Two aspects of meaning proposed for thefirst time by Frege (German semanticists)who tried to set the differences betweensense and reference in a systematic for.
Definition: Reference refers to the relationship between a part of a language (an expression) and the outside world (the real world). The speaker indicates which thing in the real world is being talked about. My son is on that tree. Person/ referent Tree/ referent
Properties:1. A part of a language (an expression) may have more than one referent.ex. The president of the USA in 1997 is George W. Bush. 2006 is Bill Clinton. 2009 is Obama.
2. A part of a language (an expression) may have a specific referent that is specified by time or place.ex. - - - - . Your youngest brother- Khalid
3. Two parts of a language (two expressions) may refer to the same referent.ex. The Morning Star / The evening star = Planet Venus King of Saudi Arabia/ The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques= King Abdullah Bin AbdulAziz My aunt/ My mother’s sister= Alanoud
4. Some parts of a language (expressions) have no reference.ex. Function words as “and”, “ before” , “ with” , “it”….etc
5. Some parts of a language (expressions) have an imaginary referent.ex. Unicorn, Santa Claus, Zeus ( god of sky and thunder),
Types of refereeing expressions:1. Proper names : Andrew, Mark, Ali, Khalid….etc.2. Pronouns: I , we, …etc.3. Definite descriptions: The President of USA The Queen of England The Head of department The girl in the corner The Topic of next week’s class
Types of refereeing expressions:Noun phrases: an English poet some elephants a cup of tea tea
Sense:Definition It refers to the semantic relationship an expression has with other expressions in the same language. It is the relationship of a apart of a language with the inside world of language.ex. An important sense relationship between these pairs is: Synonymy pretty/ beautiful giant/ huge tall/ long
To sum up :The sense of an expression isthe thought it expresses(meaning) while the referenceis the object it represents.
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