SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 18
WHEN
DEWORMING
IS NOT
ENOUGH
DR. NIKI WHITLEY
FORT VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY
WHITLEYN@FVSU.EDU
478-391-4840
Worms
•Internal parasites
•Others- depending on
weather/season
•Haemonchus contortus
(“Barberpole worm”)
• Resistant to drugs from all three
classes (“-dazole”, “-ectin”,
other)
Image: Sue Howell, wormx.info
Image: wormx.info
Management
•Integrated methods-
• Pasture Management
• Animal Management
• Dewormer Management
• Others
www.wormx.info
(photo left)
Image: Niki
Whitley
www.wormx.info/webinar-videos
Management
•Integrated methods-
• Pasture Management
• Rotate (1-3 d), rest (60-90 d), height
(over 6”); use of annuals, burn dormant
pastures, new pastures, use of browse,
alternative forages (sericea); multi-
species grazing (horses/cattle); stocking
rates (start 3-5 adults/acre; best to use
weight/animal units); Bioworma ® for
reduced pasture worm larvae?
Turnips; www.wormx.info - Linda Coffey
Browse; www.wormx.info - Heather Glennon
Management
•Integrated methods-
• Animal Management
• Good nutrition (energy and protein);
higher protein (30% over); may need
to consider supplementation; good
loose minerals (Cu, Co); body
condition score (2-4); focus-weaning
to 1 yr and late pregnant/lactating;
genetic selection
www.wormx.info - Lisa Williamson;
body condition scoring
www.wormx.info - Joan Burke
Management
•Integrated methods-
• Dewormer Management
• Combinations (only those that need
it); TST (FAM/5 Pt Ck); maintain
refugia, give correctly (right dose by
weight; orally over tongue back of
mouth), higher doses for goats;
follow storage directions and
monitor exp. dates; COWP as a
dewormer?
www.wormx.info - Katherine Petersson
www.wormx.info - Joan Burke
Work with vet for extra-label drug use
Deworming Enough?
•If FAMACHA 4 – 5/symptomatic
(diarrhea, rough hair coat, off
feed, weight loss)
• Deworm correctly using effective
(chemical/drug) deworming protocol
• Not eating – supplement first/liver
support? Less ‘harsh’ dewormers first?
No oral use of pour ons…
Images: Susan Schoenian
Consult with a veterinarian
Deworming Enough?
•If FAMACHA 4 – 5/symptomatic
• Fecal egg counts – monitor for
reduction, check for coccidia
• Prevent reinfection (move inside? pen?)
• Keep stress as low as possible
• Another sheep/goat with them
• Monitor FAMACHA© score; usually
takes 2-3 weeks to see a full score
change
Images: Susan Schoenian
Consult with a veterinarian
Nutritional Support
•Provide high quality nutrition/
feed
• Higher protein (legumes, feed)
• Change slowly
• Cut & carry
• “Favorites”
• Keep it close
• Keep in sternal position
• Prop against fence/wall/straw bales
• Right side? Help move?
Image: Susan Schoenian
Nutritional Support
• Not eating – Drench
• Propylene glycol (60 cc twice a
day?); not long term
• Nutrient drenches/homemade
drenches/dark beer (?), karo
syrup/molasses for quick energy;
protein source (powered?)
• Yogurt (live cultures), probiotics?
• Bicarbonate (?)
*Images: Susan Schoenian
*No endorsement of specific trade names is intended
Hydration
• Keep hydrated*
• Water (with electrolytes) nearby
• Drench or Tube (electrolytes)
• Need ½ to 1 gallon/day water min.
• 1 qt = 950 cc; 4 qt/gallon
• Stop diarrhea
• **Kaolin pectin, Pepto-bismol©, similar
• Sericea lespedeza?
Image: Susan Schoenian
*If dehydrated/critical: injectable lactated ringers or isotonic (0.9%) sterile saline i.v. or s.c.
Rx (see veterinarian); **No trade name endorsements intended
Supplemental Treatments
•Some research: Iron
• With injected iron (25 mg/kg or 11.4 mg/lb body weight) on day 0 and
7 of treatment), Rocha et al. (2013) reported increased erythropoiesis
(red blood cell formation) at day 7, 14 and 21 after treatment in lambs
• Casanova et al. (2018) – injected iron dextran (20 mg/kg or 9 mg/lb
bodyweight) during artificial infection with barberpole worm (every 7
days starting at day 10); lambs had improved red blood cell counts,
hematocrit (%) and hemoglobin concentration
Goat producers have used 100 mg/ml iron dextran at 4cc/100 lb (1 cc= 1
ml) daily for 3 days then weekly until stronger with FAM 5 animals; can
overdose them, so consult a veterinarian
Supplemental Treatments
•Some research: Vitamin B12
• In NZ, Chicory reduced FEC in deer; resulted in
higher Cu and B12 (Barry et al. 2002)
• Injectable B12 is Rx only; can use fortified Vitamin
B complex (much lower levels; 10x less B12) has
other B vitamins like B2, niacin, B6 and thiamine
(B1, 5x less than Rx thiamine)
• B9 (folate) and B12 important for blood cell
formation
• Can get oral supplements (B12 water soluble) for
B vitamins and iron
*Image: Susan
Schoenian, modified
*No endorsement of specific trade names is intended
Minerals?
•Cobalt (mineral needed for B12/building blood)/deficiency
•Selenium (in a deficient area)
•Copper (COWP as treatment provides) and zinc deficiencies
can cause anemia
Can overdose animals when ‘treating’ with minerals – take care, work with knowledgeable vet
Supplemental Treatments?
•Oral multi-vitamin/mineral
supplements such as *Red Cell©,
have been used by some
producers (different doses):
• Using less “symptomatically”
parasitized animals, with one dose
(30cc) at deworming, no differences
noted in control study at FVSU
*No endorsement of specific trade names is intended; check labels and work with vet
*Image: Susan Schoenian
Supplemental Treatments?
•Vitamin K (for blood clotting),
Rx (work with vet)
•Other countries, especially
India, vets recommend “liver
tonics” before or with
deworming (choline, milk
thistle extract, others,
including vitamins/minerals)
Veterinary Treatments
•Along with Rx supplemental
treatments (and i.v. for
dehydration) mentioned
•Blood transfusion (normal PCV:
27-45% sheep; 22-38% goat); can
have reactions but rare; usually
only do once
Image: www.researchgate.net/figure/Blood-
transfusion-in-a-goat-Fig-10-Blood-transfusion-
in-a-ram_fig4_322247304
Deworming is not enough…
• Animal management, deworming
management and nutritional management
are important tools for managing parasites
in small ruminants
• Provide adequate nutrition and mineral
supplementation (i.e. loose minerals made
for your animal; vitamin/mineral packs
mixed into feedstuffs) based on your
farm/area needs to help fight worms/avoid
other nutritional issues
Image: Susan Schoenian

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Winning against worms
Winning against wormsWinning against worms
Winning against worms
 
Weaning lambs and kids
Weaning lambs and kidsWeaning lambs and kids
Weaning lambs and kids
 
Coccidiosis
CoccidiosisCoccidiosis
Coccidiosis
 
How to I keep them healthy: worms and other health problems on pasture
How to I keep them healthy: worms and other health problems on pastureHow to I keep them healthy: worms and other health problems on pasture
How to I keep them healthy: worms and other health problems on pasture
 
Nutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
Nutrition Of The Ewe And LambNutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
Nutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
 
Barber Pole Worm: #1 Killer
Barber Pole Worm: #1 KillerBarber Pole Worm: #1 Killer
Barber Pole Worm: #1 Killer
 
Lamb & Kid Nutrition
Lamb & Kid NutritionLamb & Kid Nutrition
Lamb & Kid Nutrition
 
GAP Pigs
GAP PigsGAP Pigs
GAP Pigs
 
Putting It All Together
Putting It All TogetherPutting It All Together
Putting It All Together
 
Goat Health Around Kidding Time
Goat Health Around Kidding TimeGoat Health Around Kidding Time
Goat Health Around Kidding Time
 
Genetic Control of Internal Parasites
Genetic Control of Internal ParasitesGenetic Control of Internal Parasites
Genetic Control of Internal Parasites
 
The fungus is coming
The fungus is comingThe fungus is coming
The fungus is coming
 
Ewe efficiency
Ewe efficiencyEwe efficiency
Ewe efficiency
 
Maximizingpotentialorphans
MaximizingpotentialorphansMaximizingpotentialorphans
Maximizingpotentialorphans
 
Sericea lespedeza
Sericea lespedeza Sericea lespedeza
Sericea lespedeza
 
Coccidiosis
CoccidiosisCoccidiosis
Coccidiosis
 
Late gestation
Late gestationLate gestation
Late gestation
 
Sheep 101
Sheep 101Sheep 101
Sheep 101
 
Developing weaning programs for your Katahdin flock
Developing weaning programs for your Katahdin flockDeveloping weaning programs for your Katahdin flock
Developing weaning programs for your Katahdin flock
 
Increasingbirthingrate
IncreasingbirthingrateIncreasingbirthingrate
Increasingbirthingrate
 

Similar to When deworming is not enough

Fortification of food for value
Fortification of food for valueFortification of food for value
Fortification of food for valueUniv. of Tripoli
 
Healthy Eating on the Road
Healthy Eating on the RoadHealthy Eating on the Road
Healthy Eating on the RoadEvent Garde LLC
 
Nutrition and Aging (Presented by Carmen Blanco, Greenville SC)
Nutrition and Aging (Presented by Carmen Blanco, Greenville SC)Nutrition and Aging (Presented by Carmen Blanco, Greenville SC)
Nutrition and Aging (Presented by Carmen Blanco, Greenville SC)Carmen Blanco
 
Diabetes, Diet and the Residential Home Resident
Diabetes, Diet and the Residential Home ResidentDiabetes, Diet and the Residential Home Resident
Diabetes, Diet and the Residential Home Residentzoeviney
 
Tricia Simonds - Emory Nutrition application spring 2015
Tricia Simonds - Emory Nutrition application spring 2015Tricia Simonds - Emory Nutrition application spring 2015
Tricia Simonds - Emory Nutrition application spring 2015Andrew Kang
 
Fortification of food for value
Fortification of food for valueFortification of food for value
Fortification of food for valueUniv. of Tripoli
 
Nutrition powerpoint - CHAPTER 2
Nutrition  powerpoint - CHAPTER 2Nutrition  powerpoint - CHAPTER 2
Nutrition powerpoint - CHAPTER 2GERALDINHO1
 
Nutrition powerpoint
Nutrition  powerpointNutrition  powerpoint
Nutrition powerpointGERALDINHO1
 
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawgSaving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawgDr. Niki Whitley
 
Pharmacotherapeutics of Vitamin D
Pharmacotherapeutics of Vitamin DPharmacotherapeutics of Vitamin D
Pharmacotherapeutics of Vitamin DShruthi Rammohan
 
Nutritional & hormonal imbalance in children with Cerebral Palsy
Nutritional & hormonal imbalance in children with Cerebral Palsy Nutritional & hormonal imbalance in children with Cerebral Palsy
Nutritional & hormonal imbalance in children with Cerebral Palsy jitendra jain
 
Complications associated with recurrent diarrhea
Complications associated with recurrent diarrheaComplications associated with recurrent diarrhea
Complications associated with recurrent diarrheaAmila Weerasinghe
 
Dr. Henry Johnson and Dr. Brad Leuwerke - Sow Mortalities Discussion Dr. Henr...
Dr. Henry Johnson and Dr. Brad Leuwerke - Sow Mortalities Discussion	Dr. Henr...Dr. Henry Johnson and Dr. Brad Leuwerke - Sow Mortalities Discussion	Dr. Henr...
Dr. Henry Johnson and Dr. Brad Leuwerke - Sow Mortalities Discussion Dr. Henr...John Blue
 

Similar to When deworming is not enough (20)

Vegan research
Vegan researchVegan research
Vegan research
 
Fortification of food for value
Fortification of food for valueFortification of food for value
Fortification of food for value
 
Healthy Eating on the Road
Healthy Eating on the RoadHealthy Eating on the Road
Healthy Eating on the Road
 
Nutrition and Aging (Presented by Carmen Blanco, Greenville SC)
Nutrition and Aging (Presented by Carmen Blanco, Greenville SC)Nutrition and Aging (Presented by Carmen Blanco, Greenville SC)
Nutrition and Aging (Presented by Carmen Blanco, Greenville SC)
 
Vegetarian 101
Vegetarian 101Vegetarian 101
Vegetarian 101
 
Truth about probiotic drinks
Truth about probiotic drinks Truth about probiotic drinks
Truth about probiotic drinks
 
Diabetes, Diet and the Residential Home Resident
Diabetes, Diet and the Residential Home ResidentDiabetes, Diet and the Residential Home Resident
Diabetes, Diet and the Residential Home Resident
 
Tricia Simonds - Emory Nutrition application spring 2015
Tricia Simonds - Emory Nutrition application spring 2015Tricia Simonds - Emory Nutrition application spring 2015
Tricia Simonds - Emory Nutrition application spring 2015
 
Fortification of food for value
Fortification of food for valueFortification of food for value
Fortification of food for value
 
High nutritional food
High nutritional foodHigh nutritional food
High nutritional food
 
Nutrition powerpoint - CHAPTER 2
Nutrition  powerpoint - CHAPTER 2Nutrition  powerpoint - CHAPTER 2
Nutrition powerpoint - CHAPTER 2
 
Nutrition powerpoint
Nutrition  powerpointNutrition  powerpoint
Nutrition powerpoint
 
Rda macro and micronutrients
Rda macro and micronutrientsRda macro and micronutrients
Rda macro and micronutrients
 
Dog Nutrition.pptx rahul dangi
Dog  Nutrition.pptx rahul dangiDog  Nutrition.pptx rahul dangi
Dog Nutrition.pptx rahul dangi
 
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawgSaving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
Saving smal ruminants jan 2018 ssawg
 
Pharmacotherapeutics of Vitamin D
Pharmacotherapeutics of Vitamin DPharmacotherapeutics of Vitamin D
Pharmacotherapeutics of Vitamin D
 
Nutritional & hormonal imbalance in children with Cerebral Palsy
Nutritional & hormonal imbalance in children with Cerebral Palsy Nutritional & hormonal imbalance in children with Cerebral Palsy
Nutritional & hormonal imbalance in children with Cerebral Palsy
 
Complications associated with recurrent diarrhea
Complications associated with recurrent diarrheaComplications associated with recurrent diarrhea
Complications associated with recurrent diarrhea
 
Dr. Henry Johnson and Dr. Brad Leuwerke - Sow Mortalities Discussion Dr. Henr...
Dr. Henry Johnson and Dr. Brad Leuwerke - Sow Mortalities Discussion	Dr. Henr...Dr. Henry Johnson and Dr. Brad Leuwerke - Sow Mortalities Discussion	Dr. Henr...
Dr. Henry Johnson and Dr. Brad Leuwerke - Sow Mortalities Discussion Dr. Henr...
 
Going vegetarian by roel tolentino slide share
Going vegetarian by roel tolentino  slide shareGoing vegetarian by roel tolentino  slide share
Going vegetarian by roel tolentino slide share
 

More from University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program

More from University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program (20)

Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
 
Health Care of Pregnant ewes
Health Care of Pregnant ewesHealth Care of Pregnant ewes
Health Care of Pregnant ewes
 
Hoof Care of Sheep/Goats
Hoof Care of Sheep/GoatsHoof Care of Sheep/Goats
Hoof Care of Sheep/Goats
 
Proper deworming methods
Proper deworming methodsProper deworming methods
Proper deworming methods
 
Show me the signs
Show me the signsShow me the signs
Show me the signs
 
Copper: its complicated
Copper: its complicatedCopper: its complicated
Copper: its complicated
 
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheep
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheepPregnancy Toxemia in sheep
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheep
 
Goat Hoof Health
Goat Hoof HealthGoat Hoof Health
Goat Hoof Health
 
MinimizingDrugUse
MinimizingDrugUseMinimizingDrugUse
MinimizingDrugUse
 
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminantsBeyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
 
Goats 101
Goats 101Goats 101
Goats 101
 
Marketing them
Marketing themMarketing them
Marketing them
 
Keeping them healthy
Keeping them healthyKeeping them healthy
Keeping them healthy
 
Feeding them
Feeding themFeeding them
Feeding them
 
Raising them
Raising themRaising them
Raising them
 
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small R...
 
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye ScoresDewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
 
FAMACHA eye anemia system
FAMACHA eye anemia systemFAMACHA eye anemia system
FAMACHA eye anemia system
 
Five Point Check
Five Point CheckFive Point Check
Five Point Check
 
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
 

Recently uploaded

Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhleson0603
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppCeline George
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismDabee Kamal
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽中 央社
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchCaitlinCummins3
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17Celine George
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxVishal Singh
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptxPoojaSen20
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxLimon Prince
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFVivekanand Anglo Vedic Academy
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi RajagopalEADTU
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxMarlene Maheu
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...Gary Wood
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMELOISARIVERA8
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesAmanpreetKaur157993
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 

When deworming is not enough

  • 1. WHEN DEWORMING IS NOT ENOUGH DR. NIKI WHITLEY FORT VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY WHITLEYN@FVSU.EDU 478-391-4840
  • 2. Worms •Internal parasites •Others- depending on weather/season •Haemonchus contortus (“Barberpole worm”) • Resistant to drugs from all three classes (“-dazole”, “-ectin”, other) Image: Sue Howell, wormx.info Image: wormx.info
  • 3. Management •Integrated methods- • Pasture Management • Animal Management • Dewormer Management • Others www.wormx.info (photo left) Image: Niki Whitley www.wormx.info/webinar-videos
  • 4. Management •Integrated methods- • Pasture Management • Rotate (1-3 d), rest (60-90 d), height (over 6”); use of annuals, burn dormant pastures, new pastures, use of browse, alternative forages (sericea); multi- species grazing (horses/cattle); stocking rates (start 3-5 adults/acre; best to use weight/animal units); Bioworma ® for reduced pasture worm larvae? Turnips; www.wormx.info - Linda Coffey Browse; www.wormx.info - Heather Glennon
  • 5. Management •Integrated methods- • Animal Management • Good nutrition (energy and protein); higher protein (30% over); may need to consider supplementation; good loose minerals (Cu, Co); body condition score (2-4); focus-weaning to 1 yr and late pregnant/lactating; genetic selection www.wormx.info - Lisa Williamson; body condition scoring www.wormx.info - Joan Burke
  • 6. Management •Integrated methods- • Dewormer Management • Combinations (only those that need it); TST (FAM/5 Pt Ck); maintain refugia, give correctly (right dose by weight; orally over tongue back of mouth), higher doses for goats; follow storage directions and monitor exp. dates; COWP as a dewormer? www.wormx.info - Katherine Petersson www.wormx.info - Joan Burke Work with vet for extra-label drug use
  • 7. Deworming Enough? •If FAMACHA 4 – 5/symptomatic (diarrhea, rough hair coat, off feed, weight loss) • Deworm correctly using effective (chemical/drug) deworming protocol • Not eating – supplement first/liver support? Less ‘harsh’ dewormers first? No oral use of pour ons… Images: Susan Schoenian Consult with a veterinarian
  • 8. Deworming Enough? •If FAMACHA 4 – 5/symptomatic • Fecal egg counts – monitor for reduction, check for coccidia • Prevent reinfection (move inside? pen?) • Keep stress as low as possible • Another sheep/goat with them • Monitor FAMACHA© score; usually takes 2-3 weeks to see a full score change Images: Susan Schoenian Consult with a veterinarian
  • 9. Nutritional Support •Provide high quality nutrition/ feed • Higher protein (legumes, feed) • Change slowly • Cut & carry • “Favorites” • Keep it close • Keep in sternal position • Prop against fence/wall/straw bales • Right side? Help move? Image: Susan Schoenian
  • 10. Nutritional Support • Not eating – Drench • Propylene glycol (60 cc twice a day?); not long term • Nutrient drenches/homemade drenches/dark beer (?), karo syrup/molasses for quick energy; protein source (powered?) • Yogurt (live cultures), probiotics? • Bicarbonate (?) *Images: Susan Schoenian *No endorsement of specific trade names is intended
  • 11. Hydration • Keep hydrated* • Water (with electrolytes) nearby • Drench or Tube (electrolytes) • Need ½ to 1 gallon/day water min. • 1 qt = 950 cc; 4 qt/gallon • Stop diarrhea • **Kaolin pectin, Pepto-bismol©, similar • Sericea lespedeza? Image: Susan Schoenian *If dehydrated/critical: injectable lactated ringers or isotonic (0.9%) sterile saline i.v. or s.c. Rx (see veterinarian); **No trade name endorsements intended
  • 12. Supplemental Treatments •Some research: Iron • With injected iron (25 mg/kg or 11.4 mg/lb body weight) on day 0 and 7 of treatment), Rocha et al. (2013) reported increased erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation) at day 7, 14 and 21 after treatment in lambs • Casanova et al. (2018) – injected iron dextran (20 mg/kg or 9 mg/lb bodyweight) during artificial infection with barberpole worm (every 7 days starting at day 10); lambs had improved red blood cell counts, hematocrit (%) and hemoglobin concentration Goat producers have used 100 mg/ml iron dextran at 4cc/100 lb (1 cc= 1 ml) daily for 3 days then weekly until stronger with FAM 5 animals; can overdose them, so consult a veterinarian
  • 13. Supplemental Treatments •Some research: Vitamin B12 • In NZ, Chicory reduced FEC in deer; resulted in higher Cu and B12 (Barry et al. 2002) • Injectable B12 is Rx only; can use fortified Vitamin B complex (much lower levels; 10x less B12) has other B vitamins like B2, niacin, B6 and thiamine (B1, 5x less than Rx thiamine) • B9 (folate) and B12 important for blood cell formation • Can get oral supplements (B12 water soluble) for B vitamins and iron *Image: Susan Schoenian, modified *No endorsement of specific trade names is intended
  • 14. Minerals? •Cobalt (mineral needed for B12/building blood)/deficiency •Selenium (in a deficient area) •Copper (COWP as treatment provides) and zinc deficiencies can cause anemia Can overdose animals when ‘treating’ with minerals – take care, work with knowledgeable vet
  • 15. Supplemental Treatments? •Oral multi-vitamin/mineral supplements such as *Red Cell©, have been used by some producers (different doses): • Using less “symptomatically” parasitized animals, with one dose (30cc) at deworming, no differences noted in control study at FVSU *No endorsement of specific trade names is intended; check labels and work with vet *Image: Susan Schoenian
  • 16. Supplemental Treatments? •Vitamin K (for blood clotting), Rx (work with vet) •Other countries, especially India, vets recommend “liver tonics” before or with deworming (choline, milk thistle extract, others, including vitamins/minerals)
  • 17. Veterinary Treatments •Along with Rx supplemental treatments (and i.v. for dehydration) mentioned •Blood transfusion (normal PCV: 27-45% sheep; 22-38% goat); can have reactions but rare; usually only do once Image: www.researchgate.net/figure/Blood- transfusion-in-a-goat-Fig-10-Blood-transfusion- in-a-ram_fig4_322247304
  • 18. Deworming is not enough… • Animal management, deworming management and nutritional management are important tools for managing parasites in small ruminants • Provide adequate nutrition and mineral supplementation (i.e. loose minerals made for your animal; vitamin/mineral packs mixed into feedstuffs) based on your farm/area needs to help fight worms/avoid other nutritional issues Image: Susan Schoenian