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Please also visit the U of I Library Digital Historian Series:
Using Digital Tools for Archival Research
Digital Historian...
Objectives
• Learn about tools you may need while imaging for research
• Camera tips and features to be aware of while ima...
In preparation for your visit
Investigate policies of the archive – make sure cameras are allowed and what
use policies an...
Camera Options
Canon Digital Rebel XS
Camera SLR
More Expensive
$300.00 to $500.00
Canon Digital
Power Shot ELPH
100 HS
Le...
Simple Camera Features
• A camera with at least 4 to 10 megapixel sensor (the more information captured the better)
• Adju...
Flash symbol will
appear near button
on most cameras
or will be in the
menu
Automatic white balance
appears in menus of mo...
Camera Settings
Settings to learn how to use via your camera manual
• ISO - range from 100 to 1600 on some cameras - 400 f...
Automatic setting on Power
Shot
Automatic setting on Canon
SLR
• File formats in less expensive cameras will be JPEG; for more expensive
cameras you can save in Raw and JPEG.
• JPEG wil...
Pixel Array and Color Settings
• JPEG quality is determined by:
• Quality level – S (small), M (medium), L (large)
• Pixel...
Quality is generally set in the menu of the
camera. This is where you can set the size of
the jpeg or set your SLR to reco...
Folders, file number, image management within camera
•Most cameras have a file management system
built in. Know how to res...
* http://www.bhphotovideo.com/
Resource for Photo Supplies
Tripods and Copy stands
http://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/755424-
REG/Manfrotto_MKC3_H01_Compact_Photo_Movie_Kit_with....
Tips for Using Tripods and Copy Stands
The archive may have a copy stand for public use. Most cameras have universal mount...
http://www.squidsicle.com/?p=22
The Monkey Arm
Supports and Stabilization
Useful Tools
http://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/758891-REG/Bower_RCMUNI_RCMUNI_Remote_Shutter_Release.html
•Using a rem...
http://www.gaylord.com/adblock.asp?abid=13647&search_by=desc&search_for=weights&mpc=WW
•Weights and snakes aid
in keeping ...
Lighting Concern and Issues
• Flatter images result in better
readability and better OCR
result (NOTE: handwritten text
ca...
Flatbed scanner and issues
•Flatbed scanners may be available
for use.
Using the scanner to capture
images
•Scan at 400 DP...
Requesting Material for
Digitization
• Check before you visit to find out if
material can be scanned for you via
Patron Re...
Parameters to remember when placing a
Patron Request
.
For grey scale requests (good for black and white photographs or te...
Adobe Photoshop Resources and
Tutorials
Adobe Photoshop Tutorial
http://tv.adobe.com/show/learn-photoshop-com/
http://tv.a...
Helpful workflow tips
* It is helpful to record bibliographic information about the
material you are photographing on a no...
Helpful workflow tips
* Have multiple flash cards available so that you can continue
shooting while downloading images fro...
Organizing your image data
Know how your camera names digital images as they are taken.
1. Usually an image number, with a...
A Good File Structure
Programs for managing your digital images
You have several options for fast, stable, user friendly image
browsers, convert...
Metadata
Source Title: _________________________________________________________________
Section Title: __________________...
File format conversion suggestions
Save / convert image files to appropriate format for ease of
use:
*For instance, if you...
*There are several options for PDF creation and viewing,
such as Adobe Acrobat, PDF Create, PDF Creator,
Preview (Mac) and...
OCR options
Optical character recognition is the electronic translation of scanned
images of typewritten or printed text i...
Transcription Tools, e.g, “Transcript 2.3” (a freebie)
Insuring access to your files
Take a long view—insure that your files are accessible in the future
* Personal Archiving: P...
*
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Digital Historian Series: Using Digital Tools for Archival Research

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Is your research taking you to archival collections housed across the country or across the globe? Wondering how you''ll manage to get the most out of your short visit? Some scholars are taking advantage of digital photography and other tools to quickly capture data, but there are things you should know before heading out of town. Join experienced scholars and staff from the Scholarly Commons for a workshop on using digital tools for archival research. This workshop is designed for graduate students or scholars interested in using digital photography in their archival research efforts. Topics will include a discussion of the pros and cons of using digital tools in archival research; tips for planning your trip to an archive; and information on hardware, software, data back-up, and storage. There will also be a hands-on component where participants will have the opportunity to practice photographing a variety of archival documents. Be sure to bring your digital camera if you can!

http://uiuc.libguides.com/techives

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Digital Historian Series: Using Digital Tools for Archival Research

  1. 1. Please also visit the U of I Library Digital Historian Series: Using Digital Tools for Archival Research Digital Historian Series: Using Digital Tools for Archival Research http://uiuc.libguides.com/techives
  2. 2. Objectives • Learn about tools you may need while imaging for research • Camera tips and features to be aware of while imaging for research • Ways to capture better images in an uncontrolled environment • Standards in file format, size, quality and best practices for file management • Demonstrate imaging of a book with some useful tools • Learn helpful resources to obtain knowledge of image manipulation in Adobe Photoshop and places to obtain the tools demonstrated • Optical character recognition • Insuring long term access to your files • Problems to avoid
  3. 3. In preparation for your visit Investigate policies of the archive – make sure cameras are allowed and what use policies and fees might be associated with publication and imaging of their collection Handling concerns – Does the archive require use of gloves? Research the kinds of material you are going to image and work with – Are they large? What tools will you need? Will the archive do the imaging for you? Bring your laptop with extra storage cards for your camera or hard drives. You may max out the storage space on your camera and your computer’s hard drive depending on what you are imaging.
  4. 4. Camera Options Canon Digital Rebel XS Camera SLR More Expensive $300.00 to $500.00 Canon Digital Power Shot ELPH 100 HS Less Expensive $100.00 to $200.00
  5. 5. Simple Camera Features • A camera with at least 4 to 10 megapixel sensor (the more information captured the better) • Adjustable ISO or ASA settings measures sensitivity of the sensor that records the image in your camera. You will find yourself in low light situations. Using a higher ISO will allow you to capture clearer, sharper images without blur. It allows for faster shutter speeds • Camera capable of flash being turned off. Most archives don't allow flash (disruptions to other patrons) • Large storage card capability (4 to 8gb) • Ability to select image quality and file size • Varied exposure settings (manual, portrait, landscape) • Larger LCD screen to allow for easier review of photos. • A camera with a zoom lens (Canon Power Shot comes with one, Canon Rebel Kit comes with 18 to 55 mm lens) Important for details in maps and texts but still allow to image the whole item. • Automatic White Balance (AWB) is important so your images don’t have a color cast.
  6. 6. Flash symbol will appear near button on most cameras or will be in the menu Automatic white balance appears in menus of most cameras. There are also settings for fluorescent light if you find yourself in that setting.
  7. 7. Camera Settings Settings to learn how to use via your camera manual • ISO - range from 100 to 1600 on some cameras - 400 for decent light – 800 for low light • Shutter Speed - controls the speed at which the shutter opens and closes and how fast the camera takes the photograph • Aperture - controls the amount of light getting to the sensor, which reads the intensity of light • Using the Auto setting on your camera is a good idea if you are not familiar, just make sure you turn the flash off.
  8. 8. Automatic setting on Power Shot Automatic setting on Canon SLR
  9. 9. • File formats in less expensive cameras will be JPEG; for more expensive cameras you can save in Raw and JPEG. • JPEG will work for most materials but pixel array and quality level are very important and determines the size of your images. • Raw is useful for files you will want a lot of detail in. They can later be converted to tiff files in Photoshop, however depending on software on your computer, the files may not be readable SO BEWARE. • Conversion of Raw file format requires conversion to JPEG or tiff - convertors are available for both Mac and PC via Adobe Camera Raw and DNG Converter and is free. http://www.adobe.com/support/downloads/detail.jsp?ftpID=4034 File Format
  10. 10. Pixel Array and Color Settings • JPEG quality is determined by: • Quality level – S (small), M (medium), L (large) • Pixel Array varies in cameras - L - 3888 x 2592 • For letters, type script, bound correspondence and documents at least 2000 pixels across long dimension allowing for readibility and optimal OCR text recognition (hand written and some type script cannot be OCR’d) • Maps, blue prints and photographs - at least 4000 pixels across long dimension or the maximum possible. Take detail photographs for anything that is important. • Color settings in cameras will vary but if you think you will need color later it is best to use RGB color setting in your camera and convert to grey scale later.
  11. 11. Quality is generally set in the menu of the camera. This is where you can set the size of the jpeg or set your SLR to record RAW images Pixel array relates to the size and quality setting which determines the actual pixel dimension of your files. Color space will appear as RBG or sRGB. Adobe RGB is best for long term preservation of your files.
  12. 12. Folders, file number, image management within camera •Most cameras have a file management system built in. Know how to reset the number count in your camera. •Using different folders within your camera and on your storage card will save time later and help you know where files are located so copying to your computer is simple. •Make sure you know how to properly erase images from your flash card. *Betsy will talk about file management with more depth later.
  13. 13. * http://www.bhphotovideo.com/ Resource for Photo Supplies
  14. 14. Tripods and Copy stands http://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/755424- REG/Manfrotto_MKC3_H01_Compact_Photo_Movie_Kit_with.ht ml
  15. 15. Tips for Using Tripods and Copy Stands The archive may have a copy stand for public use. Most cameras have universal mounts on the bottom You can also use your tripod as a copy stand. http://www.subchaser.org/photographing-documents http://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/755424-REG/Manfrotto_MKC3_H01_Compact_Photo_Movie_Kit_with.html http://www.subchaser.org/photographing-documents
  16. 16. http://www.squidsicle.com/?p=22 The Monkey Arm Supports and Stabilization
  17. 17. Useful Tools http://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/758891-REG/Bower_RCMUNI_RCMUNI_Remote_Shutter_Release.html •Using a remote shutter release cable provides a buffer reducing camera shake-insuring sharp images in a poorly lit room. •One can also use the self-timer within your camera usually signified by the symbol shown
  18. 18. http://www.gaylord.com/adblock.asp?abid=13647&search_by=desc&search_for=weights&mpc=WW •Weights and snakes aid in keeping books open and ones hands free to operate the camera. •Check with the archives you are visiting – they may provide snakes or weights for you, however they may also have policies against their use. Useful Tools
  19. 19. Lighting Concern and Issues • Flatter images result in better readability and better OCR result (NOTE: handwritten text cannot be OCR’d, other texts may not result in optimal OCR) • Uneven light can cause loss of data in your photographs. • Flash is often banned and available light is your only resource. • Bouncing light with a simple white board onto a dimly lit page improves image exposure.
  20. 20. Flatbed scanner and issues •Flatbed scanners may be available for use. Using the scanner to capture images •Scan at 400 DPI (dots per inch) in 16 bit color (24-bit may only be available) in software - professional settings are available in most scan software -this can be changed if the default is lower. •If the color in your material is not important, scanning at 400 DPI, grey scale is faster. •Be aware of page curvature and digital clipping where the highlight actually drops data and readability of the image. •Folds in paper and curves in documents or sheets of paper also results in loss data
  21. 21. Requesting Material for Digitization • Check before you visit to find out if material can be scanned for you via Patron Request. This could save you valuable time and resources. • When placing a Patron Request inquire about turn around time and costs. • Know your parameters and how the intent for use in your work. If publication is possible, make sure they are not compressed into small JPEGS. Tiff is better for publication. You CANNOT take a small JPEG and convert it to a larger tiff. Loss of data will occur.
  22. 22. Parameters to remember when placing a Patron Request . For grey scale requests (good for black and white photographs or text/handwriting; only when color is not needed later) • Tiff or JPEG Image Format • 8-bit grey scale • At least 400 DPI • At least 2000 pixels on long edge (text can be at least 2000 pixels) For color requests (Adobe RGB or sRGB) (for maps, color photographs, when color is important to the content of your material) • Tiff or JPEG Image Format • 16-Bit Color • At least 400 DPI • At least 4000 pixels on long edge especially for maps (text can be at least 2000 pixels) These parameters could save you time and money as resizing and rescanning the image may cost you if you have to request images again. Awareness of publication standards is helpful. Some publisher require specific standards. If something may later be published higher quality is better.
  23. 23. Adobe Photoshop Resources and Tutorials Adobe Photoshop Tutorial http://tv.adobe.com/show/learn-photoshop-com/ http://tv.adobe.com/channel/photography/photo-management/ Converting raw files to tiff files via Image Processor http://livedocs.adobe.com/en_US/Photoshop/10.0/help.html?content=WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e41001031ab6 7426.html Converting color Files to grey scale http://help.adobe.com/en_US/photoshop/cs/using/WS1B7B60D9-C2BF-4706-862C-B539CB8A5C3Ca.html For Creating Actions http://www.adobe.com/designcenter/tutorials/actionitem/ For more instruction on Adobe Photoshop and image manipulation. Please feel free to utilize the knowledgeable staff in the Scholarly Commons.
  24. 24. Helpful workflow tips * It is helpful to record bibliographic information about the material you are photographing on a note card, post-it note, or box label, folder label, or archival retrieval slip and include this in the first image for a set of digital files. * This image will also help you later when you are downloading your images from camera to computer; if the first image stands out from the rest, you’ll be able to readily identify where a group of related files starts and ends.
  25. 25. Helpful workflow tips * Have multiple flash cards available so that you can continue shooting while downloading images from the other disk. * Have multiple rechargeable batteries for your camera so that you can continue shooting if one of them runs out of juice. * Download your images daily; if you don’t keep up with this task you can really lose track of things. * Always maintain a backup copy of your images on another computer or external hard drive. You might also consider one of the inexpensive cloud storage options now available, such as that from Amazon.com or Mozy.com.
  26. 26. Organizing your image data Know how your camera names digital images as they are taken. 1. Usually an image number, with a prefix that's always the same. Canon usually uses "IMG_" as a prefix. 2. Some cameras allow you to set your own prefix. 3. Many cameras allow you to change from continuous numbering, or numbers that start over when you reformat your camera. 4. Think carefully about how you will structure your digital files once you transfer them to your computer. If you end up with thousands of images, a good file structure will help you in searching and retrieving files later.
  27. 27. A Good File Structure
  28. 28. Programs for managing your digital images You have several options for fast, stable, user friendly image browsers, converters, and editors. Many include an array of features that include image viewing, management, comparison, cropping, etc. Examples include: * Viewer that comes with your camera * Google’s Picasa * FastStone Image Viewer * iPhoto * Flickr
  29. 29. Metadata Source Title: _________________________________________________________________ Section Title: _________________________________________________________________ Creator: _____________________________________________________________________ Description: __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Publisher Info: ________________________________________________________________ Date of Item Creation: __________________________________________________________ Kind of Resource: _____________________________________________________________ Rights: ______________________________________________________________________ File Name: ___________________________________________________________________ Date Your Image Taken: ________________________________________________________ Place Image Taken: ____________________________________________________________ Notes:_______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________
  30. 30. File format conversion suggestions Save / convert image files to appropriate format for ease of use: *For instance, if you are photographing photos or maps you might want to leave them in an image format, like a high resolution JPEG or a TIFF *If you are photographing letters, annual reports, or other types of multi-page documents, you might want to create a multi-page PDF file.
  31. 31. *There are several options for PDF creation and viewing, such as Adobe Acrobat, PDF Create, PDF Creator, Preview (Mac) and others. *Acrobat Professional or Standard, are available on many UIUC library machines. Both Adobe Professional and Standard are also available for purchase at the UIUC webstore or trial download from the Adobe website. *Adobe offers a subscription service for about $8/month where you can create PDFs online. (https://www.acrobat.com/createpdf/en/home.html?tr ackingid=ITYYO)
  32. 32. OCR options Optical character recognition is the electronic translation of scanned images of typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. OCR makes it possible to edit the text or to search for a word or phrase within the text. When done in combination with PDF creation, it results in a searchable PDF. * Factors affecting accuracy of OCR * Textual factors (low-contrast, typescript vs. printed, tiny or unusual fonts, handwritten materials, etc.) * Scanning factors (image resolution, blur, brightness, etc.) * Software options include Adobe Acrobat, ABBYYFineReader, tesseract-ocr (from Google) and other OCR programs. Acrobat and ABBYYFineReader are available on workstations in the Library’s Scholarly Commons on the 3rd floor.
  33. 33. Transcription Tools, e.g, “Transcript 2.3” (a freebie)
  34. 34. Insuring access to your files Take a long view—insure that your files are accessible in the future * Personal Archiving: Preserving Your Digital Memories (from LOC) * http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/you/ * DIY Personal Archiving in Academic and Other Environments * http://www.theconferencecircuit.com/2011/03/04/personal- archiving-in-academic-and-other-environments/
  35. 35. *

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