Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Preventative health


Published on

This is the second presentation in a 5-part webinars series on sheep and goat health.

Preventative health

  2. 2. PREVENTATIVE HEALTH TOPICS 1. 2. 3. 4. Vaccinations Parasite control Hoof care Nutrition
  3. 3. TO VACCINATE OR NOT TO VACCINATE WHY? WHY NOT? • Manage disease risk. • Prevent and control disease. • Disease risk is high. • Insurance against disease outbreak. • Cost-effective. • Increase value of animals. • Disease risk is low. • Not cost-effective. • Not effective. • No approved vaccine. • It will introduce disease to your farm. • You’re not going to do it right!
  4. 4. THERE ARE MANY DISEASES FOR WHICH YOU CAN VACCINATE SHEEP AND GOATS. 1. Clostridial diseases 2. Abortion 3. Caseous lymphadenitis 4. Soremouth 5. Footrot 6. Epididymitis 7. Pneumonia 8. Rabies
  5. 5. IT IS GENERALLY RECOMMENDED THAT SHEEP AND GOATS BE VACCINATED FOR CLOSTRIDIAL DISEASES. Clostridium Species Disease Neurotoxic clostridia (toxic to nerves) Clostridium tetani Clostridium botulinum Tetanus, “lock jaw” Botulism Histotoxic clostridia (toxic to tissues) Clostridium chauvoei Clostridium septicum Clostridia novyi Type A Clostridia novyi Type B Clostridium haemolyticum (C. novyi type D) Clostridium sordellii Blackleg Malignant edema Braxi (sheep) Big head of rams Black disease (necrotic hepatitis) Bacillary haemoglobinuria or red water Gas gangrene Enterotoxemia (toxins absorbed from intestines) Clostridium perfringins Type B Clostridium perfringins Type C Clostridium perfringins Type D Lamb dysentery Struck Pulpy kidney, overeating disease, “classic” overeating
  6. 6. THERE ARE TWO PRIMARY CLOSTRIDIAL VACCINES USED BY SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCERS. 3-WAY (CDT) 8-WAY (COVEXIN-8) 1. Clostridium perfringins Type C 1. Clostridium perfringins Type C 2. Clostridium perfringins Type D 2. Clostridium perfringins Type D 3. Clostridium tetani 4. Clostridium chauvoei 5. Clostridium septicum 6. Clostridium novyi Type A 7. Clostridium novyi Type B 8. Clostridium haemolyticum 3. Clostridium tetani
  7. 7. VACCINATING FOR CLOSTRIDIAL DISEASES FIRST TIME MOMS (OR UNKNOWN STATUS) • Vaccinate 3 and 6 weeks prior to parturition LAMBS AND KIDS FROM VACCINATED DAMS • Vaccinate at 8 to 12 weeks of age • Repeat in 3-4 weeks MATURES EWES AND DOES • Vaccinate 1 month prior to parturition LAMBS AND KIDS FROM UNVACCINATED DAMS • Vaccinate at 4 weeks of age • Repeat in 3-4 weeks RAMS, BUCKS, AND WETHERS • Annual booster PURCHASED FEEDER LAMBS, KIDS • Vaccinate twice 3-4 weeks apart (type D overeating)
  8. 8. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR TETANUS • It is recommended that lambs and kids have immunity to tetanus when they are docked, castrated, and/or disbudded, especially if elastrator rings are applied. • It is recommended that these procedures be done at an early age, less than 2 weeks. • If the dam was vaccinated for tetanus via CDT or 8-way (at least two weeks prior to parturition), the offspring will be protected, if they consumed enough colostrum (10% of live weight). • If the dam was not vaccinated during late gestation, the tetanus antitoxin (300 IU) should be given at the time these procedures are performed. • The antitoxin provides immediate, short-term protection. • The antitoxin and toxoid can be given at the same time (not mixed!).
  9. 9. OPTIONAL VACCINATIONS 1. Soremouth 2. Abortion 3. Caseous lymphadenitis 4. Footrot 5. Epididymitis 6. Pneumonia 7. Rabies
  10. 10. VACCINATING FOR SOREMOUTH (ORF) • Vaccinate only if the disease (virus) is already present on your farm or if the risk of getting soremouth is high. • It is a live vaccine that is applied topically to a scarified, wool/hairless protected area on the animal (e.g. flank, inside ear, under tail) • Vaccinations protocols vary • Well in advance of lambing/kidding • New kid/lamb crop (> 1 week of age) • 6 weeks before a show • 21-day slaughter withdrawal
  11. 11. VACCINATING FOR CASEOUS LYMPHADENTITIS (CL) • Reduces incidence and severity of disease. • Vaccinate only if flock has a confirmed history of CL. • Should not vaccinate naïve flocks/herds: vaccinated flocks/herds will test positive for CL in blood. • High incidence of injection-site lesions or abscesses. • Can be given in combination with clostridial vaccines. • 60-day slaughter withdrawal. • Sheep vaccine should not be used on goats. • There is a new CL vaccine for non-lactating goats (Texas Lab); however it has a conditional license (state regulated – not available in all states).
  12. 12. VACCINATING FOR ABORTION The most common causes of abortion in ewes and does are chlamydia, campylobacter, and toxoplasmosis • Vaccinate if Chlamydia (Enzootic abortion) or Campylobacter (Vibrio) abortion are confirmed or suspected or health status of replacements is unknown or suspect. 1. Chlamydia (EAE) • Vaccinate 60 and 30 days prior to breeding • Booster annually 2. Campylobacter (Vibrio) • Vaccinate 30 days prior to breeding • Booster 60 to 90 days later • Re-vaccinate annually 3. No vaccine for toxoplasmosis (in US). • Not approved for goats. .
  13. 13. VACCINATING FOR RABIES • Vaccinate if required, risk is high, or animals have frequent contact with people. • • • • • • • Fairs, shows, and festivals. Petting farms, agrotourism. Vegetation control in public areas. Exposure to wildlife and strays Prevalence of rabies in area. High value animals or pets. Raw milk is consumed from animals. • Only a veterinarian can give. • A rabies (killed) vaccine is licensed for sheep, but not goats. • Be sure to vaccinate all dogs and cats on premises.
  14. 14. OTHER VACCINES FOR SHEEP AND GOATS Foot rot • Reduce incidence of foot rot • Injection-site abscesses common • Currently unavailable Epididymitis • Vaccination will interfere with testing • Not recommended Pasteurella (pneumonia) • Mannheimia Haemolytica-Pasteurella Multocida • 2 shots, 2-4 weeks apart • Approved for sheep and goats. • In Cornell study, vaccination with PI3 did not reduce incidence of pneumonia in lambs.
  16. 16. CONTROLLING STOMACH WORMS WITH MANAGEMENT • Pasture rest and rotation • Clean pastures (e.g. annuals) • Nutritional (protein) supplementation • Season of lambing/kidding • Browsing, taller forages • Managing grazing height • Multi-species grazing • High tannin forages • Genetic selection
  17. 17. CONTROLLING STOMACH WORMS WITH DRUGS • Use FAMACHA© system and Five Point Check© to determine which animals need deworming. • Dose according to an accurate weights. • Use oral drench products. • Deposit drug over tongue using syringe with long, metal nozzle. • Give goats higher doses of drugs (usually 1.5 to 2x sheep dose). • Test for anthelmintic resistance by doing before and after fecal egg counts or submit sample for DrenchRite® test.
  18. 18. FAMACHA© SYSTEM • Anemia (pale mucous membranes) is the primary symptom of barber pole worm infection. • The diagnostic test for barber pole worm infection is a blood test: packed cell volume (PCV). • FAMACHA© card is a color eye chart that estimates level of anemia (PCV). • Each score gives a treatment (deworming) recommendation. 1 No treatment  2 No treatment  3 Yes or no ? 4 Treatment ! 5 Treatment 
  19. 19. FIVE POINT CHECK© • An extension of the FAMACHA© system: a decisionmaking tool for all parasites that commonly affect small ruminants. • Especially useful when deciding to deworm animals with FAMACHA© scores of 3 (?) or when/where other worms are a problem. • Involves 5 checkpoints on the body. 1. Eye (FAMACHA© score) 2. Jaw (bottle jaw) 3. Back (body condition score) 4. Rear/tail (fecal soiling, diarrhea) 5. Nose (sheep) – nasal bots Coat condition (goats)
  20. 20. Check Point Observation Possible diagnoses Anemia 1-5 (FAMACHA© card) Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Coccidia (Eimeria) Liver fluke Hook worms Other worms and causes Body condition score 1-5 (BCS card) Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Nodular worm (Oesophagostomum) Other worms and causes 3 TAIL Fecal soiling (0-5) Dag score card Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Coccidia (Eimeria) Nodular worm (Oesophagostomum) Other worms and causes 4 JAW Submandibular edema Soft swelling under jaw “Bottle jaw” Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Coccidia (Eimeria) Liver fluke Hook worms Other worms and causes Nasal discharge Nasal bot fly Lungworms Pneumonia Other causes Coat condition (1-3) Barber pole worm (Haemonchus) Brown stomach worm (Teladorsagia) Bankrupt worm (Trichostrongylus) Nodular worm (Oesophagostomum) Other worms and causes 1 EYE 2 BACK 5 NOSE (sheep) COAT (goat)
  21. 21. COCCIDIOSIS PREVENTION TREATMENT • Management • Amprolium (Corid) • Coccidiostats • Sulfa drugs
  22. 22. PREVENTING COCCIDIOSIS WITH MANAGEMENT • Good sanitation • Dry, well-bedded barns (plenty of bedding) • Clean, well-rested pastures • Clean feed and water • Clean buckets, bottles, and teats. • Prevent overcrowding • Optimal nutritional intake • Adequate colostrum intake • Don’t mix different aged lambs/kids • Minimize stress
  23. 23. PREVENTING COCCIDIOSIS WITH COCCIDIOSTATS • In water (3-5 day Tx) 1. Amprolium (Corid®) [Rx] 2. Sulfa drugs [Rx] • In feed or mineral (min. 30 day Tx ) 1. Lasalocid (Bovatec®) 2. Monensin (Rumensin®) 3. Decoquinate (Deccox®)
  24. 24. CONSIDERATIONS WHEN USING COCCIDIOSTATS • Intake can be variable and inconsistent. • Coccidiostats have little effect on existing infections. • Must be given at least 30 days before period(s) of risk. • Can feed 30 days pre-partum to reduce contamination of lambing and kidding environment. • Do not use year-round; coccidia can become resistant.  Can be toxic, especially Rumensin® if not mixed properly in feed or mineral.  Rumensin® is toxic to equines. Bovatec® and Deccox® less so, but . . . • Prolonged or excessive use of amprolium (Corid®) can cause polio (rare). • Coccidiostats have additional potential benefits: improved growth and feed efficiency, prevention of free gas bloat, prevention of abortions caused by Toxoplasma gondii.
  25. 25. TREATING CLINICAL COCCIDIOSIS • Should individually treat , especially young and unweaned animals that are not consistently consuming feed or water. • Treat with oral preparations of amprolium (Corid®) or sulfa medications (e.g. Albon®, Di-methox®, or Sulmet®). • Sulfa medications are preferred, because they are more broad spectrum and there is less resistance. • Though anti-coccidial drugs can be purchased OTC, treatments are not FDA-approved for sheep or goats; thus, a veterinary prescription (Rx) is required. • Treat for 5 days. • Dewormers have no effect on coccidia!
  26. 26. SERICEA LESPEDEZA (HIGH TANNIN FORAGE) A “NATURAL” COCCIDIOSTAT AND “DEWORMER” • Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) may be effective in reducing parasite loads in sheep and goats. • Sericea lespedeza (leaf meal) may also be effective at preventing and controlling coccidiosis. • Simms Brothers is the exclusive source of certified AU Grazer® sericea lespedeza seed and pellets.  According to research, sericea lespedeza may decrease growth rates and alter mineral status of animals.
  27. 27. COPPER FOR WORM CONTROL • Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have demonstrated efficacy against the barber pole worm. • Researchers believe copper has a direct effect on internal parasites; copper also helps to boost the immune system.  Sheep are very susceptible to copper toxicity. Goats are more tolerent of excess copper and have higher dietary requirements. • The copper in COWP is poorly absorbed; thereby, reducing the risk of copper toxicity. • Copper nutrition is very complicated. There are several antagonists: molybdenum, sulfur, and others.
  28. 28. COPPER FOR WORM CONTROL • Copper boluses (Copasure®) are used to treat copper deficiency in cattle. • Copasure® boluses (12.5 and 25 g boluses) can be repackaged into smaller doses for sheep and goats. • As little as 0.5 g has been shown to be effective. Up to 4 g has been given to an individual animal. • For parasite control, dosage is by age not weight. Example • 0.5 g for a kid • 1.0 g for a mature goat • Administer with a balling/pilling gun.
  29. 29. OTHER “NATURAL” COCCIDIOSTATS AND DEWORMERS • Not really, not yet. More research needs done. • So far, study after study has shown “natural dewormers” to be ineffective at reducing parasite loads in sheep and goats: diatomaceous earth (DE), herbal dewormers, garlic, paprika, moringa juice, Tasco®, pumpkin seed, etc. • Maybe natural dewormers “work” by disrupting the free-living stage of the parasite or by improving immune function in the animal; thereby, reducing the number of animals that require deworming. • If you use a “natural dewormer” or coccidiostat, be sure to regularly monitor animals for clinical signs of parasitism and the need for deworming with a synthetic anthelmintic.
  30. 30. HOOF CARE • Hoof care is an important aspect of sheep and goat production. • Hoof health can affect an animal’s performance, disease resistance, and welfare. • Hooves should be regularly checked for signs of disease and excess growth. • Animals with excessive or abnormal hoof growth and/or chronic hoof disease should be culled.
  31. 31. HOOF TRIMMING • The frequency (need) for hoof trimming varies by genetics and environment and ranges from every few months to more than a year. • • • • • Goats > Sheep Wet climate > dry climate Light hoof color > dark hoof color Housed animals > pastured animals High nutrition > low nutrition • Proper hoof trimming helps to prevent infection and promote proper hoof growth, especially in younger animals. • Overzealous hoof trimming can provide entry points for bacteria.
  32. 32. WHEN TO TRIM HOOVES • To minimize handling and stress, it is best to trim feet in conjunction with other management practices, e.g. shearing. • You shouldn’t handle females too close to close to parturition. • You shouldn’t trim hooves the day of a show or exhibition. • It is easier to trim hooves when they are soft.
  33. 33. PROPER EQUIPMENT FOR HOOF TRIMMING • Hoof shears • Smooth vs. serrated • Rotating handle • Hoof knife straight vs. curved • Brush • Tight-fitting gloves for safety and comfort
  34. 34. PROPER RESTRAINT FOR HOOF TRIMMING MANUAL ASSISTED • Tip sheep on its rump • Tilt or squeeze table • Deck chair • Half or full tilt • Tied to gate • Manual vs. automatic • On milking or trimming stand • Elevated work platform with head gate
  35. 35. HOW TO TRIM HOOVES • Inspect hoof. • Remove mud, manure, and debris from hoof. • Trim outer and inner areas of hoof until it is level with the fleshy center portion of the toe. • Cut away excess areas of hoof wall • Use hoof knife to remove pockets and growth that the shears cannot. • Spray trimmed hooves with 20% zinc sulfate solution. • Disinfect tools between animals. Hoof trimming by Richard Brzozowski
  36. 36. OTHER PREVENTATIVE PRACTICES FOR HOOF HEALTH • Foot bathing • Foot soak pad • Spread hydrated lime around heavy traffic areas. • Avoid putting/having animals in wet, heavily contaminated areas. • Do not feed a diet that is deficient in zinc. • Access to hard surfaces to help hooves naturally wear down. • Cull problem animals.
  37. 37. GOOD NUTRITION HELPS TO PREVENT MANY HEALTH PROBLEMS • Adequate intake of colostrum • Optimal nutrition. • Balanced rations. • Good mineral nutrition. • Good quality forages. • Supplementation during periods of inadequate or poor quality forage. • Body condition scoring to determine adequateness of feeding program. • Fresh, clean water at all times.