostico abordo (On-Board 
Diagnostics OBD)! 
17 
Que es el OBD?! 
http://etechnologytips.com/own-made-au...
§ If the OBD system is properly designed, OBD II 
system checks are less expensive than I/M 
tests and more accurate. But...
§ Las diferencias entre emisiones medidas en el 
laboratorio y el uso real estan documentadas! 
§ Los programas de cumpl...
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Cumplimiento y Verificación (Compliance and Enforcement) - Francisco Posada

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Armonización de políticas para vehículos ligeros nuevos en América del Norte: Estándares de eficiencia energética, gases de efecto invernadero y contaminantes criterio
7/9/2014-7/10/2014
Mexico City

Published in: Environment
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Cumplimiento y Verificación (Compliance and Enforcement) - Francisco Posada

  1. 1. Cumplimiento y Verificación (Compliance and Enforcement)! Francisco Posada, PhD! July 10, 2014! Mexico DF!
  2. 2. Slide 2 Que son los programas de cumplimiento y verificación?! § Este programa asegura que las normas para vehículos nuevos y en uso sean efectivamente implementadas! § Garantiza que los beneficios de los estándares mas estrictos se trasladen a vehículos en uso durante su vida útil!
  3. 3. Slide 3 Diferencias entre laboratorio y uso real! § Mediciones con Remote Sensing y con PEMS! Chen & Borken-Kleefeld, AtmEnv. 88 (2014)
  4. 4. Slide 4 Diferencias entre laboratorio y uso real! § Mediciones con Remote Sensing y con PEMS! PEMS testing in Europe Weiss et al. 2011. JRC
  5. 5. Slide 5 Diferencias entre laboratorio y uso real! § Mediciones con Remote Sensing y con PEMS! Vehicle A Vehicle B Vehicle C 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Average NOx emissions [g/km] Route 1: highway Route 2: urban (LA) Route 3: rural-up/downhill Route 4: urban (San Diego) Route 5: urban (San Francisco) Tier2-Bin5 Standard Vehicle A Vehicle B Vehicle C 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Average NOx emissions as deviation ratio Route 1: highway Route 2: urban (LA) Route 3: rural-up/downhill Route 4: urban (San Diego) Route 5: urban (San Francisco) Tier2-Bin5 Standard PEMS testing in the US http://www.theicct.org/use-emissions-testing-light-duty-diesel-vehicles-us
  6. 6. § 1) Preproduction certification [Fabricante], ! § 2) Confirmatory testing [EPA], ! § 3) Selective Enforcement Audit (SEA) [EPA], ! § 4) In-use surveillance [EPA], ! § 5) Verification performed by the manufacturer under the EPA’s In-Use Verification Program (IUVP), ! § 6) Recall in case of noncompliance, and! § 7) Warranties and defect reporting.! Slide 6 Componentes del C&V!
  7. 7. Slide 7 Componentes del C&E EPA!
  8. 8. Slide 8 Pruebas de pre-produccion (preproduction testing)! § Preproduction testing is conducted by manufacturers to support their applications for certificates of conformity! § A manufacturer can establish its own testing facility, or! § Contract the services of independent laboratories.! § Test results, adjusted with deterioration factors, must be recorded in the certification applications to demonstrate compliance. Manufacturers must perform certification testing for all “test groups” that they choose to certify! § The EPA issued more than 3,600 conformity certificates to vehicle and engine manufacturers annually in both 2007 and 2008!
  9. 9. Slide 9 Pruebas de Confirmación (Confirmatory testing)! § Confirmatory tests are targeted and random tests performed by EPA to validate the emission and fuel economy results reported for certification. ! § In recent years, EPA selected about 15 percent of all test groups for confirmatory testing;! § two-thirds of the selected test groups (10 percent of all test groups) are randomly selected, and ! § the remaining one-third (5 percent of all test groups) are targeted test groups.!
  10. 10. Slide 10 Auditorias Selectivas (Selective Enforcement Audit - SEA)! § The SEA aims to identify cases where prototype vehicles supplied by manufacturers are not representative of production! § the EPA can require manufacturers to test vehicles pulled straight off the assembly line, at the manufacturer’s expense, without prior notice.! § This regulatory tool is rarely deployed! § One recent case: GM Tavera India!
  11. 11. § The IUVP is manufacturer-conducted testing of both low-mileage (10,000 miles, or 16,000km) and high-mileage (50,000 miles, or 80,000km) in-use vehicles. ! § Manufacturers are responsible for testing one to five vehicles per test group. ! § About 2,000 industrywide tests were performed in 2007. ! § If 50% of vehicles in a test group fail and the average emission levels are greater than 1.3 times the standard limits, the manufacturer must automatically conduct an IUCP test. ! § In the IUCP, test vehicles are selected and tested in a more rigorous manner).! § Failure of IUCP tests can lead to recall.! Slide 11 In-Use Verification Program (IUVP) and In-Use Confirmatory Program (IUCP)!
  12. 12. § Targets vehicle classes that are suspected of having emission-related problems, based on:! § 1) manufacturer defect reports; ! § 2) information from state inspection and maintenance programs; ! § 3) manufacturer service bulletins;! § 4) certification test results (the EPA is more likely to test vehicle models that have had problems in certification); ! § 5) newer technologies or engines; ! § 6) sales volume; ! § 7) In-Use Verification Program (IUVP) failures; ! § 8) random selection; or ! § 9) any other reason the EPA deems appropriate.! § In 2007, a total of 142 vehicles were tested, representing 47 test groups. Nine vehicles (representing five test groups) failed the in-use tests, but only one test group showed failure to an extent that warranted further investigation! Slide 12 In-use surveillance testing program!
  13. 13. § The main goal of an I/M program is to identify gross polluters—vehicles that emit well beyond standards—and to get those vehicles repaired! § In the US, I/M programs are implemented on a state by state basis, depending on local air-quality issues! Slide 13 Programas de Inspeccion y Mantenimiento (Inspection and Maintenance) - I/M!
  14. 14. § In the US, about 20% of malfunctioning vehicles emit about 80% of all in-use emissions. ! § Extremely important to identify and fix emission control system malfunctions.! § However, I/M effectiveness depends on the program structure:! § Done properly, this is the largest possible in-use emission reduction and at reasonable cost.! § Done improperly, it has almost no benefits for a substantial customer inconvenience! Slide 14 I/M programs!
  15. 15. Slide 15 I/M programs! http://www.aircare.ca/pdfs/2011-2012-Report-Full.pdf
  16. 16. Slide 16 Pruebas de I/M en algunos paises! Country(/ Region Vehicle( Type Sub6type(/(manufacture(date Test(Method CO HC NO NOx Other( Pollutants OBD( (if(available) λ λ(test(condition Between&1972&and&1973 Idle  Between&1974&and&June&1976   On&or&after&July&1976    Idle&/&Fast&Idle   ECE&15&Cycle&(transient)&     Electronic& controlled&vehicles BASM5024&(steadyIstate)    &  BASM2540&(steadyIstate)    &  Idle   China& LDV National On&or&before&1974 Exempt Between&1975&and&1991 Idle  On&or&after&1992 Idle&/&Fast&Idle   Japan Idle   Singapore Idle  Idle&/&Fast&Idle   ASM&Test   HCHO,& NMOG & (1996&or&newer&models) USA,& California LDV On&or&before&1981 Idle&/&Fast&Idle   On&or&after&1982 IM240&(transient)    &(1996&or&newer&models) On&or&before&1991 ASM&(steadyIstate)&and&Idle&    IM240&(transient)     Idle     Canada,& Vancouver& LDV On&or&after&1992 Not&controlled&by&threeIway& catalytic&converters Idle  Controlled&by&threeIway& catalytic&converters Idle&/&Fast&Idle    LDV USA,& Colorado European& Union & Transient&dyno&test& Australia LDV China,& Beijing LDV China,& Hong&Kong Gasoline& vehicles LDV LDV LDV Vehicles&with& electronic&fuel& injection&system Remarks Required&for&all&perfectual&level&or& higher&level&cities&by&2015.&1 Performed&only&if&failed&BASM5024 Performed&on&carbureted&cars&only Conducted&in&other&areas&with&I/M& programs,&or&on&vehicles&upon& change&of&ownership Conducted&at&areas&with&the&most& serious&air&quality&problems Test&performed&in&the&enhanced& I/M&program Performed&only&if&the&vehicle& cannot&be&placed&on&dyno
  17. 17. § Sistema de diagnostico abordo (On-Board Diagnostics OBD)! 17 Que es el OBD?! http://etechnologytips.com/own-made-automotive-diagnostic/
  18. 18. § If the OBD system is properly designed, OBD II system checks are less expensive than I/M tests and more accurate. But only works on vehicles with OBD II systems.! § Mexico can take advantage of this as their vehicles require OBDII/EOBD! Slide 18 OBD is a key element of I/M programs!
  19. 19. § Las diferencias entre emisiones medidas en el laboratorio y el uso real estan documentadas! § Los programas de cumplimiento y verificaion ayudan a mantener esa diferencia bajo control! § Programas de I/M ayudan a mantener el parque automotor bajo los estandares de diseño! § Sistemas OBD complementan el programa de I/M! Slide 19 Resumen!

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