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Periparturient Egg Rise
Periparturient Egg Rise
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Periparturient egg rise

  1. 1. PERIPARTURIENT EGG RISE (PPER) SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu wormx.info | sheepandgoat.com
  2. 2.  Temporary loss of acquired immunity (to parasites) around the time of lambing/kidding.  Associated with an increase in fecal egg (and oocyst) count and adult worm burden.  Caused by hormonal suppression of immunity and nutrition stress around parturition.  Occurs late gestation through early lactation.  Affected by different factors, but usually peaks 30 days after lambing/kidding. What is it?
  3. 3. Ewes/does  Milk yield and persistence of lactation can be decreased by 10 to 15 percent in ewes/does infected with parasites.  Clinical mastitis is more prevalent in parasitized ewes. Offspring  Ewes/does deposit more worm eggs onto the pasture, resulting in more contaminated pastures which will be grazed by offspring.  Growing lambs/kids ingest more infective worm larvae, resulting in reduced growth rates and increased mortality. Why is it important?
  4. 4.  High production  Multiple births  Age of ewe/doe  Poor nutrition  Low body condition  Poor management  Overstocking/grazing  Stress  Season (weather, climate) Contributing factors
  5. 5. Strategies for coping with the PPER  Deworming  Nutrition  Season  Zero grazing  Condensed tannins  BioWorma®  Genetics
  6. 6.  Traditional (old) recommendation* Deworm all ewes/does around the time of lambing/kidding or before turnout to spring pasture.  New recommendation Selectively deworm ewes/does around the time of lambing/kidding or before turnout to spring pasture. DEWORMING *Selects for worms resistant to dewormers..
  7. 7. Targeted selective treatment (TST)*  Deworm ewes/does with FAMACHA© scores of ≥4.  Deworm ewes/does with body condition scores ≤2.  Deworm ewes/does ≥3 offspring.  Deworm first time mothers (yearlings), especially those with ≥2 offspring.  Deworm high producing dairy females. *TST = deworm those that require treatment or would benefit most from treatment.
  8. 8.  Ewes/does in poor body condition (≤2) are more susceptible to parasites around the time of lambing/kidding.  Aim for a body condition score of 3 to 3.5 (out of 5) at the time of lambing/kidding. NUTRITION BODY CONDITION
  9. 9.  Nutrient requirements increase in late gestation and lactation, especially for females carrying and raising multiple births (and especially triplets).  Feeding a higher plane of nutrition beginning approximately 1 month before lambing/kidding can reduce the magnitude and duration of the periparturient egg rise.  Protein supplementation above NRC requirements has been shown to reduce fecal egg counts in periparturient ewes. By- pass protein is especially beneficial. NUTRITION YOU NEED TO FEED MORE
  10. 10.  The “Spring Rise” While the periparturient egg rise occurs in all seasons, the magnitude is greater when lambing/kidding coincides with hypobiotic (arrested/inhibited) larvae resuming their life cycle -- called the spring rise.  Conception rates and prolificacy are less with fall lambing/kidding.  Adequate facilities are required for winter and late fall lambing/kidding (an added cost). SEASON Lamb/kid at a time of the year when parasites are not prevalent on pasture, usually (early) winter or fall.
  11. 11.  Pasture is not contaminated, as worm eggs are deposited in barn or lot, where transmission is usually negligible.  Requires good facilities (barn).  Dry lot is less expensive option.  Another option is to put lambs/kids into confinement or dry lot after weaning, especially early (<90 d) weaned ones.  Doesn’t reduce coccidia. ZERO GRAZING Lamb/kid indoors or in dry lot
  12. 12.  Sericea lespedeza (SL) is a perennial warm season legume that grows under sub-optimal conditions.  SL has been shown to have anti-parasitic bioactivity against the barber pole worm and coccidia.  Animals consuming SL have reduced egg/oocyst counts and signs of parasitism.  Bioactivity has been demonstrated in fresh, dry (hay, meal, or pellets), or ensiled forage. Feed condensed tannins Feeding condensed tannin feeds has been shown to prevent a periparturient egg rise in ewes/does.
  13. 13.  BioWorma® contains a fungus that kills roundworm larvae in the manure, thus preventing the (re-) infection of pastures with infective worm larvae (L3).  It is a free-thru product that should be fed daily during periods of peak worm transmission, e.g. periparturient period. Feed BioWorma® Feed BioWorma® to periparturient ewes/does to reduce pasture contamination. Based on Premier 1 Supplies prices, 4/16/2020 *Feed for 10 weeks of periparturient period Product $/15-lb. $/oz oz/day 100-lb 160-lb. ewe 110-lb. doe 1 day PPP* 1 day PPP* Livamol® $ 89.50 $ 0.37 1.6 $ 0.95 $ 66.83 $ 0.66 $ 45.94 BioWorma® $ 495.00 $ 2.06 0.1 $ 0.33 $ 23.10 $ 0.23 $ 15.88
  14. 14.  Raise breeds that are more resistant to internal parasites.  Cross with breeds that are more resistant to internal parasites.  Select replacements that are more resistant to worms*.  Use sires with proven resistance to internal parasites.  Cull ewes/does that are less resistant to worms.* GENETICS *But don’t penalize higher-producing females or lambs/kids from larger litters.
  15. 15. 1. On-farm selection* 2. Central Performance (Ram/Buck) Tests University of Maryland West Virginia University (bucks) Langston University (bucks) Eastern Oklahoma (bucks) Virginia Tech (rams) 3. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) via the National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP; nsip.org) and Australia’s Lamb/KidPlan are the most accurate method of selection. Tools of selection
  16. 16.  Fecal egg count (FEC) is the most accurate way to select for parasite resistance.  Though variable, parasite resistance (FEC) in growing animals is a moderately heritable trait.  Selecting lambs/kids (weanlings) for parasite resistance is challenging because they are very susceptible to parasites, but infection levels need to be high enough (>500 EPG) to identify genetic differences. On-farm selection for parasite resistance
  17. 17.  Collection of fecal egg count data on less susceptible adults is a possible alternative method of selection.  Periparturient fecal egg count is repeatable (across years) and low to moderately heritable (in sheep).  Culling females with high egg counts will reduce contamination of pastures and subsequent infection of young stock. On-farm selection for parasite resistance
  18. 18. Everyone needs to do something to manage the PPER.  Deworming  Nutrition  Season  Zero grazing  Condensed tannins  BioWorma®  Genetics
  19. 19. SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu wormx.info | sheepandgoat.com Thank you. Questions? Comments? The next worm webinar will be April 28 noon FECAL EGG COUNT PRIMER Dr. Dahlia O’Brien, Virginia State University

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