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School Psychology Misdirected U C Berkeley School Psychology Conference May 9, 2008 Jane Close Conoley, Ph.D.  University ...
Special Thanks to  Gutkin, T.B. Ecological school psychology: A personal opinion and a plea for change To appear in: T. B....
 
 
 
 
National Comorbidity Replication Survey  (Kessler & Associates, 2005) <ul><li>Every year, 25% of Americans are diagnosable...
WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium (2004)  “Approximately 85% of Americans will not receive health care treatment f...
Milken Institute An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease. National annual cost of mental disorders = ...
250 Million prescriptions in 2006 <ul><li>anti-depressant, anti-psychotic and anti-anxiety medications (Munsey, 2008; Burt...
Thomas Insel - Director of the National Institute of Mental Health   Data such as these are indicative of “a systemic and ...
U. S. Surgeon General  “The nation is facing a public crisis in mental healthcare for infants, children and adolescents.” ...
 
 
POPULATION-BASED SERVICES PREVENTION EARLY INTERVENTION Effective Remediation Services  Ideal Distribution of Services
OUR HIGHEST PRIORITY GOALS – MOST IMPORTANT JOB ROLES   1.  Engage and motivate primary caregivers (e.g., teachers, parent...
 
Medical Model Human Behavior =  Individual,   environment  
 
 
Ecological Model   Behavior = Individual  Environment
 
Traditional Clinical Psychology Service Delivery – Direct, Medical Model <ul><li>Daily Interaction  Student   </li></ul><u...
School Psychology Consultation Service Delivery – Indirect, Ecological Model <ul><li>Daily Interaction (The Problem = I-E ...
 
Comprehensive programs consist of school readiness, parent involvement that empowers parents to take a role in education a...
Policymakers and educators have mostly ignored the nature of interactions between families and schools…this relationship m...
Constructive Connection:  The 6 “C”s <ul><li>Context  </li></ul><ul><li>Centrality </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul>...
C ontext <ul><li>Site specific </li></ul><ul><li>There is no one prescription   </li></ul>
Family-School Teams Ask <ul><li>What forms of parent participation are desirable and feasible? and  </li></ul><ul><li>What...
This team, amongst other things, is a vehicle for establishing a common language, mapping existing school- and community-b...
C omplex   Relationships <ul><li>The child/family system is in transaction with the school/schooling system  </li></ul><ul...
Home Inputs <ul><li>Include messages about  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes about the v...
School Inputs <ul><li>New experiences  </li></ul><ul><li>Demands  </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities  </li></ul><ul><li>Rewar...
C entral   to Child Development <ul><li>“ If educators view children simply as students, they are likely to see the family...
Activities   <ul><li>Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Home learning  </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntee...
Family-School Relationships Are Essential  <ul><li>ADHD (August, Anderson, & Bloomquist, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct d...
C onsistency   Across Systems <ul><li>Set realistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a structure and routine for  le...
Home Values X Achievement <ul><li>Strong, consistent values about the importance of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Willingne...
C ommunication :  Foundational Element <ul><li>Two-way  communication  is necessary to co-construct the “bigger” picture a...
C ollaboration <ul><li>Equal status between participants (e.g., parents, teachers, students, psychologists, principals) </...
Sample Programs
Check and Connect <ul><li>Model designed to promote student engagement with school for youth at high risk for dropping out...
Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC)  <ul><li>Process entails four separate stages for professionals and families to wor...
Connecting With Families <ul><li>Family school meetings (Weiss & Edwards, 1992),  </li></ul><ul><li>Family-school consulta...
Comer’s School Development Program <ul><li>Illustrates the power of relationships at a systems level  </li></ul><ul><li>(C...
Comer’s School Development Program <ul><li>3 teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent, school planning and management, and stude...
Key Elements of Successful Programs <ul><li>Parents are children’s first teachers and have a lifelong influence on their v...
Key Elements of Successful Programs <ul><li>Most parents care deeply about their children’s education and can provide subs...
 
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Jane Close Conoley, Ph.D. University of California, Santa Barbara

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Jane Close Conoley, Ph.D. University of California, Santa Barbara
School Psychology Misdirected: An Argument for Prevention and Capacity Building.
For the past 35 years, at least, voices within the school psychology community have called for a re-thinking of the role of psychology and psychologists within public schools. The test and place activities of school psychologists have overwhelmed their professional practice with predictable results. Few teachers or administrators see school psychologists as resources for teaching and learning expertise, but rather as mere gatekeepers to special education services of unknown effectiveness. The calls for change have come using different conceptual vehicles, for example, mental health or behavioral consultation, curriculum based assessment, treatment validity of assessments, and most recently response to intervention. All, however, speak to the same issues:
· Children’s mental health is tied directly to their academic success.
· Behavioral success for children is related to instructional expertise of teachers.

Changing how we conceptualize and implement our practice is complicated by many organizational and regulatory forces and is compromised by some basic assumptions of modern psychology. Until those assumptions are dismissed, change is unlikely.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Jane Close Conoley, Ph.D. University of California, Santa Barbara

  1. 1. School Psychology Misdirected U C Berkeley School Psychology Conference May 9, 2008 Jane Close Conoley, Ph.D. University of California Santa Barbara
  2. 2. Special Thanks to Gutkin, T.B. Ecological school psychology: A personal opinion and a plea for change To appear in: T. B. Gutkin & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology (4 th ed.) . New York: Wiley.
  3. 7. National Comorbidity Replication Survey (Kessler & Associates, 2005) <ul><li>Every year, 25% of Americans are diagnosable with a DSM mental disorder (approximately 60% either moderate or serious) </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 60% will receive no treatment in any given year </li></ul><ul><li>Median delay between onset and treatment - 6 to 23 years for those with lifetime disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Half of all lifetime diagnosable mental disorders begin by age 14 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Most people with mental disorders in the United States remain either untreated or poorly treated.” </li></ul>
  4. 8. WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium (2004) “Approximately 85% of Americans will not receive health care treatment for their diagnosable mental or substance-abuse disorder within a year. More than 70% of them will never receive specialized mental health care.” (Norcross, 2006, p. 683)
  5. 9. Milken Institute An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease. National annual cost of mental disorders = $217 billion (treatment, lost economic output) - third only to cancer and coronary disease (DeVol & Bedroussian, 2007)
  6. 10. 250 Million prescriptions in 2006 <ul><li>anti-depressant, anti-psychotic and anti-anxiety medications (Munsey, 2008; Burt, McCaig & Rechtsteiner, 2007) </li></ul>
  7. 11. Thomas Insel - Director of the National Institute of Mental Health   Data such as these are indicative of “a systemic and unacceptable failure in the provision of [mental health] care” in the United States (Insel & Fenton, 2005, p. 590).
  8. 12. U. S. Surgeon General “The nation is facing a public crisis in mental healthcare for infants, children and adolescents.” (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000)   The “foremost finding is that most children in need of mental health services do not get them.” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999, p. 180)   THE SYSTEM IS BROKEN
  9. 15. POPULATION-BASED SERVICES PREVENTION EARLY INTERVENTION Effective Remediation Services Ideal Distribution of Services
  10. 16. OUR HIGHEST PRIORITY GOALS – MOST IMPORTANT JOB ROLES   1. Engage and motivate primary caregivers (e.g., teachers, parents) in the lives of children so they take action in behalf of children   2. Give psychology away (Miller, 1969) to primary caregivers (e.g., teachers, parents) in the lives of children so they take effective action in behalf of children
  11. 18. Medical Model Human Behavior = Individual, environment  
  12. 21. Ecological Model   Behavior = Individual Environment
  13. 23. Traditional Clinical Psychology Service Delivery – Direct, Medical Model <ul><li>Daily Interaction Student </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher (The Problem = Pathology) </li></ul><ul><li>Referral </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment & </li></ul><ul><li>TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Feedback </li></ul>Psychologist
  14. 24. School Psychology Consultation Service Delivery – Indirect, Ecological Model <ul><li>Daily Interaction (The Problem = I-E “Match”) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher ……………………………………………… Student( s ) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment & Referral Assessment Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>CONSULTATION </li></ul><ul><li> Psychologist </li></ul>
  15. 26. Comprehensive programs consist of school readiness, parent involvement that empowers parents to take a role in education across grades K-12, and school-linked services designed to improve achievement by ensuring that the health and social needs of children are met .
  16. 27. Policymakers and educators have mostly ignored the nature of interactions between families and schools…this relationship may be “the missing link in school-linked social service programs” Smrekar (1994)
  17. 28. Constructive Connection: The 6 “C”s <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Centrality </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul>
  18. 29. C ontext <ul><li>Site specific </li></ul><ul><li>There is no one prescription </li></ul>
  19. 30. Family-School Teams Ask <ul><li>What forms of parent participation are desirable and feasible? and </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies can be employed to achieve them? </li></ul>
  20. 31. This team, amongst other things, is a vehicle for establishing a common language, mapping existing school- and community-based resources, and identifying student, family, and staff needs.
  21. 32. C omplex Relationships <ul><li>The child/family system is in transaction with the school/schooling system </li></ul><ul><li>Home and school inputs and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Match between home and school </li></ul>
  22. 33. Home Inputs <ul><li>Include messages about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes about the value of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of self as a learner </li></ul></ul>
  23. 34. School Inputs <ul><li>New experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Demands </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul>
  24. 35. C entral to Child Development <ul><li>“ If educators view children simply as students, they are likely to see the family as separate from school. That is, the family is expected to do its job and leave the education of children to the schools. If educators view children as children, they are likely to see both the family and community as partners with the school in children's education and development” </li></ul>Epstein (1995 )
  25. 36. Activities <ul><li>Parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Home learning </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteering </li></ul><ul><li>Shared decision making and governance </li></ul><ul><li>Community support </li></ul>
  26. 37. Family-School Relationships Are Essential <ul><li>ADHD (August, Anderson, & Bloomquist, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct disorders (Reid & Patterson, 1992 ; Webster-Stratton 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills deficits (Sheridan, Kratochwill, & Elliott, 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Homework completion difficulties (Jayanthi, sawyer, nelson, Bursuck, & Epstein, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Significant improvement in academic achievement (Hansen, 1986; Heller & Fantuzzo, 1993). </li></ul>
  27. 38. C onsistency Across Systems <ul><li>Set realistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a structure and routine for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance students’ learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Support students’ learning </li></ul><ul><li>Establish positive relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Model learning </li></ul>
  28. 39. Home Values X Achievement <ul><li>Strong, consistent values about the importance of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to help children and to intervene at schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to become involved. </li></ul>
  29. 40. C ommunication : Foundational Element <ul><li>Two-way communication is necessary to co-construct the “bigger” picture about the child’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Families and school personnel see the child in their respective environments and jump to conclusions about the child’s behavior in the other environment </li></ul>
  30. 41. C ollaboration <ul><li>Equal status between participants (e.g., parents, teachers, students, psychologists, principals) </li></ul><ul><li>A common goal </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate leadership and support (e.g., school district, state, federal levels) </li></ul>
  31. 42. Sample Programs
  32. 43. Check and Connect <ul><li>Model designed to promote student engagement with school for youth at high risk for dropping out </li></ul><ul><li>(Sinclair, Christenson, Evelo, & Hurley, 1997) </li></ul>
  33. 44. Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) <ul><li>Process entails four separate stages for professionals and families to work together on identifying and solving academic, social-emotional, or behavioral concerns for students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Sheridan, Kratochwill, & Bergan, 1996) </li></ul>
  34. 45. Connecting With Families <ul><li>Family school meetings (Weiss & Edwards, 1992), </li></ul><ul><li>Family-school consultation (Carlson, Hickman, & Horton, 1992), and </li></ul><ul><li>Parent-educator problem solving (Christenson, 1995). </li></ul>
  35. 46. Comer’s School Development Program <ul><li>Illustrates the power of relationships at a systems level </li></ul><ul><li>(Comer et al., 1996). </li></ul>
  36. 47. Comer’s School Development Program <ul><li>3 teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent, school planning and management, and student and staff support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive school plan, staff development, and periodic assessment and modification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 guiding principles to create a positive school climate for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus - decisions made by consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration - viewpoints of team members are heard and respected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No-fault - time is not wasted on unproductive blaming </li></ul></ul>
  37. 48. Key Elements of Successful Programs <ul><li>Parents are children’s first teachers and have a lifelong influence on their values, attitudes, and aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s educational success requires congruence between what is taught at school and values matched at home </li></ul>
  38. 49. Key Elements of Successful Programs <ul><li>Most parents care deeply about their children’s education and can provide substantial support if given specific opportunities and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Schools must take the lead in eliminating or at least reducing traditional barriers to parent involvement </li></ul>

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