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Vaccinations

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Vaccinations

  1. 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn)Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com<br />2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series<br />Small Ruminant Program<br />
  2. 2. 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series<br />Jan 13 I. Late Gestation<br />Jan 20 II. Vaccinations<br />Feb 3 III. Parturition<br />Feb 10 IV. Neonatal Care<br />Feb 17 V. Lactation<br />Feb 24 VI. Weaning<br />
  3. 3. Vaccinations<br />
  4. 4. A biological substance given to stimulate the body’s production of antibodies and provide immunity against a disease.<br />Usually prepared from the agent that causes the disease or a synthetic substitute.<br />What is a vaccine?<br />
  5. 5. Antigen<br />Proteins that white blood cells recognize and produce antibodies against.<br />Stimulates the immune system to develop antibodies to the antigens.<br />Characteristics of antigens are stored in memory cells which rapidly produce antibodies if that type of antigen is recognized.<br />Vaccine = antigen(s) + adjuvant<br />Adjuvant<br />
  6. 6. Blood flow (with white blood cells) to injection site<br />How do vaccines work?<br />ANTIBODY PRODUCTION<br />Tissue reaction at injection site<br />
  7. 7. From Understanding Vaccination Programs (timing is everything) by Joe Rook, DVM http://old.cvm.msu.edu/extension/Rook/ROOKpdf/Vacsbmlt.PDF<br />
  8. 8. PROPHYLACTIC<br />To prevent disease Examples: clostridial diseases, (certain) abortions, rabies, bacteria pneumonia<br />To treat or control diseaseExamples: antitoxins, soremouth, caseous lymphadenitis, footrot<br />Two reasons to use vaccines<br />THERAPEUTIC<br />
  9. 9. Prepared from dead microorganisms.Examples: clostridial diseases, abortion, footrot, caseous lymphadenitis, rabies<br />Uses live bacteria or viruses to stimulate immunity.Example: soremouth<br />Uses weakened bacteria or viruses to stimulate immunity Example: bacterial pneumonia<br />Produced from disease-causing organisms isolated from sick animals.Examples: caseous lymphadenitis, soremouth, mastitis<br />Vaccine types<br />3) MODIFIED LIVE<br />1) KILLED<br />2) LIVE<br />4) AUTOGENOUS<br />
  10. 10. 1) TOXOID<br />Delayed immunity<br />Long-term immunity<br />Multiple shots<br />2 shots during initial course, at least 10 days apart<br />Annual or semi-annual boosters<br />Prophylactic (prevent)<br />Examples: clostridial disease, CL, abortion, rabies, bacterial pneumonia, footrot<br />Immediate immunity<br />Short-term immunity<br />One shot<br />Therapeutic or prophylactic<br />Example: clostridial diseases<br />Two kinds of vaccines<br />2) ANTITOXIN<br />
  11. 11. What can you vaccinate sheep and goats for?<br />Clostridial diseases<br />Soremouth<br />Abortion<br />Caseous lymphadenitis<br />Footrot<br />Bacterial pneumonia<br />Rabies<br />Autogenous<br />Other<br />Future<br />
  12. 12. Clostridial diseasesClostridia are anaerobic bacteria that occur widely in nature<br />Enterotoxemias<br />Type A (bloody gut)<br />Type B (dysentery)<br />Type C (hemorrhagic enteritis, bloody scours)<br />Type D (pulpy kidney disease, “classic” overeating)<br />Type E (enteritis)<br />Cl. Tetani (tetanus)<br />Cl. Septicum(malignant edema)<br />Cl. Novyi(black disease)<br />Cl. Haemolyticum(red water)<br />Cl. chauvoei(blackleg<br />Cl. Botolinum(botulism)<br />
  13. 13. Overeating disease<br />Type C affects lambs and kids under one month of age<br />Type D (classic overeating) affects lambs and kids over one month of age<br />Affects sheep and goats at any age.<br />Higher risk at time of docking, castrating, and disbudding, especially if rubber rings are used.<br />Overeating disease and tetanus (CD-T) The only universally recommended vaccine for sheep and goats<br />Tetanus<br />Image source: National Animal Disease Information Service (NADIS) - UK<br />
  14. 14. Recommended CD-T vaccination protocol for ewes and does<br />Vaccinate ewes and does with CT-D toxoid 4 to 6 weeks prior to lambing and kidding.<br />Why?<br />Provide active immunity to ewes and does.<br />Elevate immunity in colostrum <br />Transfer immunity to offspring via colostrum.<br />But…<br />Females that have never been vaccinated will require two doses of vaccine (4 weeks apart) prior to parturition, e.g. 4 and 8 weeks prior to parturition.<br />Do not vaccinate within 14 days of parturition.<br />Immunity may not last as long in goats.<br />
  15. 15. Don’t forget to vaccinate bucks, rams, and wethers.<br />
  16. 16. Recommended vaccination protocol for lambs and kids<br />Vaccinate lambs and kids with the CD-T toxoid when they are approximately 6-8 and 10-12 weeks of age.<br />Why?<br />Passive immunity from colostrum begins to decline after 4 weeks and is completely gone by the time the lambs and kids are 12 to 16 weeks of age.<br />Earlier vaccinations (< 4 weeks) may not be as effective.<br />Immature immune systems of lambs and kids.<br />Interference of maternal antibodies.<br />
  17. 17. From Understanding Vaccination Programs (timing is everything) by Joe Rook, DVM http://old.cvm.msu.edu/extension/Rook/ROOKpdf/Vacsbmlt.PDF<br />
  18. 18. What if the dam wasn’t vaccinated(or the lamb or kid didn’t consume any (or enough) colostrum)?<br />A pre-lambing/kidding vaccination is the only way to provide protection from type C overeating.<br />Give tetanus anti-toxin at the time of docking, castrating, and/or disbudding.<br />Vaccinate lambs and kids from unvaccinated dams when they are approximately 4 and 8 weeks of age.<br />Antitoxins can be given in the event of a disease outbreak.<br />
  19. 19. What about the 7 or 8-way clostridial vaccines? (e.g. Covexin-8)<br />Use if your flock or herd is at high risk for clostridial diseases contained in the multi-strain vaccines.<br />Probably not necessary on most farms.<br />Same protocol as CD-T<br />5 ml injection<br />
  20. 20. What else can you vaccinate sheep and goats for?<br />Soremouth<br />Abortion<br />Chlamydia spp. (Enzootic)<br />Campylobacter spp. (Vibrio)<br />Caseous lymphadenitis (CL)<br />Footrot<br />Bacterial pneumonia<br />Rabies<br />Other<br />Future<br />
  21. 21. Soremouth (contagious ecthyma, orf)<br />Vaccinate only if the disease (virus) is already present on your farm or your animals are at high risk.<br />You show, exhibit, or consign<br />You buy and sell<br />You loan and borrow<br />Topical application.<br /> Administer to scarified, hairless, protected area.<br />Safe for pregnant females<br />Don’t vaccinate near flank<br />Some colostral immunity conferred <br />Vaccinate kid or lamb crop<br />Vaccinate at least 6 weeks before show<br />LIVE VACCINE!<br />Be careful. <br />Wear disposable gloves. <br />Is contagious to people.<br />
  22. 22. Footrot<br />Vaccinate only if there is a history of footrot on the farm.<br />Vaccines do not cover all strains of footrot.<br />Won’t completely eliminate footrot<br />Reduces the incidence and severity of footrot.<br />Vaccinate prior to exposure periods (wet periods)<br />Abscesses are common at injection sites.<br />
  23. 23. Vaccinate only if flock or herd has a confirmed history of CL.<br />Reduces incidence and severity of disease.<br />Can be given in combination with clostridial vaccines.<br /><ul><li>Not approved or recommended for use in goats due to side effects.
  24. 24. Must develop autogenous vaccine.</li></ul>Caseous lymphadenitis (CL)<br />
  25. 25. When to vaccinate<br />After abortion outbreak or diagnosis of causative agent.<br />If risk of abortion is high<br />Purchased ewes<br />Open flock<br />Maiden ewes<br />Given before breeding; repeat vaccination.<br />No vaccine (in U.S.) for toxoplasmosis; no approved vaccine for salmonella.<br />AbortionChlamydia spp. and Campylobacter spp.<br />
  26. 26. Bacterial pneumonia<br />Consider vaccination ifflock or herd experiences high losses due to pneumonia and the cause of pneumonia is bacterial (not environmental).<br />Pasteurella (pneumonia)<br />Nasalgen®Parainfluenza 3 (PI3)<br />Questionable efficacy<br />
  27. 27. If required or risk is high<br />Public access to animals<br />Fairs, shows, and festivals<br />Agro-tourism<br />Petting farm<br />Public grazing<br />Risk management<br />Livestock have contact with wildlife<br />People have a lot of contact with livestock<br />High value animals or pets<br />Rabies<br />
  28. 28. Other vaccines<br />Epididymitis <br />Not recommended<br />Not effective<br />Interferes with testing<br />Bluetongue<br />Not all serotypes<br />Not commonly given<br />Anthrax<br />Not commonly given<br />Foot-and-mouth disease<br />Not given in FMD-free countries<br />U.S. has vaccine bank<br />Johne’s disease<br />Not available in U.S.<br />Autogenous<br />Examples: CL, soremouth, mastitis<br />
  29. 29. Roundworms<br />Developed in UK<br />Trials currently underway in Australia<br />Largest grant every to be award for animal health in the EU<br />Meningeal worm<br />At one point, was being investigated (for camelids)<br />Future vaccines<br />
  30. 30. DO’S<br />Always follow directions on label.<br />Most vaccines are subcutaneous injections.<br />Use clean needles and syringes<br />Clean needle for each animal <br />Change every 15 to 20 animals when using an automatic vaccination tool.<br />Use ½ or ¾ inch 18 to 20 gauge needles.<br />Use a different needle for drawing vaccine out of bottle.<br />Vaccination do’s and don’t’s<br />
  31. 31. Store vaccines properly.<br />Heat and freezing can make vaccines ineffective.<br />Do not allow vaccines to reach room temperature. <br />Observe proper withdrawal times (21 days for CD-T).<br />Keep epinephrine on hand in case of adverse reactions to vaccines.<br />Discard unused vaccine.<br />Record vaccine use.<br />Vaccination do’s and don’t’s<br />DO’S<br />
  32. 32. DON’T’S<br />Don’t vaccinate wet or dirty animals.<br />Don’t vaccinate unfit, unhealthy animals.<br />Don’t vaccinate pregnant females within 14 days of parturition.<br />Don’t vaccinate very young animals.<br />Don’t give vaccinations in the leg or loin areas.<br />Never mix vaccines.<br />Vaccination Do’s and Don’t’s<br />Over ribs<br />Neck<br />Axilla<br />
  33. 33. Ten reasons for vaccine failureEven when vaccines are used properly, they are not 100 percent effective.<br />Gave wrong vaccine<br />Incorrect dose<br />Incorrect route of administration<br />Inappropriate timing<br />Vaccinating at the wrong age.<br />
  34. 34. Ten reasons for vaccine failureEven when vaccines are used properly, they are not 100 percent effective.<br />Failure to complete vaccination program before field challenge occurs.<br />Improper storage of vaccine<br />Using leftover vaccine.<br />Contamination of syringes and multi-dose guns.<br />Vaccinating unfit, unhealthy animals.<br />
  35. 35. WHY VACCINATE?<br />WHY NOT VACCINATE?<br />Manage disease risk<br />Prevent and control disease<br />Disease risk is high<br />“Insurance” against disease outbreak<br />Cost < Loss (long-term)<br />Increase value of livestock<br />Disease risk is low<br />Cost > Loss (long-term)<br /><ul><li>You’re not going to do it right.</li></ul>Vaccination cost = vaccine + labor + localized tissue damage.<br />
  36. 36. Thank you for your attention. Questions?<br />Susan Schoenianwww.sheepandgoat.com<br />sschoen@umd.edu<br />Small Ruminant Program<br />

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