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Sericea lespedeza

Presentation on sericea lespedeza by Tom Terrill.

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Sericea lespedeza

  1. 1. SERICEA LESPEDEZASERICEA LESPEDEZA Thomas H. TerrillThomas H. Terrill and Niki C. Whitleyand Niki C. Whitley Fort Valley State University, GeorgiaFort Valley State University, Georgia
  2. 2. CAN SERICEA LESPEDEZACAN SERICEA LESPEDEZA BE USED AS….BE USED AS….  As a soil builder?  As a cost effective source of hay?  As a feed resource for different classes and species of livestock?  As a nutraceutical?  As part of a sustainable parasite management program?  As a potential source of revenue?
  3. 3. Sericea Lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.- Cours) G. Don  Native to eastern Asia and AustraliaNative to eastern Asia and Australia
  4. 4. Preliminary map of wherePreliminary map of where Sericea Lespedeza may beSericea Lespedeza may be adapted based on soil typesadapted based on soil types Places where SericeaPlaces where Sericea Lespedeza is foundLespedeza is found NRCS Donn Rodekohr and J. Mosjidis OK AR KS TX OH OK KS MO IL IN PA
  5. 5. Places where sericea lespedeza is found world-wide http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20m?kind=Lespedeza+cuneata&guide=North_American_Invasives
  6. 6. History of Sericea Lespedeza in the USA  Introduced to the southeastern United States (NC) in 1896 but there was not much interest on the plant  In the 1920’s was considered to have use for forage and soil conservation  Widely seeded in the Southeast in 1930-1950 for soil conservation Pieters et al. 1950 Circular 863
  7. 7. Sericea Lespedeza CultivarsSericea Lespedeza Cultivars Name Year Available Institutions Two unnamed introduced strains <1939 USDA Arlington 1939 SCS Okinawa 1944 SCS Serala 1962 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. Gasyn 1963 GA Ag. Expt. Stn. Interstate 1969 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. Cericea 1972 NC Ag. Expt. Stn. Appalow 1978 SCS & KY Ag. Expt. Stn. Serala 76 1978 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. Interstate 76 1978 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. AU Lotan 1980 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. AU Donnelly 1987 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn. AU Grazer™ 1997 Alabama Ag. Expt. Stn.
  8. 8. Sericea Lespedeza in USA today  Older cultivars used for stabilizing soils from surface-mined coal sites, roadbanks, and other disturbed or eroding sites; improving wildlife habitats  ‘Common’ sericea lespedeza is growing on thousands of acres in the mid-western states  AU GrazerTM is the primary cultivar planted as grazing and hay crop
  9. 9. Agronomic Advantages of Sericea Lespedeza  Grows on a wide range of soil types, including acidic, infertile sites  Legume, needs no N fertilization  Deep rooting, reduces need for P fertilization  Drought tolerant once established  Insect damage, disease problems minimal  Tendency to shed lower leaves, leading to: Improved soil fertility, soil structure Reduced soil erosion
  10. 10. Sericea lespedeza - Forms  Fresh forageFresh forage  HayHay  Leaf mealLeaf meal  PelletsPellets  SilageSilage
  11. 11. Production of Sericea Lespedeza  3-4 tons of hay per acre in Georgia (Hoveland et al., 1990)  Up to 5.5 tons/acre reported for Alabama in the 70s-80s (ACES, ANR-1318)  Up to 2 tons per acre of leaf meal from SL in Alabama (2015, Sims Brothers)  Seed yield of 200-400 lb/acre (AR Extension, FSA3050)
  12. 12. Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza  Older cultivars had thick, woody stems that reduced nutritional value  High-CT cultivars developed with finer stems  High concentration of condensed tannins (CT) reduced intake, digestibility  Sun-drying of high-CT SL improved intake and digestibility  Low-CT cultivars developed with higher digestibility
  13. 13. Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza  Cattle graze common SL when it is young, graze the top 7- 8” of mature stands (younger leaves, pliable stems).  CT content is just as high in young plants as in mature stands  Recommended to start grazing when plants are 8” tall caused stand thinning with older types of SL  Grazing-tolerant cultivar (AU GrazerTM ) released by Auburn University in 1997
  14. 14. Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza  High-CT sericea adequate nutrition as pasture and hay crop for beef cows and calves, animal performance similar to bermudagrass  Not recommended to graze growing calves on high- CT SL  Cattle and sheep grazed on “AU Lotan” in South Africa  Hay, pelleted SL readily consumed by all classes of livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, horses, llamas, exotic hoofstock)
  15. 15. Nutritional Value of Sericea Lespedeza for Small Ruminants  Goats readily graze high-CT SL  Sheep graze SL after an adjustment period  Adequate nutrition for older animals (bucks, does, rams, ewes)  Good nutrition as short-term feed (no more than 8 weeks) for weaned lambs and kids  Reduced gains in growing kids and lambs compared to perennial grasses after 8-10 weeks
  16. 16. Calf Performance when Fed Free- Choice Sericea Lespedeza or Bermudagrass Hay Trial:49 days, 16 weaned steers/treatment, Beef Unit, Shorter, AL, 2004 11 lbs/head/day, soyhullslbs/head/day, soyhulls * No significant differences* No significant differences Group 1Group 1 SLSL Group 2Group 2 BGBG Daily Gain, lbsDaily Gain, lbs 1.49*1.49* 1.381.38 Hay IntakeHay Intake11 9.29.2 13.613.6 SupplementSupplement IntakeIntake11 66 66 Total IntakeTotal Intake11 15.215.2 19.619.6 Summary: Gained the same, but ate less
  17. 17. Cattle feeding trials in South Arica  Unfertilized AU Lotan SL hay compared with fertilized grass hay (*Eragrostis) for beef and dairy cows  Similar daily weight gain in 6-week trial with dry beef cows fed hay only diets  Milk volume, %butterfat, protein the same in 6-week study with SL and Eragrostis hay as the roughage source in balanced rations for dairy cows  SL hay 60% cheaper than Eragrostis hay *Teff and Lovegrass(es) are types of Eragrostis
  18. 18. Growth rate of growing goats 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weeks weight(lbs) Infected BG Infected SL Non-Infected BG Non-Infected SL Summary: Goats with or without parasites grew better when fed SL vs BG hay
  19. 19. Health Benefits for Livestock  Anti-parasitic  Lowers egg/ooycst counts for worms and coccidia  Anti-bloat  Reduces somatic cell count in goat milk  Over 1.5 mil, cannot sell
  20. 20. Ethno-medical Uses of Sericea Lespedeza in China  Ye men guan (pinyin)Ye men guan (pinyin)  Whole plant boiled extract forWhole plant boiled extract for  HeartHeart  HemorrhageHemorrhage  HerniaHernia  InfantileInfantile marasmusmarasmus (chronic undernourishment)  Skin ulcersSkin ulcers  Snake biteSnake bite  Tuberculosis ofTuberculosis of the testiclesthe testicles  AnemiaAnemia  AscariasisAscariasis  Dental cariesDental caries  Dog biteDog bite  DysenteryDysentery (severe diarrhea with passage of mucus and blood usually caused by infection)  EnteritisEnteritis (inflammation of intestines)  EnuresisEnuresis (incontinence(incontinence of urine)of urine) Duke and Ayensu 1985
  21. 21. Other benefits  In studies, SL has:  Lowered ruminal methane production  Reduced urinary losses of N as urea  Had anti-bacterial (E. coli) effects  Killed houseflies in animal feces (Puchala et al., 2005; Min et al., 2008; Naumann et al., 2013)
  22. 22. Sericea Lespedeza ContainsSericea Lespedeza Contains Condensed TanninsCondensed Tannins  Tannins are polyphenolic compounds  Accumulate in cell vacuoles of leaves and stems  CT have very high concentration of “prodelphinidin-type” tannins (PD type)  Very reactive with protein Polyphenols CT CT
  23. 23. Sericea lespedeza tannins  Concentration Leaves - 16.0 % Stems - 3.3 % Pellets – 13.2 %  Structure Leaves – 98 % PD, 42 mDP Stems – 94 % PD, 18 mDP Pellets – 97.4 % PD, 86 mDP
  24. 24. CONDENSED TANNINS IN FORAGES  Vary in concentration Birdsfoot trefoil (1-5 %) Big trefoil (5-10 %) Sericea lespedeza (6-13 %) Canary clover (15-20 %)  Vary in composition Birdsfoot trefoil CT (low PD:PC ratio, mDP) Sericea lespedeza CT (high PD:PC ratio, mDP)
  25. 25. CONDENSED TANNINS IN FORAGES CT concentration, composition varies with: Cultivar Plant part (Leaves vs stems) Plant maturity (leafy vs reproductive growth) Processing method • Sun-curing for hay • Grinding and pelleting • Ensiling
  26. 26. ANTI-PARASITIC EFFECTS OF CONDENSED TANNINS  Associated with their ability to form complexes with both plant and parasite proteins  Mechanism of action explained by two hypotheses: Indirect effects Direct effects
  27. 27. Grazing trials with SL  57% reduction in GIN egg counts in does grazing SL compared with tall fescue pasture  Lower numbers of adult worms in “tracer” kids grazing SL Haemonchus contortus – Barberpole Worm (94%) Teladorsagia circumcincta – Brown Stomach Worm (100%) Trichostrongylus colubriformis –Bankrupt Worm (45%) (Min et al., 2002; 2003)  95.4% and 71.4% reduction in GIN egg counts in kids grazing SL or SL + bermudagrass (BG) pasture compared with BG pasture only (Mechineni et al., 2014)
  28. 28. Anti-parasitic effects of grazed SL - Summary GRAZING SERICEA LESPEDEZA WORKS FOR GIN MANAGEMENT Different locations USA (North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Arkansas) South Africa (KwaZulu Natal) Different animal species, breeds, ages Pre-weaned, weanling lambs, weaned kids (3 to 12 months) Spanish, Boer-cross Different SL cultivars AU Grazer AU Lotan (S. Africa) Other cultivars not YET tested
  29. 29. Grazing of Sericea Lespedeza  Limited to late spring, summer, early autumn months, areas where SL is adapted  Ensiling SL, or sun-drying, processing into leaf meal, pellets – Gives farmers flexibility in use of SL on-farm – Facilitates storage, transport to areas where SL is not adapted – Generates heat, reduces extractable CT, increases CT bound to protein
  30. 30. Does sun-drying, grinding, pelleting or ensiling of sericea lespedeza affect it’s anti- parasitic properties?
  31. 31. Effect of Feeding Sericea Lespedeza Hay on Fecal Egg Count (FEC) of Goats Pre-trial Trial
  32. 32. % Larval survival in fecal cultures Pre trial Trial period Summary: SL hay decreased the number of larvae in feces compared to BG
  33. 33. Effects of Feeding SL Hay on Adult Worm Species in Goats Summary: SL hay decreased worm loads for Barberpole, Brown Stomach and Bankrupt/Black Scour worms, but was most effective on Barberpole worm
  34. 34. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 1 2 3 4 5 6 weeks EPG Ground Sericea Pelleted Sericea Ground Bermuda Effects of Feeding SL pellets on goat FEC Summary: Ground and pelleted sericea lespedeza reduced FEC
  35. 35. Effects of Feeding Ensiled SL on goat FEC
  36. 36. Hay trials with sericea lespedeza  Goats FVSU, USDA/ARS Booneville, AR  Sheep LSU, USDA/ARS  Cattle LSU  Llamas FVSU
  37. 37. Sericea lespedeza pellet experiments  Gastrointestinal nematodes Sheep (LSU, USDA/ARS) Goats (FVSU, NCA&T, USDA/ARS) Beef cattle (FVSU)  Coccidia (Eimeria spp.) Sheep (USDA/ARS, LSU) Goats (FVSU)
  38. 38. Bottom Line DRYING AND PROCESSING SERICEA LESPEDEZA DOES NOT REDUCE IT’S ANTI-PARASITIC EFFECTIVENESS
  39. 39. Other Questions about Anti-parasitic Properties of SL  How much is needed to achieve anti- parasitic effect?  What parasites is it most effective against?  Does it always work?
  40. 40. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 WEEKS EPG 0% SL 25% SL 50% SL 75% SL Effects of Feeding SL Hay on goat FEC: Dose Titration Study Summary: Whole plant SL hay at 50% and 75% of the diet decreased FEC
  41. 41. Effect of feeding whole plant and leaf only SL meal at 25% of the diet on goat FEC Summary: Both whole plant and leaf meal SL hay at 25% of the diet decreased FEC
  42. 42. Gastrointestinal Nematodes  Haemonchus contortus (Barberpole worm)  Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Bankrupt worm)  Teladorsagia circumcincta (Brown Stomach worm) 77% 50% 36% Species % reduction of adult females relative to control
  43. 43. Eimeria spp. (Coccidia) OPG SL dramatically decreased coccidia oocyst counts in goats
  44. 44. Eimeria spp. (Coccidia) OPG Both hay and SL decreased coccidia oocyst counts in goats
  45. 45. Anti-parasitic Effectiveness of Sericea Lespedeza  Consistently effective in all forms tested with goats in Georgia  Consistently effective with sheep in trials in Louisiana  Variable results with sheep and goats in Arkansas and North Carolina  Infection level with Haemonchus contortus?  Over-heating of pellets?  Possible regional differences in parasites?
  46. 46. Sericea Lespedeza Feeding Recommendations for Parasite Management  Can be fed fresh (grazed, cut-and-carry), dried (hay, leaf meal, pellets), or preserved (ensiled)  50% or more of the diet  Supplement energy or protein to meet nutritional needs of specific classes of animals
  47. 47. Sericea Lespedeza Feeding Recommendations for Parasite Management  For control of Coccidia or Barberpole worm, begin feeding 2 weeks prior to periods of stress, at least 6 weeks afterwards  Susceptible animals Kids and lambs at weaning Does and ewes during kidding/lambing, in early lactation (particularly with twins or triplets)
  48. 48. Sericea Lespedeza Feeding Recommendations for Parasite Management  Currently, recommend feeding SL for no longer than 8 weeks at a time with young kids and lambs because of possible binding of trace minerals in some locations/farms  Not a problem with older animals
  49. 49. Sericea Lespedeza Feeding Recommendations for Parasite Management  Remember that SL is not a silver bullet for parasite control, should be used in conjunction with FAMACHA, copper oxide wire particles for H. contortus when needed, other integrated parasite management techniques  More information on sustainable parasite control methods for small ruminants can be found at the website for the American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control – ACSRPC.org or wormx.info
  50. 50. Future Research with Sericea Lespedeza for Parasite Control  Grazing trials with sheep and goats Pure stands In combination with other forages SL as deworming paddock  Research with SL as dried or ensiled feed Ingredient in complete feeds Pasture supplement Component of TMR for feedlot, confinement feeding Beef and dairy cattle, dairy goats, llamas and alpacas, pigs, poultry, zoo animals
  51. 51. Future Research with Sericea Lespedeza for Parasite Control  Establishment for organic or grass-fed small ruminant production  On-farm trials Use of SL grazing, hay, pellet, or silage feeding for as part of a parasite management program in combination with FAMACHA, copper oxide wire particles, other novel control technologies
  52. 52. Remaining Questions about Sericea Lespedeza  Is it a potential source of additional revenue for commercial farmers? SL leaf meal pellets currently being marketed as an anthelmintic feed Ensiled in small batches? Feed resource for organic livestock production?
  53. 53. Commercial sources for sericea lespedeza seeds and pellets?  Seeds and leaf meal pellets of ‘AU Grazer’ can be purchased from a company in Alabama: Sims Brothers Seed Company Union Springs, AL Phone: 334-738-2619 Email: simsbrothers.com
  54. 54. Sericea lespedeza management: Establishment  Plant on upland soil (well-drained)  Fertilize and lime according to soil test  Broadcast SL on a well-prepared, firm seedbed in the spring after the danger of a killing frost has passed  Use herbicide to control weeds during establishment (Only Eptam approved for SL, Treflan works as well)  Plant SL at ¼” depth (no deeper)  Plant 20 lbs/acre if herbicide used  Plant 30 lbs/acre if no herbicide used
  55. 55. Sericea lespedeza management: Establishment  Slow seedling growth initially  Regular moisture essential after germination  Do not graze during establishment year  Can cut for hay in year 1 if sufficient growth  Stands usually thicken up in year 2 after establishment
  56. 56. Sericea lespedeza management: Cutting for hay  Cut for hay when 15 to 20” tall  Leaves dry very rapidly  Use hay conditioner if available to crush stems  Cut first day, bale the next after the dew dries off
  57. 57. Sericea lespedeza management: Grazing  Grazing should be initiated in the spring when plants are 6 – 8” tall  Rotationally graze to maintain adequate root carbohydrate reserves  Older cultivars less grazing tolerant  ‘AU Grazer’ is the only grazing-tolerant cultivar released so far
  58. 58. Potential for increased use of Sericea Lespedeza
  59. 59. Questions ???

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