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Scholars World- International Refereed Multidisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research is a Quarterly research journal. It is an open access peer review journal. It publishes the articles comprising the Arts, Science & Commerce area.

The journal is very especially intended for professors, Scholars, Academicians, Professional & research scholars those who want to seek genuine authentic research material. It is an internationally approved journal.

Scholars World- International Refereed Multidisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research is a Quarterly research journal. It is an open access peer review journal. It publishes the articles comprising the Arts, Science & Commerce area.

The journal is very especially intended for professors, Scholars, Academicians, Professional & research scholars those who want to seek genuine authentic research material. It is an internationally approved journal.

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Scholars World- IRMJCR, July issue

  1. 1. MAAZ PUBLICATIONS SCHOLARS WORLD International Refereed Multidisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research VOLUME II ISSUE III JULY 2014 PRINT ISSN:2319-5789, ONLINE ISSN:2320-3145 Directory Of Open Access Journals, Sweden Ulrich’s Web-global Series Directory, USA DRJI- Directory of Research Journals Indexing, India BASE- Bielefeld Academic Search Engine Calameo- Publish, Share, Browse- USA Indian Citation Index- India Slide Share- News Letters- San Francisco Scientific Indexing Services worldcat.org Pub-Res- (International Research Library) Open J-Gate, India Advanced Science Index (ASI), Germany Cite Factor- Academic Scientific Journal- Canada/USA Academic.edu - Share Research- USA Academic Keys- Unlocking Academic Careers Yampu - Switzerland .docstock- We make your business better- Santa Monica, CA IRMJCR IMPACT FACTORS Universal Impact Factor = 1.2242 International Impact Factor Services = 0.654 Scientific Journal Impact Factor = 3.552 Global Impact Factor =0.311 INDEXING
  2. 2. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 EDITORIAL BOARD EDITOR IN CHIEF DR. MOHAMMED YAHYA SABA, KIRORI MAL COLLEGE- DELHI DELHI UNIVERSITY (INDIA) EDITOR DR. MANOJ KAMAT, SR. FACULTY AT VVM'S SHREE DAMODAR COLLEGE- Goa (GOA UNIVERSITY)-INDIA MANAGING EDITOR ISHTIYAQUE AHMED - (India) ASSOCIATE EDITORS: DR. R.S.DEORE VICE PRINCIPAL M.S.G COLLEGE- MALEGAON (CAMP)-INDIA DR HAJJAH JARIAH MOHD JAN DEPUTY DEAN UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA, MALAYSIA PROFESSOR NAWAB ALI KHAN AL- KHARJ SALMAN BIN ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY (KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA) BHANU SHRESTHA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR KWANGWOON UNIVERSITY, SEOUL, KOREA RAMEL D. TOMAQUIN, Ph.D., DPA, DEAN, CAS SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY TANDAG CITY SURIGAO DEL SUR, PHILIPPINES MEMBERS OF EDITORIAL BOARD DR. LOO FUNG YING Malaysia DR. R.DHANAPAL India DR. LOO FUNG CHIAT Malaysia JOHN KAISER S. CALAUTIT, UK DR.N.SAKTHIVEL India DR. RUCHI TREHAN India DR. RAKESH KUMAR PANDEY India Dr. SHIBU.N.S India DR. BEERAN MOIDIN B M India DR. NAGENDRA S. India DR. NARASIMHA MURTHY M.S. India DR. SAURABH MITTAL India DR.SANTOSH SINGH BAIS India DR. K. PRABHAKAR India BENSAFI ABD-EL-HAMID Algeria DR. LOKESH JINDAL India RÉAGAN (EDITH) LORRAINE LAVORATA, France DR. SUMA PARAHAKARAN Malaysia DR RAKHI GUPTA India DR. RAVI PRAKASH TEKCHANDANI India DR.V. DARLING SELVI India DR.ABHIK MUKHOPADHYAY India DR. SUBHASH NIKAM India Dr. KAMATAM SRINIVAS India DR. REEMA CHAUDHURY India Dr. A.SELVARAJ India DR DIVYA GUPTA CHOWDHRY India DR. NEETU MITTAL India Dr. A.VIJAYA KUMAR India KAMAKSHAIAH MUSUNURU India DR. SUNIL KUMAR MISHRA India DR. AMIT KUMAR SINGH India Dr. M. JAYA India AKMAL SHAHZAD Pakistan DR. PREETI SINGH India DR. PARUL MISHRA India Dr. ARTEE AGGRAWAL India Dr. K. SENTHILKUMAR India AZIZUR RAHMAN FALAHI Malaysia DR. SYED ABUZAR India PROFESSOR DEBASHRI BANERJEE India Dr. VIJAY HEMATLAL PITHADIA India DR. R. SHASHI KUMAR India DR. SANDEEP KUMAR India PROF. RAJENDRE TRIBHUVAN India DR. C.M. NIKAM India PROF. RAJENDER TRIBHUVAN India DR. S. K. WADEKAR, (India) DR. ANJALI HANS Dammam DR. MD. ZIA-UR-REHMAN Pakistan MR. SHAFEEQUE AHMED Saudi Arabia
  3. 3. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR EISSN 2320-3145, ISSN 2319-5789 Website: www.scholarsworld.net E-mail: editor@scholarsworld.net Editor in Chief, DR. MOHAMMED YAHYA SABA KIRORI MAL COLLEGE- DELHI (India) Editor, DR. MANOJ KAMAT VVM’S SHREE DAMODAR COLLEGE (GOA UNIVERSITY) (India) Associate Editor, DR. R.S.DEORE, VICE PRINCIPAL MSG COLLEGE- MALEGAON (CAMP)-INDIA DR HAJJAH JARIAH MOHD JAN, DEPUTY DEAN UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA, MALAYSIA PROFESSOR NAWAB ALI KHAN, AL- KHARJ SALMAN BIN ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY (KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA) BHANU SHRESTHA, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR KWANGWOON UNIVERSITY, SEOUL, KOREA RAMEL D. TOMAQUIN, Ph.D., DPA, DEAN, CAS SURIGAO DEL SUR STATE UNIVERSITY TANDAG CITY SURIGAO DEL SUR, PHILIPPINES Managing Editor ISHTIYAQUE AHMED (INDIA) Disclaimer: The views articulated in the journal are those of author(s) and not the publisher or the Editorial Board. The readers are informed, authors, editors or the publisher do not owe any responsibility for any damage or loss to any person for the result of any action taken on the basis of the work. © The articles/papers published in the journal are subject to copyright of the publisher. No part of the publication can be copied or reproduced without the permission of the publisher. Published By: MAAZ PUBLICATIONS, H.No.117, S.No.170, Zaitoon Pura, Malegaon Nasik, Maharashtra, India, 423203
  4. 4. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue. III, July 2014 CONTENTS 1. Psychology WORKING MODEL OF WOMEN-TO-WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP MENTORING AND UNDERLYING EMOTIONAL AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE SUCCESS EZGI YILDIRIM SAATCI, SELMA C. ARIKAN (Turkey) 01-10 2. Archaeology CONTINUATION OF THE IRANIAN GARDENING TRADITION IN INDIAN SUB CONTINENT DR. HASSAN HASHEMI ZARJABAD, DR. ABED TAGHAVI, DR .SAMAN FARZIN (Iran) 11-18 3. Equality GOD ANSWERED “EQUALITY”, EQUAL RIGHTS, EQUAL RESPECT, EQUAL OPPORTUNITY BETTY C, DUDNEY M.T. (USA) 19-42 4. Pharmacy IN VITRO SCREENING OF ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CLAUSENA ANISATA (WILLD) HOOK (RUTACEAE) ROOT EXTRACTS ARSIA TARNAM Y, DR. NARGIS BEGUM T, LAMYA N (India) 43-52 5. Management COMPETITION ANALYSIS - A KEY FOR BUSINESS SUCCESS: AN OVERVIEW DR. K. SRINIVASAN (Ethiopia) 53-63 6. Psychology PARENTING STYLE AS A MODERATOR OF LOCUS OF CONTROL, SELF ESTEEM AND ACADEMIC STRESS AMONG ADOLESCENTS UMA, K. MANIKANDAN, K. (India) 64-73 7. Management DISTANCE LEARNING IN CHANGING THE EDUCATION SCENARIO IN INDIA- REACHING THE UNREACHED DR. NIDHI GUPTA, MS. POOJA KALRA (India) 74-80 8. Physics STUDY OF VOLUME THERMAL EXPANSION INNANOMATERIALS UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE NEETU SOROT, BRK GUPTA (India) 81-88 9. Geography DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF POPULATION OF MALEGAON (NASIK MAHARASHTRA) DR. CHANDRASHEKAR M. NIKAM, DR. RAVINDRA S. DEORE (India) 89-93 10 Chemistry STUDY OF EFFECT OF STERIOISOMERS ON SEPARATION OFTOXIC METAL IONS BY THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY GAYATRI BARABDE (India) 94-100 11. Industrial Biotechnology MULTIDRUG RESISTANT OF CHLORAMPHENICOL ACETYL TRANSFERASE PRODUCING MICROBES DR. T. THIRUNALASUNDARI, PADMAPRIYA R, JENNY ANNE THARIAN (India) 101-106
  5. 5. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue. III, July 2014 12. Management A STUDY ON ENTREPRENEURIAL ATTITUDES AMONG UNEMPLOYED GRADUATES IN ETHIOPIA (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KACABIRA WOREDA, SNNPR, ETHIOPIA) DR. K. SRINIVASAN (Ethiopia) 107-119 13. Economics AN ANALYSIS OF RECESSION ON REALITY SECTOR AND DEVELOPMENTS IN FUTURE Ms. OSHMA ROSETTE PINTO (India) 120-123 14. Marketing WHAT IS THERE IN A BRAND? - “A STUDY OF THE PERCEPTION OF WOMEN SKINCARE COSMETICS BUYERS REGARDING THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MAJOR BRAND COMPONENTS” DR. CHITRALEKHA H. DHADHAL (India) 124-131 15. Marketing AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF MARKETING AS A STRATEGIC TOOL IN INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY DR. SHAILENDRA K. CHATURVEDI, MANISH KUMAR SRIVASTAVA (India) 132-139 16. Linguistics THE THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DARWINIAN THEORY OF LANGUAGE EVOLUTION: A CRITICAL STUDY KOUSIK ADHIKARI (India) 140-144 17. Communism IS COMMUNISIM SUCCESSFUL IN THE WORLD? NARESH KANWAR (India) 145-149 18. Commerce ROLE OF NGO’S FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDIA DR. S. K. WADEKAR (India) 150-156 19. History TAMIL REVIVALISM AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF LINGUISTIC NATIONALISM IN TAMILNADU IN THE 19 & 20TH CENTURIES MRS. K. JAYACHITRA (India) 157-160 20. Political Philosophy SUBALTERN CONCERN OF RECOGNITION IN HEGEMONIC CULTURES: A PHILOSOPHICAL EXPLORATION DR. SAJI VARGHESE (India) 161-165 21. Commerce A STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CUSTOMERS TO PREFER HYUNDAI I10 CAR IN COMIBATORE CITY MRS. K. VIDHYAKALA (India) 166-173 22. Psychology EFFECT OF GENDER AND DISEASE ON DEATH ANXIETY MRS. TANU SHARMA (India) 174-177
  6. 6. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [1] WORKING MODEL OF WOMEN-TO-WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP MENTORING AND UNDERLYING EMOTIONAL AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE SUCCESS EZGI YILDIRIM SAATCI, Assistant Professor, Social Entrepreneurship and Social Responsibility Center and Department of Management Okan University, Formula 1 Yolu Tuzla Campus, Akfırat Istanbul -Turkey SELMA C. ARIKAN, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Okan University, Formula 1 Yolu Tuzla Campus, Akfırat Istanbul-Turkey ABSTRACT Debates about women’s role in the family and society as well as in professional life have been present and ongoing for a long time. Although perceptions about these roles have changed significantly over the last decades, still the woman is seen as the family- maker and child keeper. In this paper, a qualitative analysis of women who, previously had been working very hard in professional businesses and who later on decided to quit their jobs to take close care of their kids is taken into account. The sample of analysis covering 11 women is obtained through a social entrepreneurship program that supports them to work as entrepreneurship mentors for low-income women who want to become entrepreneurs but lack the knowledge. Women to women entrepreneurship mentoring as a working model and underlying emotional and motivational factors of participating women -such as recognition from inner cycle of family, self-recognition, sense of being beneficial to society at large…etc are scrutinized with content analysis. Keywords: Women’s Role, Family-Maker, Child Keeper, Women Entrepreneurship
  7. 7. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [2] I. INTRODUCTION: Entrepreneurship - women entrepreneurship is one of the subjects that governments put on social policies for firms to invest in as a part of their corporate social responsibility activities, and academicians work on to improve the interdisciplinary effect. When it comes to gender studies, perceptions and role attributions of men as a bread maker and women as a home keeper contradicts the very nature of entrepreneurship which supports risk taking, potential seeking, innovation and hard work. Yet, despite this contradiction, numbers in women entrepreneurship have increased significantly in the last decade. The percent of women owning an enterprise is 23-33% globally (Schindehutte et al 2008) whereas the same figure for Turkey is 7% (Acs and Szerb, 2012) demonstrating a need for improvement. For the past decade there has been a tendency of increasing women’s involvement in the Turkish workforce. Although there is a rapid transition in cultural norms and values and we can see the impact of these transitions in work life, the transition in gender roles is slower. While professional women and men are trying to adjust to the new forms of gender roles, in the family, traditional values of collectivism are maintained and women are seen as the family keeper (Aycan, and Eskin, 2005). Hence women are expected to experience work-family interference issues more, especially there is an increased possibility of experiencing work –family conflict for the women that are undertaking professional, mother and life roles at the same time. For women to take an active role in business life, most of the organizations and NGOs pay attention to unregistered women workforce, such as those in agriculture and to stay-home girls and women with the means of education and training. Although there are vast studies in those areas, the problem of women ceasing their career and being lost from business life are not investigated thoroughly. There is always a perception of women having a career would not prefer to choose child keeping over working or they would take a brief “break” and would return to work afterwards. In this paper, the sample of analysis covering 11 women whose stories challenge this prevailing perception is taken into account. These women who, previously had been working very hard in professional businesses and who later on decided to quit their jobs to take close care of their kids is taken into account to stress that sustaining quality workforce in business life is as important as gaining the new ones either in form of entrepreneurship or the mentoring of entrepreneurship. The aim of the study is to propose a working model of women to women entrepreneurship and to present emotional and motivational factors of these women who choose “entrepreneurship mentoring” for a sustainable success of the model. For that purpose, qualitative analysis -where the data about women are obtained through a certificate program of social entrepreneurship - in the form of interviews, group sessions and observations is detailed. The literature review part covers the notion of “mentoring” followed by the details of the certificate program where the working model was applied, and methodology of the analysis are discussed in the upcoming sections. Next, the emotional and motivational factors of participants in their choice of mentoring are investigated from the context of midlife crisis, work-life interference, and need for achievement perspectives of the literature. Last section presents the process of entrepreneurship mentoring program as a solution for a second chance to balance work and life and concludes for future remarks. II. LITERATURE REVIEW: Mentorship became a popular concept after the 1970s as a tool for orienting and socializing newcomers, career management tool for the young/less experienced employees and method for developing leaders among the big corporations in developed countries and spread over to all sizes of organizations and developing countries within the last decade. In parallel to practical implications, in the academic sense researchers started to show intense interest in mentoring research. Kanter (1977) proposes mentoring as “‘intense’ and ‘complex relationship’ where the mentor plays the role of ‘peer and parent’, and takes on roles such as teacher, advisor, sponsor and friend” (pp. 97-98) Later studies also add the dimensions of “positive role model, motivator, guide, resource, protector and successful leader” to the definition of mentor (Levinson et al, 1978; Galvez-Hjornevik, 1986; Gold and Pepin, 1987) On the other part of the relationship the “Protégé” is defined as the individual who utilizes and learns from the experiences and coaching of the mentor, and as a dictionary definition Nelson Canadian dictionary (1998) defines it as "one whose welfare, training, or career is promoted by an influential person" As implied in their definitions, mentor and protégé have their very own roles and status where, as stated by Jacobi (1991) ‘relative to their protégés, mentors show greater experience, influence, and achievement within a particular organization or environment’ (p.513)
  8. 8. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [3] Mentoring is the relationship between the mentor and the protégé in which mentor is the more experienced person that teaches and coaches the less experienced protege (Murphy, 1995). From the perspective of mentoring functions, the most recognized roles of mentors are twofold where the first one is career support and second one is the psychological-motivational support (Kram, 1983). Therefore, in their relationship “mentor acts as a teacher, an advisor and a guide that encourages the protégé and conducts as a trusted friend and resource that listens to the protégé and shares his/her experiences to direct and promote the protégé." (Healy and Welchert, 1990; Murphy, 1995; and Stevens, 1995) On the other hand, the final objective of these two parties can differ in terms of expectations and outcomes. The protégé mainly aims to find his/her identity in the working life and become a self directing employee and colleague; on the other hand the mentor sees the relationship as a tool for testifying usefullness and generavity in the midlife (Healy and Welchert, 1990). From the inner dynamics of mentoring, it can be seen as a win-win process where protégés obtain expertise, benchmarking, professionalism and communication related skills / behaviors (Bova and Phillips, 1984, Shulman, 1985) and mentors gain self-awareness, personal growth, sense of being useful and attachment to a professional life and friendship (Krupp, 1985, Gold and Pepin, 1987). The general benefits for the two parties can be seen in the following Table 1: TABLE 1: MENTORING BENEFITS FOR TWO CONSTITUENTS The stages of mentoring also underline the uniqueness of mentoring relationship. Philips-Jones (1983) summarized the mentoring process with six different phases as: invitation, sparkle, development, disillusionment, parting and transformation. The first three phases constitute the formation and the productive stages of the relationship in which mentor offers mentoring to the protégé and the protégé accepts, they fullfill their respective needs and the mentor coaches the protégé. With the disillusionment phase the end of the relationship starts as the protégé feels that he/she has gotten enough out of the relationship, and/or redefines their relationship with different roles or as equals. Similarly, another mentoring phase related suggestion came from Kram (1983) namely initiation, cultivation, separation and redefinition. In the initiation phase, the acceptance of the role model status of mentor by the protégé is obtained. Next the majority of the mentoring process takes place, in the cultivation phase charactarized by long term work of upto five years. In the separation phase contact and the magnitude of the mentoring activity decreases that brings the final stage of equalization and friendship-like relation remains. In that respect, the working model of women to women entrepreneurship mentoring program - will be depicited in regard to the roles and phases outlined in the literature. III. WORKING MODEL OF WOMEN TO WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP MENTORING PROGRAM: “Entrepreneurship Mentoring Certificate Program” was designed by Social Entrepreneurship Center of Okan University, started in 2012 and conducted in 2013 based on the local supply and demand for workforce studies conducted in Tuzla, Istanbul where the campus resides. Tuzla is at the eastern limit of Istanbul, and the city entrance from the Asian part. The area holds a population of 200,000 people living in 17 districts with its seafront as well as industrial complexes such as 5 organized
  9. 9. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [4] industrial zones and educational institutions with 9 universities, 18 public schools and 8 colleges. In line with the location based characteristics, Tuzla as a residence area holds two socio-economic status groups from the perspective of cultural based characteristics. The first group is composed of low-income families with average monthly income is less than 1000 $, household members’ of 5 or more, unemployed wife and blue-collar husband. The second group, on the other hand, is composed of high-income families with average monthly income of more than 5000 $, household members’ of 3-5, previously employed but currently stay at home wife and white collar or self-employed husband. Therefore there is a wide gap between these two groups which was spotted by Social Entrepreneurship Center members and thought to be integrated for a better whole in an entrepreneurial mindset where each groups’ superiority and value added characteristics are enlightened. The initial group of women that can be called “Bottom of the Pyramid Women” (BoP)- as coined by Prahalad- and can be defined as highly motivated and productive (knit wearing, cooking and so on) and eager to get out the poverty line. Their distinctiveness lay on their ambitions to produce, earn money and take risks to allow them to stay on their feet. (Referans yazılacak) The second group of women -who are the subject of this article and can be named as Second Time Career Women- can be defined as wealthy, well educated, previously worked professionally, ceased working when they gave birth and currently stay at home women taking part in volunteer works or works related to their family and not willing to take risks yet to be a part in the professional world. Their distinctiveness lay on their knowledge, network, business experience as well as freedom from time and financial pressures. For the purpose of combining and creating synergy from these two groups’ distinctiveness, a working model of “Entrepreneurship Mentoring Program” was designed with a worklow as shown in Figure-1 within a period of 6 months (including the idea-generation, content development, stakeholder selection, formal acceptances from involving institutions and project staffing). FIGURE 1: ENTREPRENURSHIP MENTORING PROGRAM PREPARATION AND APPLICATION WORKFLOW In the launch part, project stakeholders were determined and communicated as listed below: Okan University Social Entrepreneurship Center, Academic units of Okan University Psychology Department Faculty of Law Faculty of Fine Arts International Trade Department Tuzla Municipality District Governance of Tuzla Public Training Centers In the next phase, a conference call was organized with opinion leaders of social entrepreneurship programs, NGOs and different faculties’ dean and members. The outcome of the conference call was the schedule of the mentoring program consisting 48 hours of in-class training and 10 hours of field studies. The schedule covers
  10. 10. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [5] Social business Entrepreneurship Motivation theories Case studies on social business Labor and social security law Business law Intellectual and industrial property rights Fashion design History of art and design Industrial design E-business Social business plan (theory and practice) Coaching In the following phases, brochures, local news paper advertisement, internet coverage were used to attract potential candidates. Potential candidates were asked to participate in the interviews where the jury was composed of representatives of stakeholders. Qualifications of candidates were evaluated by their. Being enthusiastic about start-up Being familiar to the business concepts (sales, marketing…) Being adaptable to different socio-economic conditions Having willingness to make a difference Having social consciousness Being available In the meantime Bottom of the Pyramid women with an effort and intention to become an entrepreneur were chosen from the classes of Tuzla Training Center with help of their instructors’ references. The requested qualifications for those “protégé” women were: Being a graduate from Public Training Center courses Having references from the teachers of the Public Training Center courses Being enthusiastic to become self-dependent Being a team player In accordance to the workflow, the training subjects were given lectures from 13 instructors of 4 different faculties with focus on psychology/motivation, business perspective/trade and business plan, fine arts/design concepts and industrial design and law/legal forms and obligations. The pilot project graduated 11 women who are still working as entrepreneurship mentors and detailed in the next section with the methodology chapter. IV. METHODOLOGY: Sample: The sample was chosen from the participants of the program which was framed through local PR activities conducted in the villa residence areas of Tuzla along with brochures and one-one marketing campaigns. Originally 24 applications were collected which was further narrowed down to 11 committed candidates. Their background and career selections are presented below with minor alterations to keep their privacy and referring to them as “Participant”. The backgrounds of the participants: Participant 1 is 47 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in industrial engineering. She has a graduate degree from the USA. She is an expert in retailing, management organization and coordination and worked in one of the Turkey’s largest retail stores/holding for more than 10 years. She quit her job after the 1998 economic crisis in Turkey with the excuse of taking care of her children who were 3 and 1 year old at that time.
  11. 11. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [6] Participant 2 is 38 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in tourism and hotel management. She has worked in the automotive industry. She is an expert in international trade, import and export. She has two children and she quit her job when the youngest one was 2. She described her situation as a “forced exit” to save her marriage, having a husband complaining about her busy schedule with two little kids. Participant 3 is 39 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in chemistry. She worked as an expert in factoring in several banks. She is an expert in finance, sales and marketing. She has 3 children aged 9, 7, 3 respectively. She quit her job after her third child’s birth and since then defines herself as a “professional mother”. Participant 4 is 37 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in business administration. She worked as a broker and financial portfolio manager at Istanbul Stock Exchange (IMKB) for 6 years. She has an 11 year old son and she quit her job to take close care of him when was diagnosed as hyperactive at age 3. Participant 5 is 39 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in economics. She worked as a professional banker for 8 years. She is an expert in international trade, import, export and marketing. She has one daughter at age 11 and she quit her job immediately after her daughter’s birth. Participant 6 is 41 Years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in economics. She worked as an expert of international trade and logistic in a ceramic producing and marketing firm. She has a son aged 9 and she quit her job when her son needed more attention at age 3. Participant 7 is 40 years old. She graduated from high-school. She got married at an early age and gave birth to her two sons. She travelled around foreign countries, learnt different languages and worked in voluntary jobs. Participant 8 is 43 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in business administration. She is an expert in retail strategic category management and merchandising, Product Sourcing and Development (Import, Domestic, and Private Labels). She has also worked as a business director of a retailing group of companies. Her career life lasted 21 years and she decided to quit her job to be more active in family and social works. Participant 9 is 42 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in communication and has also passed a pedagogical formation that allows her to work as an educator. She worked as a human resources expert in one of Turkey’s largest group companies in senior management level for 11 years. She has two sons and she quit her job when her eldest son was 2 to spend more time with him and to give birth to her other son. Participant 10 is 41 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in statistics. She worked for 8 years at one of the worldwide famous jean companys at senior management level. She is an expert in retail, product management and marketing. She has one son aged 11 and she took a break from her career to take care of her child after he turned 4. Participant 11 is 47 years old. Her academic career includes a B.Sc. in architecture. She has worked as an architect and marketing expert and even ran her own business for more than 15 years. She has twins and she decided to quit her busy schedule and business life to take care of them as well as to feel more socially oriented. Data Collection Methods: The data about the drive and motivation of the women for attending the program as mentors were gathered through in-dept interviewing and observation. First of all for determining the committed candidates, 24 applicants were breifly interviewed which lasted for approximately 20 minutes. However after the interviews were conducted and before the commencement of the training program 13 candidates were excluded in this study, further data gathered by in-depth interviews and observations were not available for these candidates. The details about the interviews applied to the 11 participants and observation conducted are further explained in detail below. Interviewing: In-depth interviews were conducted before the mentor training program to examine and deeply understand their backgrounds, drives, needs and objectives for attending this program. In-depth interviews were semistructured, the predetermined questions were asked to all of the 11 participants and evolved as the responses of the participants’ required further investigation, and the interviewers had the right to ask spontenous questions in addition to the standard questions. The semistructured interviews were conducted by the three interviewers that
  12. 12. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [7] were also responsible for coordinating, preparing and evaluating the training program, and that are considerably erudite about the flow of the program. At the beginning of the program the interview questions were determined mainly by these three interviewers including the authors of the paper. Since the program was an initial attempt for training the wealthy women that had career breaks as mentors for mentoring the socially disadvantaged women, the interview questions were determined through a brain-storming session. After determining the general frame of the interview the interviews were conducted. The in-depth interviews lasted for two days and each participant was intervieved for at least 40 minutes, the interview sessions were also audio recorded with the permission of the participants inclusive of the notes taken by the interviewers. The predetermined questions asked to every participant are listed in Table 1. Table 1: The pre-planned key questions asked by the interviewers: 1. Could you please give information about your previous job experience before you took this break? 2. Why did you feel the need to quit your job and to take a break? 3. In which part of your life did you decide to return to work life again? 4. Why did you feel the need to return back to work life? 5. Which difficulties were you face with while you were trying to turn back? 6. Why did’t you accept the positions offered to you? 7. Why did you decide to apply for our training program? 8. What are you expecting to get from this program? 9. How can you be helpful to the socially disadvantaged women in their attempt to become entrepreneurs? Observation: The participants took 13 different courses from 13 different trainers, and each of the trainers asked participants expectancies and reported their observations to the program head who is the first author of this article. In addition to that two coordinators of the program attended the courses and noted their observations about the participants. With the information derived from the in-depth interviews, the observation notes were also taken into consideration during the analyses part of the study. Data Analysis: Apart from the interview and observations notes taken, the audio recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Durind the analyses of the qualitative data for each participant all of the written information was read carefully by each of the researchers and main themes were generated from the data as categories with the related information derived from the participants as examples. After individually analyzing the data, two researchers compared their results and prepared the last form of theme and categories with the matched information and examples. V. FINDINGS: “EMOTIONAL AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS OF PARTICIPANTS IN THEIR CHOICE OF MENTORING” Participants of the program consisted of women who before having children were in managerial positions at large enterprises. When they had their children, they had internalized the family maker role for a while to raise them. In time, when their children grew older all of them tried to return back to their former careers without success. The reason they couldn’t continue from where they had left off; was mainly due to being unable to find a job that was as compelling as before. Turkey has a dynamic work life with its young population and the number of educated young adults is increasing: as a result of this, younger employees with similar backgrounds and experiences are preferred to older ones, especially over thoses who had taken a break from their work-life. Entrepreneurship mentoring program is offering a solution for them to make a smooth transition to work life again. They all believe mentoring would be a solution for their career advancement and see this program as a second chance for their business life. Those declerations constitute the surface part of the iceberg whereas at the hidden part there lays emotional and motivational factors that pushed these women to mentorship such as; midlife crisis, work-life interference, need for achievement and need for competence.
  13. 13. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [8] Midlife Crisis (Generativity vs Stagnation): The previous research on mentoring has been fed from the theories on career and life stages (e.g. Kram, 1985 and Allen, 2003). Kram (1985) states that acting as a mentor in that stage of life help the individual to channel his/her energy into creative and protective action and it serves as a tool for solving the midlife crisis through generativity. Mentoring others can create new challenges and stimulation to the senior adults and give them a chance to share their experiences and wisdom to the inexperienced ones. When we look at the participants of the program, their average age is 42. They all claimed their need to pass their experiences to others. As Participant5 said “I knew I was valuable but I was urged to channel these insights to others, other than my kids”. Participant7 stated this as “I was dreaming to share my experiences with university students. Since I have no academic background I could not do this. Now, I realize I can make it come true with mentoring women” Work -Life Interference/Enrichment: Although work-family conflict and family-work conflict are distinct concepts, they are related because both of them have their bases on inter-role conflict that the person in charge experiences (Frone et al., 1992; Netemeyer et al., 1996). Work-family conflict alludes to “a form of inter-role conflict in which the general demands of, time devoted to, and strain created by the job interfere with performing family-related responsibilities” and family-work conflict alludes to “a form of inter-role conflict in which the general demands of, time devoted to, and strain created by the family interfere with performing work-related responsibilities” (Netemeyer et al., 1996, p. 401). Previous empirical studies emphasized and showed the negative effects of both forms of WFC on job and general life satisfaction (Zhao, Qu and Ghiselli, 2011). One of the main motivators of our participants was to create a balance between their work and family life. Most of them mentioned that balancing a life between being a mother and a manager was a difficult thing and all of them stated that they had experienced the work-family conflict before they quit their jobs. As Participant3 stated “I had to quit my job or I would get a divorce back then. Because my husband was complaining all the time how my work had priority over them. I felt I was sacrificing at that time. Now, kids are self-sufficient and I feel exactly like the same. My husband is still complaining because now my only priority is family but nothing else” From the perspective of work family enrichment in their lives, participants are expected to be affected from the positive affect that mentoring experience would precipitate. All of the participants mentioned that after the growth of their children they started to feel a sense of uselessness and emptiness, and they wanted to be helpful and generative. Aiding and mentoring to BoP women that want to set up their own business, using their previous work and managerial experience, knowledge and competencies, and working for the wellness of others and for the benefits of society would lead to increase in life satisfaction, positive feelings, and sense of self worth as stated in literature (Greenhaus and Powell, 2006). Need for Achievement and Need for Competence: From the beginning of the research on motivation, theories trying to explain human motivation with needs have been popular. Especially both McClelland’s (1961) Needs theory and Deci and Ryan’s (2000) Self Determination Theory stressed the importance of psychological needs on human motivation. Need for achievement stands for the aspiration to accomplish challenging tasks, and willingness to put high levels of effort to fulfill their own standards of excellence and personal success; (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the need for competence represents the need to feel a sense of mastery and expertise. Previous research shows that both need for achievement and need for competence is positively correlated with professional success, appearance, performance, job satisfaction, work involvement, planning and striving for excellence (e.g.: Murayama, Elliot, and Andrew, 2012; Schuler, Sheldon, and Frohlich, 2010). In addition it is supported that when engaging in difficult activities people that have higher need for achievement tend to experience more positive affect and show less relinquishment ( Eisenberger, Jones, Stinglhamber, Shanock, and Tenglund, 2005; Zhongzeng and Xiting, 2005). Our program participants can be seen exemplary in that case. For instance, Participant10 stated “I feel myself as professional mother, but I need to have more to prove myself to my kids and to my husband”. Almost all of our participants described themselves as “achievement-oriented”, they want to be successful in every responsibility and role they take, that’s why they had reached to managerial positions and successful careers previously, and they left their jobs to take care of their children to be good mothers. From now on they want to be good mentors and work for the wellness of their protégés.
  14. 14. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [9] VI. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Women’s participation in business life can be seen as one of the major solutions for nations’ development. Entrepreneurship, on the other hand, can be considered as an alternative form of personal development. When combined, the need for women entrepreneurs is inevitable and can be supported either through actual involvement or in the form of mentorship. In this paper, the example of entrepreneurship mentoring was briefly outlined. The underlying factors of sample of women who were the subject of this study are exemplified with emotional and motivational factor. Turkey has the lowest rate of women labor participation in both OECD, Europe and Central Asia Regions, although it is trying to boost its economy. According to The World Bank reports in 2010; increasing the participation of women work force could help to reduce poverty and fortify Turkish Economy. It is estimated that a 6% increase of full time women workers in the Turkish Economy could reduce poverty by 15% and can lead to a 6% increase in income. According to The World Bank report one of the approaches to increase women work force is by creating second chance programs for women, and our Entrepreneurship Mentoring Program creates this second chance for both high and low income women that are highly motivated to participate in the work force, further combining the well educated and experienced competencies with BoP women’s willingness. Behind regaining the potentials of these experienced women in economy, as our interviews showed this kind of program may also help to fulfill the psychological needs of women that want to return to the work force. Follow up studies related with the effectiveness of the training program on mentors and protégés will be conducted in the following year and we believe that these effectiveness analyses will shed light on improving the program and encourage similar endeavors to reattain the experienced women in the work life. REFERENCES: 1. Acs, Z. J & Szerb, L. (2012). Global Entrepreneurship & Development Index. Massachusets: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. 2. Allen, T.D. (2003). Mentoring others: A dispositional and motivational approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 134-154. 3. Aycan, Z., & Eskin, M. (2005). Childcare, Spousal, and Organizational Support in Predicting Work- family conflict for females and males in dual-earner families with preschool children. Sex Roles, 53 (7), 453-471. 4. Bova, B.& Phillips, R. (1984). Mentoring as a Learning Experience for Adults. Journal of Teacher Education, 35, No. 3, 16-20. 5. Deci, E.L., and Ryan, R.M. (2000). The “What” and “Why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self- determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11 (4), 227-268. 6. Eisenberger, R., Jones, J. R., Stinglhamber, F., Shanock, L., & Tenglund, A. (2005). Optimal flow experiences at work: For high need achievers alone? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 755-775. 7. Frone, M.R., Marcia, R., and Cooper, M. Lynne (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: Testing a model of the work-family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77 (1), 65-78. 8. Galvez-Hjornevik, C. 1986. "Mentoring Among Teachers: A Review of the Literature." Journal of Teacher Education, 37(1), 6–11. 9. Gold, M J, and Pepin, B. 1987. Passing the Torch: Retired Teachers as Mentors for New Teachers. City University of New York, New York. 10. Greenhaus, J.H., and Powell, G.N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work family enrichment. Academy of Management Review,31 (1), 72-92. 11. Hansemark, O. C. (2003). Need For Achievement, Locus Of Control And The Prediction Of Business Start-Ups: A Longitudinal Study, Journal Of Economic Psychology, 24, 301–319. 12. Heally, C.C. and Welchert, A.J. (1990). Mentoring relations: A definition to advance research and practice. Educational Researcher, 19 (9), 17-21. 13. ITP Nelson Canadian Dictionary. (1998). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: ITP Nelson. 14. Jacobi, M. (1991). Mentoring and undergraduate academic success: A literature review. Review of Educational Research, 61, 505-532. 15. Kanter, R.M. (1977). Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Books Inc. 16. Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring at work. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
  15. 15. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [10] 17. Krupp, J. 1985. "Mentoring: A Means of Sparking School Personnel." Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 154–155 18. Levinsonb, D.J., Darrow, C.N., Klein, E.B., Levinson, M.H., and Mc Kee, B. (1978). The Seasons of a Man’s Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf 19. McClelland, D.C. (1961). The Achieving Society. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand. 20. Murayama, K., & Elliot, A.J. (2012). The competition-performance relation: A meta analysis and test of the opposing processes model of competition and performance. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 1035-1070. 21. Murphy, S. (1995) The Benefits of Mentoring from the Mentor's Perspective. University of Toronto, Toronto. 22. Netemeyer, R.G., Boles,J.S., and McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work-family conflict and family-work conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 400-410. 23. Philips-Jones, L. (1982). Mentors and Proteges. New York: Arbor House. 24. Schindehutte, M., Morris, M.H. & Kocak, A. (2008). Understanding market-driving behavior: the role of entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(1), 4-26. 25. Schuler, J., Sheldon, K.M., & Frohlich, S. (2010). Implicit need for achievement moderates the relationship between competence need-satisfaction and subsequent motivation. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 1-12. 26. Shulman, J. 1985. California Mentor Teacher Program Case Study: Implementation of the Waverly Unified School District, 1984–1985. San Francisco, California: Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development 27. Stevens, N. 1995. "R and R for Mentors: Renewal and Reaffirmation for Mentors as Benefits from the Mentoring Experience. Educational Horizons, 73(3), 130–137. 28. web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:22889864~menuPK:64256345~page PK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html (retrieved in 24.09.2013). 29. Zhao, X.Z., Qu, Hailin, and Ghiselli, R. (2011). Examining the relationship of work-family conflict to job and life satisfaction: A case of hotel sales managers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30 (1), 46-54. ----
  16. 16. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [11] CONTINUATION OF THE IRANIAN GARDENING TRADITION IN INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT DR. HASSAN HASHEMI ZARJABAD, Assistant professor at Archaeology in university of Birjand- Iran DR. ABED TAGHAVI, Department of Archaeology University of Mazandaran-Iran DR .SAMAN FARZIN, Department of Archaeology, University of Mazandaran, Iran ABSTRACT Gardening and the designing of gardens in the shape of parks (Iranian Bagh), the yards of palaces, mansions and the mausoleums is the essential part of the Islamic architectural tradition of Iran. The idea and the theme of such tradition had been derived from the heavenly Holy book of the Islam ( The Holy Quran) and resulted in beautification of land throughout centuries and millenniums. The theme of “Bagh” is rooted in the Iranian Islamic culture and tradition. It is the symbol of the heaven and the lost paradise, which artistically shaped and designed by the talented Iranian architects. That is the reason whenever the Islamic Ideology spread through the regions by the Iranian scholars, mystics, rulers and architects, the tradition of the gardens and gardening too found its way in that region and is still in continuation. The most beautiful historical gardens and the palaces existing in the region of the Sub continent are infect the archetype of the Iranian Islamic tradition and civilization which stand as the grand symbol of that everlasting civilization. Keywords: Bagh, Iran, Sub- Continent, Civilization, India
  17. 17. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [12] INTRODUCTION: The word “garden or bagh” is one of the oldest terms, which existed in the mind of human being since Adam, the first man on the earth and maintained a remarkable importance in the human civilizations. The stories about Adam and Eve mention that they lived in the garden since their existence. The oldest references about the gardens are found in some historical sources about the civilizations of Egypt and China. (1) The Muslims derived and practically adopted the theme of garden/bagh from their Holy book, which mentions about the Paradise, the heavenly garden with all its aesthetic aspects. Most probably it was the description of the Paradise in the Holy book, which infatuated the Muslim designers and engineers to found and design the gardens in the east and west of the Islamic world. (2) God Almighty repeatedly describes in the Holy Quran: “Say: shall I tell you of what is better then these? For those who guard (against evil) are gardens with their lord, beneath which rivers flow, to abide in them and pure mates and Allah `s pleasure; and Allah sees the servants. (Chap.3“Family of Imran” Verse, 15). “And hasten to (avail) forgiveness from your lord, and a garden, the extensiveness of which is (as) the heaven and the earth; it is prepared for those who guard (against evil)” (Chp.3 “Family of Imran” Verse, 133). “As for these- their reward is forgiveness from their lord and gardens beneath which the rivers flow, to abide in them and excellent is the reward of the labrourers.” (Chap.3”Family of Imran”verse, 136) The terms “garden/bagh” and “ Paradise” stand as a symbol of calm and happy life with full of material and spiritual blessings where there is no sorrow or grief but pleasure and abundant bounties and fulfillment of all the wishes and desires. Infect this kind of idea was the effective factor for designing and construction of gardens in the Islamic era.(3) The term “ the garden of paradise” has a deep sentimental and religious impact on the literature of the countries all over the world and all the folk stories of different nations. The culture of gardening was of no significance in the Sub continent before Islamic era. It came to this region with the Muslim conquerors and developed there as a tradition since these conquerors started to plant different kind of trees and flowers in the yards of buildings and around the palaces and the forts that situated in that region. With the establishment of the Muslim states after the eighth century in the provinces of Gujrat, Utter- Pardesh Dukken, Junpur, Calcutta started a new era of architectural engineering in the Sub continent and big palaces and gardens had been constructed in these provinces. Sultan Mehmood made Muhammadabad, the adjoining city to Ahmadabad in Gujrat, his capital. He had hired an expert Iranian gardener especially for gardening services. In Bengal there are some historical gardens constructed in Ghaznavi era, which show the impact of the cultural tradition of the Iranian gardening.(4) The kings and rulers of Iran and some of the eastern countries who adopted the construction of gardens as their hobby had developed and made customary the tradition of constructing the gardens as resorts and the picnic points in their regions. These gardens were mostly constructed outside the cities at the bank of rivers and springs, on the hillside or at the open places where the water canals were already available. Plentiful supply of water is the essential condition for gardening. The systematic division of the park into the small gardens, setting of plants and flowers into the organized form and arrangement of streams and the fountains in proper shape is the specialty of the Iranian gardening tradition. This pattern of art can be seen in Iranian paintings and miniatures. The archetype model of the Iranian gardening tradition is “Bagh”. Some of this kind of parks are still existing in many places. This type of park is constracted in a compound area, which is devided into four equal parts by the two roads vertically crossing through each other. Mostly a building is constracted in the middle or at any other good looking site of such parks. The attractive and organized arrangement of plantsand trees with a plentiful supply of water and the cascades of low height add to the beauty and charm of the garden. Such kind of gardens have been mentioned in the history as existed in the Achaemanian and Sasanian Periods (550B.C.- 626A.D.).(5) Water and the headwaters have been regarded as an important resource throughout the human history. Many of the holy and religious buildings have been constructed on the riverside or at the places that had plenty of water.(6) Bagh had been constructed according to the history in the Timurian period (1369-1509 A.D.). Shahrukh had constructed a Bagh and a resort in Meshed on 796 A.H. Whenever he traveled Meshed for pilgrimage he used to stay in that bagh.(7) Timur himself built the Iranian type of gardens in Samarkand and Hirat.
  18. 18. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [13] Much Iranian type of gardens had been built in the Babarian Period in the Sub-continent. Most probably the idea of the bagh of Tajmahal from the book “ Irshaduz-zaraa” written by Qasim Son of Yosuf Abunasary. Transcription of this book was available in the Mughul Emperial Library in Indian sub-continent. This transcription is now available at the British Library with the official stamp of the King Orangzaib, catalogue No. OR.755.(8). The detailed description of the design of bagh has been written in this book. It is said that Syed Muhammad Mirak had constructed the tomb of Hamayun in Delhi on 978-979. The enclosure of this tomb is reminiscent of the above mentioned Parks Father of Mirak also attached to the court of King Babar; probably he played a significant role in designing the Iranian type of gardens in the sub- continent. The most beautiful parks of the sub-continent are situated in the northern central and southern parts of this region (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh). PARKS IN NORTHERN INDIA: The most famous Iranian type gardens are situated in the northern parts of India in Kashmir and Hariyana. THE ACHHBAL PARK: This park is situated in Kashmir, on Jamu- Srinagar high way. It was founded in Jahangirs period on 1043.A.H and redecorated in Shahjehans period. A pavilion has been built in the center of the park which has been a resort for the Tamurian king during their visits in Summer seasons. The king Aurangzaib handed it over to Zaibun nisa on 1083.A.H. Another name of this park is “Sahib-abad” .(9) ILAHI PARK: This park has been built in Kashmir, near Bat Spora, in Shah Jahans period in Iranian style. A pavilion with a water pool and foundation has been built in the center of the park . When Shahjahan visited this park, he became fascinated and ordered to build there another pavilion . He included it in royal gardens.(10) BAHR-ARA PARK: This park is situated in the Sodrah Khan Island, in Kashmir. It was founded by Noor Jehan on 1056.A.H. A parition was constructed there in the period of Shah Jahan.(11) NASEEM PARK: This park has been built in the lahe, dil, in Kashmir in the period of the king Akbar. Azam Khan, Saif Khan and Afzal Ilhan had redecorated it. It is encircled by a wall.(12) SADIQUE KHAN PARK: This park was built by Sadique Khan the governor of Shahjahan on the beach of the , dilcane , The fountains made with septured stores are among the specalitgis of this park . A mosque was constructed in this park by Fazil Khan, the governors of Aurang zaib. A string of the holy prophets hair has been rept there as a holy gift. This is the reason it is also called Hazarat Bal.(13) THE ROYAL SPRING PARK (CHASHMA SHAHI): This park has been built by Ali mardan Khan on 1053-A.H. or 1063 by the order of Shah Jahan.(14) A mosque also has been constructed there. Its water pool has been decorated with marble stone, which has been brought there from Lahore. The Queen Jahan-Ara visited this park and she named it after the name of her spiritual guide Mulla Shah Badakhshi, Chashma Shahi (shahi fountain). An inscription in Persian has been found from this place shows the date of 1029 A.H./1607-8 A.D. for instruction of the monument.(15) SHALIMAR GARDEN: Shalimar is the name of the two beautiful gardens made in Iranian style in the sub- continent. One is situated in Indian occupied Kashmir while the other is in the city of Lahore in Pakistan. Shalimar is the name of place
  19. 19. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [14] situated on 15km distance from Srinagar. Raja Parorseen (an Indian King) had constructed a garden there as a memorial of a hindu theologist during the first and 2nd century A.D. That garden gradually distinguished by last of time. When the king Jehangir visited that place, he became fasinated and told the prince Khurram to build there a beautiful garden.(16) This park contains the speciality of the Timurian construction style. The main arc hitectural characteristics contain a slop yard for tracing, pools, canals, palaces and platforms layed down for water and canals.(17) A building with black marble has been constructed in the middle of this park in Shah Jahan period. Pillars of the first floor have been made by the stone. The third floor has a small roof with open windows in four sides.(18) The Shalimar park in Lahore is among the gardens made in Timurians period which has been constructed in the style of Tajmahal . A canal has been built about of the river Ravi which goes across the park. Whenever the canal was built, Shah Jahan ordered to start the construction Shalimar Bagh. First floor of this garden has been built in rectangular shape which has been divided into four equal parts. A pavement is attached with each part. The second floor is rectangular shap and contains water pool and the fountains made with stone. The third floor contains small gardens with frees and streams of water. The garden has been encircled with a wall made of bricks and stones. The first and second floor is called “Faiz Bakhsh”; And the third floor is called “Farah Bakhsh” (Pleasant).(19) This bagh had 152 fountains but today 100 fountains remain there. The water crossing through the fountains and cascades made of marble slabs results in cooling the hot air. Some trees had been brought from Afghanistan and planted there by the order of the king Shah Jahan. There are severel kinds of trees including mango, pineapple, apricot, peach and almond. A portion of the garden was part of the court of Ladies. The bathrooms with hot and cold water also had been constructed there. Halls and resthoudses were also there. The construction of this park started on 1043.A.H. by the order of the king Shah Jahan and completed on 1048.A.H, according to a Persian quatrain that remained in history.(20) THE NISHAT PARK: This park had been constructed in Srinagar by Asif Khan the governor of the King Jehangir. It is consisted on nine parts and it contains a beautiful palace especially built for ladies. This portion has been separated by 18 feet high wall. A canal with a width of 13 feet is watering this garden. Each portion has been decorated with fountains, coscades made of marble stone and water scapes. Two buildings had been constructed with entrances. The shape and style is similar to the Timurian kind of construction . Stone is the main materials of the structure.(22) It has been built in three floors and a pavilion had been constructed with a water pool. It still maintains its beauty. Some of the other famous parks in Kashmir are Noor park, Iradat park, Zafar Khan park , Wajor park (= wafa park), Chuelabri park, Upper park and Warinag park.(23) The last park of the Timurian period is situated in Panjure, 26 kilometers away in the north east of the city of Chundigar. It was constructed in the period of Auranzaib. Babar started the tradition of the Iranian gardening in north of India. He mingled it with Mughulion style of gardening in park way in Punjor.(24) It is close to the fertile valleys surrounded by hills. The garden is encircled by the wall and in each corner there are watch towers . There were five enterances. The main enterance is on the castern side surranded by a set of rooms . A water canal that falls from a cascade adds to the beauty of the garden . It has several birldings with the names, Shish Mahal, Rang Mahal, the central palace and the waterpool. (25) PARK OF THE CENTRAL INDIA: The most famous parks in Iranian style are situated in Agra, Alahabad, Hariana and the eastern Benal. ANGOORI BAGH (GRAPE PARK): This park is situated in the historical fort of Agra in front of Jahngirs palace. This park has been designed in the shape of Iranian bagh. It has been marginated with red stone. In the center of garden there is a water pool made of marble stone that is surronuded by fence. The building adjacement to the pool has been painted with differnt design of paintings especially the designs showing the grape . This park was especially built to royal ladies. The grapes used to be planted in this bagh and that is why it became known as Grapes Park. We find descriptions
  20. 20. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [15] about this garden in travelogues written by different travelers and the system of watering also had been mentioned in these trilogies.(26) JAHAN ARA BAIGUM PARK: This Park is after the name of Shah Jahans daughter Jahan Ara Baigum. It is also called Zohra bagh. Zohra is said to be the name of one of the daughters of the king Babar.(27) This garden also has been built in the Iranian style of bagh. Another name of this park is Syed Park, because the tomb of the famous mystic of Indian Syed Mohammad the martyred is situated there. It is an important print about this garden that a piece of land had been allocated and enclosed in the suburbs of Agra to provide the expenses of its maintenance and look after.(28) CHUNDAR BAHAN PARK: This park has been attributed to Chundar Bahan, one of the royal secretaries in Shah Jahan period, who lived in Lahore, known as Roy, died on 1068.AH. He had founded a park in Agra that still exist there.(29) QANDHARI BAIGUM PARK: This park was founded in Agra and attributed to the first wife of Shahjahan, the daughter of Mirza Muzafar Hussain Qandhari. These days it has been destroyed and some remains of its construction can be seen there.(30) MOHABAT KHAN PARK: This garden is situated at the suburb of Rajpur. It was founded by Syed Zaman Baig Khan Mahabat Jang and one of the governors of Jahngir and Shah Jahan. Today this park and some of its constructions including the tomb of one of the daughters of Mahabat Khan still remain there.(31) TAJMAHAL BAGH: Tajmahal bagh was founded during the eleventh century A.H. (1037-1067) by Shajahan, the fifth Timurian king in memory of his wife Arjumand Bano whose nick name was Mumtaz mahal. She was the grand daughter of Etimadud- dolah Tehrani. Ghayasuddin etimadud dolah migrated from Qazvin on 983. A.H. and later became the chief in the court of the king Akbar (963-1014.A.H).(32) Mumtaz Mahal, after her massiage with the prince Khurram who later become known as Shajehan accompained him in all his travels. She died during on of her travels to Borhanpure on 1030 A.H, after giving birth to her fourteenth child . Her body was temporarily buried in that place (33), but after six months it was brought to Akbar Abad and buried in south of Agra at the river bank of Jamna (Yamuna). The main park has been constructed around the building of the tomb.(34) The garden is in rectangular shape . Its design is similar to the other gardens situated on the river bank of the Jamna but more magnificent and larger in scale. (35) A platform in rectangular shape has been constructed in the middle of the park with a water pool. A water canal with a chain of small pools has been constructed on the both side of the platform. There is a footpath on the side of the canal that goes through the main entrance to the tomb . It is unique in its beauty and attractive among the gardens in India.(36) The covered area is consisted on 30561X580.11 meters . It is archetype of the Iranian modle bagh.(37) The park has been divided into four parts by the two road perpendicularly crossing each other. These parts again divided into four smaller parts . A water pool has been constructed at the corssing point of the two roads. The main park has been divided into seven sub parts by pavements.(38) Two towers had been constructed in the southern corners of the garden which are paralled to the northern towers. There is a pavilion in the middle of the east west wall . There is a platform on the southern part of the park with the name Jalweh Khaneh. There are 32 servant quarters both sides of Jalweh Khaneh attached to the wall. Two markets were also situated attateched to the east west wall . The market and outer- look of the garden provide a unique scene of worldly beauty while the main and the cetral part of the garden, the tomb reminds the visitors of hereafter.(39) There are calligraphic epigraphs of Quranic verses about the Day of asking and paradise: the central water pool symbolizes the “Kauthar”, the heavenly waterpool in paradise, while the four streams around it, the four stream in pasadies.(40)
  21. 21. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [16] The other parks in Agra are known Mehtab Khan bagh, Moti bagh, Wazir Khan bagh, Khawja Zakria bagh, Abdir Baigum bagh, Gul Badan Baigum bagh, Asif Khan bagh, Khan Alam bagh, and Feroze Khan bagh, etc.(41) GARDENS OF ALLAHABAD: At the suburb of Allahabad, there are Iranian type of gardens. Among those the Khusro bagh, is very famous. This bagh is situated near the railway station. The epigraphs in Persian Language indicate the Jehngir period.(42) The garden has been encircled by a brick wall. And the secrect of resistance and remaining of this bagh, is because of this brick walls (43). This garden is watered with the water of a well situated inside the garden. The remains of cascades and fountains are still there. The rulers- princes and governers of that period used to visit that park. The king Jehngir during his revolt against this father stayed for several time in this garden . His mother Salima Sultan Baigum came to this garden to the diate for reconciliation. Nowadays this garden is controlled and maintained by the national Heritage Foundation and Agricultural Foundation of India.(44) PARKS OF THE EASTERN BENGAL: LAL BAGH: It is remained an uncomplete monument from Mughul Period in Bangladesh, called “Lal Bagh” or “Aurangabad Fort”.(45) Lal park is situaited on the river bank of Buriganga in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. This park was founded by the prince Muhammad Azam, the third son of Aurangzaib, on 1678A.D. Unfortunately he couldn’t complete its construction during the short period of his rule. Shaista Khan, the later governor continued its construction, but the sudden death his daughter, Irandukht, he also couldn’t complete it. The remains of this garden include the tomb of Irandukht (= Bibi-pari), defence walls, water towers and the beautifully constructed gate. There are other remains including a beautiful small mousque with three dames, court hall, water tank and bathrooms.(46) This park had been constructed in Safvid style of Iranian bagh. THE PARKS IN DECCAN - SOUTH INDIA: The most famous parks of this area are situated in Hayderabad, Achal pure, Nagpure and Benglore. In Haydeabad there are two kinds known as the general park and the private park. These were constructed in the period of Asifjah. NAMDAR PARK: This park is situated at the suburb of Achal pure in the province of Maharashtra. Muhammad Namdar Khan one of the rulers of that region who used to say poems in Persian and Urdu Language, had founded this park. The Persian cligraphs indicate that it was founded on 1229 A.H.(47) ANBEH JEHRI PARK: This park is among the oldest gardens in Nagpure which was founded by the rulers of Bhonsleh daynasty. There is a water pool filled with rain water that is supplied to the garden. Anbeh Jehri bagh is situated on the north part of the pool.(48) [Anbeh is a Persian word for Mangos]. LAL PARK OF MAYSOOR: This park was constructed in Banglore by Tippu Sultan, the second Muslim ruler of Maysoor. Tippu Sultan ordered to bring several kind of tree from different parts of Indian and out side of India to plant in that park. This park is under the control of the local gardening department.(49) It is one of the famous picnic points of Banglore. DARYA DOULAT BAGH: This park was constructed with the instructions of Tippu Sultan in Saringapatam in the province of Karnatic . He used to visit there in summer. The palace situated in the garden is now used as the museum.(50) The tombs of Tippu Sultan,Haidar Ali, and the members of the royal family of this region and a mosque named Aqsa mosque are situate in the compound of the palace.(51)
  22. 22. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [17] NOW-BAHAR BAGH: This park is situated in the city of Shahnoor in the province of Karnatic. It was founded by Dilair Jang Bahador, the ruler of Shahnoor on 1266. A.H. It was maintained by Ghaus Khan. Today only the water pool with on epigraph remains there. This park has been mentioned in a Persian manuscript, titled: “ The history of Dilair Jangi” with its map and design.(52) CONCLUSION: The theme and design of Iranian Bagh (parks) had been derived from Islamic thought and anicent Iranian mythology. This tradition represents the Islamic Iranian Culture and civilization. It is the symbal of the paradise, the eternal peace and blessing of God Almighty. The man being a super creation and representative of God on earth has tried to create the symbal of the paradise since he lived on earth. He had desired to enjoy the beauty and peace that the verses of the Holy Quran picturized for man. Whenever the Iranian thought and culture found its way to different regions, it also brought with it the theme of beautiful gardens. The gardens in the subcontinent are the manifestation of that heavenly thought. REFERENCES: ENGLISH: 1. Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy for the year 1967-68,Calcutta 1979; 2. Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy for the year 1984-85, Culcutta 1989;Babur, Babur Nama, tr. A.S. Beveridge, Delhi1979; 3. Crowe,Sylvia and Sheila Haywood, The Gardens of Mughal India , Delhi 1973;Desai, Z.A. Epigraphia India, Cacutta 1962; 4. Epigraphia India (Arabic and Persian Supplement- 1975, New Delhi1983; 5. Maqbul Sayed Ahmad, Tarikh-I Alahabad, Allahabad 1938; Mattoo, Abdul Majid ,Kashmir under the Mughuls, serinagar 1988; 6. Mehta, J.Rustam,Masterpieces of Indo- Muslim Architecture, Bombay 1976; 7. Munshi Mohammad Azimuddin,Tarikh-I Dilirjangi,1262 AH.;William, Rushbrook, A Hand Book To India, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, London 1965; 8. Nazimuddin Ahmed, Discover The Monuments of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1984;weekly, Taj Weekly, Kamptee 1970; 9. Petruccioli Attilio, Gardens in the time of the Great Muslim Empires, Brill 1997; 10. Sayed Muhammad Latif, Lahore Architectural Remains, Lahore 1981; 11. The Imperial Gazetteer of India , Vol. 5, New Delhi; Nagpur District Gazetteer, Bombay 1966; Amjad Husain Khatib, Tarikh-I Amjadia, Hyderabad 1874. ) Persian‫ر‬:( ‫آ‬ ،‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زاق؛‬ ‫ا‬ ،‫دي‬ ‫اور‬1888-1891‫م؛‬ ، ، ‫رود‬“‫ج‬”‫ج‬ ،‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫دا‬ ،6،58-64‫ان‬ ،13802000/‫؛‬ ‫ان‬ ، ‫ج‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اوم‬ ‫؛‬ ، ‫زاد‬ ‫ن‬1378/1998‫؛‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زاق؛‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ ،‫ي‬‫ان‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ 1359/1980‫؛‬ ‫ان‬ ، ‫ده‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ه‬ ،‫ر‬ ‫؛‬ ، ‫ا‬1370-1380/1991-2001‫؛‬ ‫ان‬ ، ‫زاد‬ ‫ن‬ ،‫ن‬ ‫رآ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫در‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ري‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ا‬ ، ‫آ‬1373/1994‫؛‬ ‫آ‬ ‫پ‬ ، ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ا‬ ،‫ري‬ ‫ه‬‫آ‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬1867-1868‫؛‬ ‫ان‬ ، ‫د‬ ،‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫؛‬ ‫دو‬ ، ‫و‬1348/1969‫؛‬ ‫ان‬ ،‫اول‬ ،‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫دا‬1375/1996‫؛‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ن‬) Urdu‫اردو‬(: ، ‫آ‬ ‫اردو‬ ، ‫ر‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫؛‬ ،‫د‬‫ر‬1980‫؛‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ه‬ ،‫ب‬ ‫دا‬ ،‫رف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اردو‬.
  23. 23. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [18] FOOTNOTES: 1. Isalam World Encyclopedia (IWE), vol.1,p.571 2. Ibid 3. IWE,p572 4. Ibid, p577 5. Urdo Islamic Encyclopedia, vol3, p.962 6. Donald, p.2 7. Samarghndi, p.2 8. Attilio,p.122 9. Mattoo,p.201 10. Ibid, p.197 11. Ibid 12. A Hand Book To India, Pakistan, Burma, and Ceylon, p.523 13. Mattoo,p.198 14. Ibid,p.200; Crowe,p.139 15. Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, p.235 16. Mattoo,p.198 17. Kokh,p.86 18. Crowe,p.98-99 19. A Hand Book To India,Pakistan,Burma, and Ceylon,p.492 20. Ibid 21. Mattoo,p.199 22. Ibid 23. Crowe,p.120 24. Babur-Nameh,p.465 25. Maghbul Sayed Ahmad,p.40 26. Ibia,p.78; Crowe,p.165 27. Babur-Nameh,p.466 28. Maghbul Sayed Ahmad,p.95 29. Ibid,pp.171-172 30. Ibid,p.143 31. Ibia,p.63 32. Ourang-Abadi,vol.1,pp.128-129 33. Lahori,pp.385-386 and 393 34. Ibid,pp.402-403 35. Kokh,p.99 36. Maghbul Sayed Ahmad,p.46 37. Sultanzadeh,p.92 38. Roudgar,p.6 39. Lahori,p.vol2,p.329 40. Sultanzadeh,pp.98-100 41. Roudgar,p.63 42. Crowe,pp.165-180 43. Maghbul Sayed Ahmad,p.51 44. A Hand Book To India,Pakistan,Burma and Ceylon,pp.38-39 45. Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy for the year 1984-85,p.64 46. Maghbul Sayed Ahmad,p.69 47. Nazimuddin Ahmed,p.170 48. The Imperial Gazetteer of India vol.5,p757 49. A Hand Book To India,Pakistan,Burma and Ceylon,p.408 50. Nazimuddin Ahmed,p.171 51. Ibid; Rustam,p.42; Epigraphia India( Arabic and Persian Supplement),1984-85. 52. Azimuddin,p.124 ----
  24. 24. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [19] GOD ANSWERED “EQUALITY”, EQUAL RIGHTS, EQUAL RESPECT, EQUAL OPPORTUNITY BETTY C, DUDNEY M.T. 449 Manley Dr. Nashville, TN. 37220 USA INTRODUCTION: Writing forty years after being given the Prophetic Word of “EQUALITY” by God’s Holy Spirit. Have witnessing to the Vatican since 1985. Three times to three Popes, for the ending of discrimination, inequality, especially for the female half of God’s Image. Without ending inequality within the largest of our Christian institutions, how can we expect it to be ended elsewhere in our world? Till then half of our world must live on daily wages of about U.S. $3.00. Today 25,000 children will starve to death, while millions more will go to bed hungry tonight! Not to mention 7 out of 10 children will be unable to go to school, to learn even to read or write, because they must go to work, as young as 5-6 years old. 90% OF OUR WORLD’S ECONOMY AND OUR RESOURCES ARE IN THE AND CONTROL HANDS OF LESS THAN 2%. The worlds resources and our Labor, God meant to be used for the benefit of all. DEDICATED TO ALL THOSE WHO LOVE ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO HAVE YET TO KNOW TO “LOVE GOD AND ONE ANOTHER” GOLDEN RULE UNIONS: First a little note on gods and little tiny Hummingbirds. This morning as I sat behind my back screen door, watching house sparrows eating bread crumbs, a silver sliver of a hummingbird also noticed, hovering in midair to say “Thank You” as she click, click clicked away in a flash, to the honeysuckle flowers nearby.She must see me like a good god, among some who could care less, in my trying to share the goodness that is the best part about living. Just as I see my God's goodness, yet in my limited way, as we are all limited in how we see God. Few doubts for me, there is a God because of experiencing spiritually as well as literally The Hand of God, both in obvious ways beyond this world’s powers. Moses saw such a Hand or “The Finger of God”, writing down The Ten Commandments, over 4000 years ago. Thousands of years later the prophet Daniel, would interpret the writings of God’s hand again, seen by many at the Kings Court on his banquet wall. Over 200 times, I have found the mention of God’s Hand in Biblical Scriptures, mostly as a symbolic sign of God reaching out to us. For God is good. Those who want to know God as a Loving Being, there is a way for you to know for yourself! 2000 years ago, Jesus said the Laws and the Prophets were summed up by: First putting God in your heart. So you will know how to “Love One Another”, and even to “Love your enemies”! This is the fullness of the Golden Rule Universally found, also the essence of "Equality". Doing good, instead of evil, even to enemies, can make it possible to create friendships, or at least not to increase the hatred, and lesson the destruction in our world! If only Enough people could “see” the value of treating each one with equal respect and concern, God’s “Equality” what a paradise on earth this could be! The Golden Rule of treating others with equal fairness, in the way you would most like to be treated, is found also found naturally in the heart of most enlightened or higher forms of life. Yet a few humans are born with out such feelings, they may have been damaged before, or after birth. Only concerned with their own self-interest, they will seek out positions of power over others, first in their homes, then in jobs, or business, even in religion. Their pleasure comes not from real concern or love of others but in controlling, their use of, and manipulating others. There are others who have been physically, emotionally or even mentally damaged, who
  25. 25. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [20] will tend to seek revenge, unless they are healed of their hurt and anger. Some can be healed. We need to do our best to express love, and try not to be the cause of more harm or misunderstanding. It may be that many of the leaders we have had over us, have been damaged in their past or even lack our normal human feelings. Many have misused positions of power and will continue to do so, until the equal rights of each one is morally respected as well as legally protected. Sometimes they try to set us up against each other, using male against female, or one culture against another, even to leading us into one war after another, just to feed their greed or gain more power, fame or fortune. History is full of Cesar’s, Kings, and even a few Queens, who have without conscience, taken the best from the rest. As God warned the Hebrews, long ago, when they insisted on a King, like the other nations had. Warned them not to have kings or even rulers over them. For God desires people to allow The Holy Spirit into their lives, to lead them to the fullness of truth, so they will know what is right to do. To have a conscience by the time most have reached the age of reason, willing to be guided daily by God Holy Spirit of Love. We would need to have only Judges, to be able to judge between any disputes. We continue at our own peril by ignoring this warning of history. Do we really want rulers, rather than to be free people? Or even bother to think of such things? Leaving It up to others to decide for us? War, like any negative, is really a battle with our lesser selves, and is against our best and highest nature. Against the Golden Rule written naturally in the hearts of most humans. We have to look for leaders who will lead us towards and not away from the universal Golden Rule to be able to stop them from using us. Sometimes through the media, Controlled by only a few who also control a lot of our economy, as well as influencing our minds. What can we do to change so much control by so few in charge? Many believe little, for the worlds economic waves are high and mighty at this time. We have no hope in a raft alone, except to be swallowed by a Godly whale, or working together. Time after time a small group willing to work with other groups of friends have made a great difference, and will again, if God be with us. Golden Rule Unions do not have to be formal or legal groups. Only small groups uniting with larger groups, as the need arises. There is plenty on this earth for all to have enough food, housing, economic skills, but not as long as we allow so much inequality. Where only a few are in control of so much of our world’s economy. Right now primarily in the control of International corporate profits makers and banking practices. Top high salaries, perks, along with excessive profits allows excessive political contributions to gain political control and even military influence, in areas where they are strong. Having the Gold makes it easier for them to make the rules, but we know violence is their ultimate weapon, reinforces and increases their greedy nature. Any chance to turn the tide must be done by the power of non-violence for they have the political influence and weapons behind them. First you must be willing to take mental, spiritual control of your life, by putting it in God’s Hands. Prayerfully create with others 12 and/or 12 X 12 networks. With those you know who really are interested in a better life, not just for self, but equally for all. There will be opposition, so find those who are trustworthy and willing to share the risk with you. Knowing our souls, must either grow, or possible even die out, if we knowingly continue in ways of unfairness and injustice. We need many to believe in, live in, the Universal Golden Rule of Equal justice, equal fairness. FOR ONE FOR All, WHY GO TO ROME? November 12th , 2010 Your Holiness Pope Benedict XVI Vatican City, Roma, Italia Bon Journo Padre,I have known from the beginning it would be difficult to communicate with you. That is the reason the person who reads this letter first, should know I have, at least, a good reason to believe our Pope has/will read some of these letters. So please do not try to stop this. Even if we are in conflict, Love, with its Godly purpose is the best and primary reason for us to change some things for the better, for all of us. Inequality hurts all. What we do here, or fail to do, affects us both in the present, as well as in the eternal hereafter. Inequality is still hurting The Church and is negatively affecting our world. God has destined equality to flow first from The Church. *1God is not just male, or female, but is a combination of both gender qualities. “In Christ, no male or female” *2 Our Church must soon reflect this fact or it will be known as having been taken over by the antichrist. Every human being, scientifically, mentally, or even more importantly, spiritually, is composed of both the sexual components, only in degree.
  26. 26. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [21] We are much more alike than we are different! We would prefer to come to Rome for Your Blessing for our Order of Mary, Michael's. In our Golden Rule Family, we are increasing in numbers. We feel time is of the essence, for us, Our Church, for our world. If you continue to refuse to give women the right to serve “In hrist” at the altar, on the grounds Jesus did not appoint any, then the same logic should be applied that neither were Italians, poles, or Germans, only Jews were appointed! Then by spring we must come to Rome fasting and praying for the female half of God's Image. In the name of Christ, Betty C. Dudney *1Pastoral Constitution, Article 29+,Vatican II 1965 *2 The Apostle St. Paul Am here to help create with the prayers and fasting of many, a miracle for people to help end at least reverse the terrible curse of inequality we all are under whether we realize it or not. What we do affects the rest at least in our own lives to some degree, so in that regard we are all equally important. By what we choose each day to do, or refuse, fail to do. Experience has taught me that God works through human hands of good will, with those willing to work together for a common cause. During the years when I was physically able to work in hospitals and Medical Clinics, only felt I had the time and energy to give a little extra for other causes with my own family to help support and care for. Did nothing like my hero’s of those days who gave so much, people like Mother Teresa, Gandhi, and so many who are not very well known like a young man Marshall Ganz the son of a local Rabbi, brilliant and one of many who gave away a promising career to support Civil Rights and to help right our past prejudices. Many young people spent their summers then the rest of the year, never to return to college to work in the South where I am from and still love to live when I can, from seeing so much progress of people here of treating there as equal human beings. During the 60’s, the time of Dr. Martin Luther King, some went to help register black voters to vote for the first time, and doing sit-downs with blacks at lunch counters where blacks had not been able to eat before. Many suffered beatings, or thrown in jail, some even killed both blacks and whites who had agreed they had to witness non-violently to prevent even more violence. They appealed to the conscience, to the best in people, to be able to have a lasting win for all. Possible only with non-violence! For violence only begets more violence. After the struggle for equal rights, and racial equality ended, it has now continued with Women’s Rights, needed to stop the much discrimination against them. Women were one of the last to gain the right to vote, in the U.S. actually not until 1921. Of more interest to me then, was hearing about farm workers organizing in the little town called Delano, California, where I had gone to High School, around the same time as Helen, the now wife of Cesar Chavez, Co-founders Delores Huerta, and others, leading a strike for farm workers against their low pay, and miserable, as well as dangerous working conditions with pesticides, long grueling hours in the hot desert sun. Twice they marched to Sacramento to appeal to the Senate there, 465 miles on foot! I wanted to go with them but because of my own work could not until many years later, when they needed to go again, for needed laws most other workers already had. Unions are one of the primary ways the workers have a non-violent chance against large Corporations and most businesses that are in it for the profit and squeeze as much work from the workers as possible. Both marches started out with less than 100 farm workers, yet by the time we reached Sacramento a month later walking about 10 miles a day by talking to farm workers on the way 1000’s had joined with us. As we passed many farms the workers, realizing what we were trying to do, would at least wave, many offered food, and in the evenings a place to sleep. A small truck followed us with our sleeping bags and extra shoes. We were met with much love and positive response and the closer we got to Sacramento more and more joined in with us. At the time my immune system was so bad, I was not allowed to work around sick people, discouraged, but when Cesar's Spirit called, it became a do or die thing for me and at the end of the pilgrimage there was new life in me too! It had taken years for the farm workers to actually form their own Union and then more years to even legally be able to strike for a better life that was finally recognized as their own civil rights for the first time, here in America. The Vietnam War had also stirred my conscience many years before, where I was then living, a middle sized town, of only about 50,000, yet we had no more than 10-15 who would show up on a Sunday in front of our court house in town to protest the war. In the major bigger cities they came out to witness to end this War by the 1000’s and while many things helped to end the war finally public protest for sure played a necessary part. Now years later one more time, I know God’s Hand is insisting of this witnessing to Our Pope, against the Church’s long time discrimination of women. The largest groups of Christians are Catholics with a Pope who
  27. 27. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [22] has the power to change the inequality now, within The Church, for the many women who feel called to serve God at the Altar. For Jesus is equally within them, and they can be a much needed example to others in the world of God’s “Equality”. Especially to stop the rationalization that it is ok to treat over half of the workers pay grossly unequally, an average of about $3.00 a day, because religious organizations sanction inequality and discrimination. Most of all that it is morally OK for those to continue their pay inequality for those who have created the current economic crisis, and are in control of up to 90% of the worlds wealth and it’s resources. To the point where up to 50% of all people are living on a starvation diet of one meal or less a day! We need to stand in solidarity with others to help stop this inequality before even more are squeezed into such starvation diets. You can help those who pray for a better world, in making your prayers more affective by fasting from at least one thing each day, whether it be a whole meal, a piece of candy, or even just a smile to someone you wouldn’t have given it to otherwise. One of us can do little, but many joining their prayers and fasting together can do much to help create miracles of equal opportunities for all. Blessings there are that come from that peace within, through good will, a loss otherwise! Holy Father Pope Benedict XVI Vatican City, Rome Italia March 21, 2011 It is the first day of Spring Holy Father, one of the most promising days of the year. Days to take lessons from nature that we now will have equal times of both day and night. A time for our human male and female natures to be recognized as equals too, especially within The Church, from where God’s morality should be flowing. We must come out of the winter of inequality that causes so much disparity. Where half of our world is in a process of starvation! We can no longer ignore that The Church sets the example for the Golden Rule, especially for the female half of God’s Image, of God’s nature. With the guidance and direction of The Holy Spirit I must give you this message, and to The Church, at St. Peter’s Square, beginning In April, 2011. I will be there in Rome, pleading for your help, as the only one who can set the moral example for the less than 5% of those who now control over 90% of our worlds wealth and see nothing wrong with their lack of inequality, for The Church is still practicing it. Yet you know it is not from God, for God is a God of equity. I have read several of your books and one message on “Equality” from the Day of peace for 2004. It is now time that we become more Christ like before more are allowed to starve, because of this inequality. Your friend in Christ, Betty C. Dudney GOD AS BREATHES OF LIFE: Boundless and without end, God can be known by infinite, freeing LOVE, PEACE, JOY.The trials of human’s experience may be allowed because of free will and for our SPIRITUAL GROWTH .The Bible describes the nature of God as:“HOLY LOVE”, EQUITY, AND A GOD WHO IS “not a god of partiality”, THE I AM THAT AM. The Disciple John, a long time close friend of Jesus said: “GOD IS LOVE, WHEN WE LOVE, WE LIVE IN GOD AND GOD LIVES IN US”* *I John 4:16 All those who live in God's Will, allowing God’s Holy Spirit to guide, are part of God'' s infinite life, and find God's Mercy. NEGATIVE NATURES: My God does not have a negative nature, is not the cause of evil. I once thought that because I found so much negative-ness contributed to God in Scriptures, before I realized people, even the great Prophets all are limited as to their personal perception of God and God’s Holy Spirit inspires each one of us but we are limited as to how we see Divine Inspiration, some more attuned than others, as well as people justifying what has happened as being acts of God, such as when a natural disaster happens, but it is our free will and our circumstances of where we happen to be in nature or our physical bodies at the time how much we are affected by acts of nature.
  28. 28. SCHOLARS WORLD-IRMJCR Online: ISSN 2320-3145, Print: ISSN 2319-5789 www.scholarsworld.net editor@scholarsworld.net Volume. II, Issue III, July 2014 [23] Only for special reasons at special times for the good of all has God miraculously set aside the laws of nature so that they apply to all equally. A perfect God, A perfect Spirit of Love has no evil, Injustice. Some causes of evil are putting self above an equal concern for others, such as selfishness, racism, sexism, all kinds of inequality. There are many numbers of negative things we can experience, as well as even more it is possible to experience good things in this worldly physical lifetime of ours, because of living in this natural world, and mostly because of the chosen natures of those who have lived or are now living in our world. We are advised by Jesus and all good prophets, to stay away from negative actions when possible, especially if there is nothing we are able to do to make them more positive, for they can or will try to diminish us, or take us away from God's equal love for each one of us, under all our circumstances. God is infinite, God is One, but also can live and be in all!. We are infinite, in number while still being one, with the One eternally. Unless and only unless we chose not to be. Unlike evil that tries to manipulate and control you, God will never take away your free will. Be suspicious of the motives of anyone who does try to take away your free will, that is what evil is after. To control you and to make you it’s slave. Don’t ever think evil does not have an intelligence, whether it is in a person or as a spirit of evil that will try to even put thoughts of evil into your head, can hear what you say, but cannot know what you are thinking. One of the things I watched a seminar on the net this morning and shared some of it for a Birthday present for one of my Great Grandsons. It was about Intuition, which everybody has but we are mostly trained by school and our culture to think only from the left side of our brains which is the logical side. Or everybody thinks we should try to stay logical, in our Patriarchal world. Like the world is a jungle and might makes right, or like who owns the gold makes the rules! And there is of course some truth to this, but there is our other side of the brain, which most 99.9% of us have that also says, Love One Another, even your enemies, for it is the only way to make an enemy a friend. And better to have friends than enemies.Or the best way is what is best not just for us but for anybody. Or what I write about because it is the only thing that God gave me to share very plainly and that is “Equality” in fact this book I’m writing on right now is called “God Answered “Equality”. Or also thinking of calling it. The Pink Cross. Anyway back to what I learned about Intuition besides everybody has it. It is kind of a way of listening to your gut. It is your inner teacher or guidance system that is centered in your heart instead of just your left side of your reasoning brain. The heart is like a brain too as it has it’s own kind of intelligence and it can inform us or give us information that is not available to our puny left side of the brains grey matter and comes from a broader field of energy outside us some call The Cosmic Consciousness. I call it The Holy Spirit, but I like both words and both are true. Here of course I am adding some of my own learning and experience, along with what I heard this morning. To connect with this is like having an inner compass or some call it a 6th sense, and it is a little different than regular thinking or logical thinking because it is more of a feeling or sensing with one of your 5 senses, you see with your eyes, but you can also “See” with an inner eye or some call the God Eye. Or you can hear or “hear” or you may just have a over all feeling of danger or of a thing that would be a good thing to do. One of the ways to develop this sense of intuition is to listen, instead of just think. To be in the present because when we are in logic or talking in our brain, we are going over past information and thinking about something we did or didn’t do in the past or should do in the future and we are not living in the present, where reality is. People who are willing to balance this head logic or thinking with listening to what is happening here and now live in the present and they can see more than those who are living in the past or future and are not connecting with the present. We have this inner guidance system that is essential to living our lives as we would like. It really isn’t possible if you don’t use it, I have tried and known many who have tried and life just gets the better of us, if we don’t listen to that guidance system; as it knows more than we can possible know about the past, present and future. So how do you listen to it more? You practice every day just listening to where your mind wants to take you, wonder about what ever thought comes to your mind. Like practice increasing your intuition by asking some kind of a question 100 times a day “I wonder about this or I wonder about that, simple and complex things doesn’t matter what matter is to wonder, than listen to what you hear. In other words you are asking question and you will get answers if you do it. Simple things like “Wonder who wants to call me? Wonder where that Bird is flying? Wonder what I should do this morning to do _______what ever it is you would like to do. Just take one step at a time, and build on it. Imagine what it would be like and ask your inner guidance what you need to do 1st to get there, and when you get a response, trust it and do it, and see for yourself if it works. Keep trying till you can connect and get some answers that feel right and true for you. We never lose our intuition but when we stay too much on the left side of the brain thinking only logically and not listening to the Universe, we not only become ridged and close minded, we shut out the light it is trying to

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