SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
PERIPARTURIENT EGG RISE (PPER)
SUSAN SCHOENIAN
Sheep & Goat Specialist
University of Maryland Extension
sschoen@umd.edu
wormx.info | sheepandgoat.com
 Temporary loss of acquired immunity
(to parasites) around the time of
lambing/kidding.
 Associated with an increase in fecal egg (and
oocyst) count and adult worm burden.
 Caused by hormonal suppression of
immunity and nutrition stress around
parturition.
 Occurs late gestation through early lactation.
 Affected by different factors, but usually
peaks 30 days after lambing/kidding.
What is it?
Ewes/does
 Milk yield and persistence of lactation can
be decreased by 10 to 15 percent in
ewes/does infected with parasites.
 Clinical mastitis is more prevalent in
parasitized ewes.
Offspring
 Ewes/does deposit more worm eggs onto
the pasture, resulting in more contaminated
pastures which will be grazed by offspring.
 Growing lambs/kids ingest more infective
worm larvae, resulting in reduced growth
rates and increased mortality.
Why is it
important?
 High production
 Multiple births
 Age of ewe/doe
 Poor nutrition
 Low body condition
 Poor management
 Overstocking/grazing
 Stress
 Season (weather, climate)
Contributing factors
Strategies for coping
with the PPER
 Deworming
 Nutrition
 Season
 Zero grazing
 Condensed tannins
 BioWorma®
 Genetics
 Traditional (old) recommendation*
Deworm all ewes/does around the
time of lambing/kidding or before
turnout to spring pasture.
 New recommendation
Selectively deworm ewes/does
around the time of lambing/kidding or
before turnout to spring pasture.
DEWORMING
*Selects for worms resistant to dewormers..
Targeted selective
treatment (TST)*
 Deworm ewes/does with
FAMACHA© scores of ≥4.
 Deworm ewes/does with body
condition scores ≤2.
 Deworm ewes/does ≥3 offspring.
 Deworm first time mothers
(yearlings), especially those with
≥2 offspring.
 Deworm high producing dairy
females.
*TST = deworm those that require treatment or would benefit most from treatment.
 Ewes/does in poor body condition
(≤2) are more susceptible to
parasites around the time of
lambing/kidding.
 Aim for a body condition score of 3
to 3.5 (out of 5) at the time of
lambing/kidding.
NUTRITION
BODY CONDITION
 Nutrient requirements increase in late
gestation and lactation, especially for
females carrying and raising multiple births
(and especially triplets).
 Feeding a higher plane of nutrition
beginning approximately 1 month before
lambing/kidding can reduce the magnitude
and duration of the periparturient egg rise.
 Protein supplementation above NRC
requirements has been shown to reduce
fecal egg counts in periparturient ewes. By-
pass protein is especially beneficial.
NUTRITION
YOU NEED TO FEED
MORE
 The “Spring Rise”
While the periparturient egg rise occurs in all
seasons, the magnitude is greater when
lambing/kidding coincides with hypobiotic
(arrested/inhibited) larvae resuming their life cycle --
called the spring rise.
 Conception rates and prolificacy are less with fall
lambing/kidding.
 Adequate facilities are required for winter and late fall
lambing/kidding (an added cost).
SEASON
Lamb/kid at a time of the year when
parasites are not prevalent on
pasture, usually (early) winter or fall.
 Pasture is not contaminated, as
worm eggs are deposited in barn
or lot, where transmission is
usually negligible.
 Requires good facilities (barn).
 Dry lot is less expensive option.
 Another option is to put lambs/kids
into confinement or dry lot after
weaning, especially early (<90 d)
weaned ones.
 Doesn’t reduce coccidia.
ZERO GRAZING
Lamb/kid indoors or in dry lot
 Sericea lespedeza (SL) is a perennial warm
season legume that grows under sub-optimal
conditions.
 SL has been shown to have anti-parasitic
bioactivity against the barber pole worm and
coccidia.
 Animals consuming SL have reduced egg/oocyst
counts and signs of parasitism.
 Bioactivity has been demonstrated in fresh, dry
(hay, meal, or pellets), or ensiled forage.
Feed condensed
tannins
Feeding condensed tannin feeds
has been shown to prevent a
periparturient egg rise in ewes/does.
 BioWorma® contains a fungus that kills
roundworm larvae in the manure, thus
preventing the (re-) infection of pastures
with infective worm larvae (L3).
 It is a free-thru product that should be
fed daily during periods of peak worm
transmission, e.g. periparturient period.
Feed BioWorma®
Feed BioWorma® to periparturient ewes/does to reduce pasture contamination.
Based on Premier 1 Supplies prices, 4/16/2020
*Feed for 10 weeks of periparturient period
Product $/15-lb. $/oz
oz/day
100-lb
160-lb. ewe 110-lb. doe
1 day PPP* 1 day PPP*
Livamol® $ 89.50 $ 0.37 1.6 $ 0.95 $ 66.83 $ 0.66 $ 45.94
BioWorma® $ 495.00 $ 2.06 0.1 $ 0.33 $ 23.10 $ 0.23 $ 15.88
 Raise breeds that are more
resistant to internal parasites.
 Cross with breeds that are more
resistant to internal parasites.
 Select replacements that are more
resistant to worms*.
 Use sires with proven resistance to
internal parasites.
 Cull ewes/does that are less
resistant to worms.*
GENETICS
*But don’t penalize higher-producing females or lambs/kids from larger litters.
1. On-farm selection*
2. Central Performance (Ram/Buck)
Tests
University of Maryland
West Virginia University (bucks)
Langston University (bucks)
Eastern Oklahoma (bucks)
Virginia Tech (rams)
3. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) via
the National Sheep Improvement
Program (NSIP; nsip.org) and
Australia’s Lamb/KidPlan are the
most accurate method of selection.
Tools of selection
 Fecal egg count (FEC) is the
most accurate way to select for
parasite resistance.
 Though variable, parasite resistance
(FEC) in growing animals is a
moderately heritable trait.
 Selecting lambs/kids (weanlings) for
parasite resistance is challenging
because they are very susceptible to
parasites, but infection levels need
to be high enough (>500 EPG)
to identify genetic differences.
On-farm selection for
parasite resistance
 Collection of fecal egg count data on
less susceptible adults is a possible
alternative method of selection.
 Periparturient fecal egg count is
repeatable (across years) and low to
moderately heritable (in sheep).
 Culling females with high egg counts
will reduce contamination of pastures
and subsequent infection of young
stock.
On-farm selection for
parasite resistance
Everyone needs to
do something to
manage the PPER.
 Deworming
 Nutrition
 Season
 Zero grazing
 Condensed tannins
 BioWorma®
 Genetics
SUSAN SCHOENIAN
Sheep & Goat Specialist
University of Maryland Extension
sschoen@umd.edu
wormx.info | sheepandgoat.com
Thank you.
Questions?
Comments?
The next worm webinar will be April 28 noon
FECAL EGG COUNT PRIMER
Dr. Dahlia O’Brien, Virginia State University

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Vaccination and medication in poultry
Vaccination and medication in poultryVaccination and medication in poultry
Vaccination and medication in poultry
 
Selectionof dairy animals
Selectionof dairy animalsSelectionof dairy animals
Selectionof dairy animals
 
Infectious Bursal Disease
Infectious Bursal DiseaseInfectious Bursal Disease
Infectious Bursal Disease
 
Progeny testing
Progeny testing Progeny testing
Progeny testing
 
Feeding a dairy cow
Feeding a dairy cowFeeding a dairy cow
Feeding a dairy cow
 
IPM
IPMIPM
IPM
 
Response to Selection
Response to SelectionResponse to Selection
Response to Selection
 
Important poultry diseases
Important poultry diseasesImportant poultry diseases
Important poultry diseases
 
Nucleus breeding system
Nucleus breeding systemNucleus breeding system
Nucleus breeding system
 
Ration formulation
Ration formulationRation formulation
Ration formulation
 
Common vices of animals (livestock)
Common vices of animals (livestock) Common vices of animals (livestock)
Common vices of animals (livestock)
 
Dairy herd health
Dairy herd healthDairy herd health
Dairy herd health
 
Animal breeding and selection
Animal breeding and selectionAnimal breeding and selection
Animal breeding and selection
 
poultry chicken
poultry chickenpoultry chicken
poultry chicken
 
Abortion cases
Abortion casesAbortion cases
Abortion cases
 
Conformation 101
Conformation 101Conformation 101
Conformation 101
 
Feed and water resourcesfor Camel.pptx
Feed and water resourcesfor Camel.pptxFeed and water resourcesfor Camel.pptx
Feed and water resourcesfor Camel.pptx
 
Unit 20 General principles of computation of ration.pptx
Unit 20 General principles of computation of ration.pptxUnit 20 General principles of computation of ration.pptx
Unit 20 General principles of computation of ration.pptx
 
Reproductive traits in sheep and cyclic ovarian activity
Reproductive traits in sheep and cyclic ovarian activityReproductive traits in sheep and cyclic ovarian activity
Reproductive traits in sheep and cyclic ovarian activity
 
Basic hatchery requirement
Basic hatchery requirementBasic hatchery requirement
Basic hatchery requirement
 

Similar to Periparturient egg rise

Strategies for enhancement in food production I
Strategies for enhancement in food production IStrategies for enhancement in food production I
Strategies for enhancement in food production IShubhadeep Bhattacharjee
 

Similar to Periparturient egg rise (20)

Periparturient Egg Rise
Periparturient Egg RisePeriparturient Egg Rise
Periparturient Egg Rise
 
Health Care of Pregnant ewes
Health Care of Pregnant ewesHealth Care of Pregnant ewes
Health Care of Pregnant ewes
 
Weaning lambs and kids
Weaning lambs and kidsWeaning lambs and kids
Weaning lambs and kids
 
Management tools for flock and herd improvement
Management tools for flock and herd improvementManagement tools for flock and herd improvement
Management tools for flock and herd improvement
 
Ewe efficiency
Ewe efficiencyEwe efficiency
Ewe efficiency
 
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding PercentageTips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
Tips for Improving Lambing/Kidding Percentage
 
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
Getting Ready for Lambing & Kidding (2013)
 
Late Gestation
Late GestationLate Gestation
Late Gestation
 
Parasite control in sheep
Parasite control in sheepParasite control in sheep
Parasite control in sheep
 
Grazing Away Parasites
Grazing Away ParasitesGrazing Away Parasites
Grazing Away Parasites
 
Small ruminant reproduction and opportunities to enhance reproductive perform...
Small ruminant reproduction and opportunities to enhance reproductive perform...Small ruminant reproduction and opportunities to enhance reproductive perform...
Small ruminant reproduction and opportunities to enhance reproductive perform...
 
Nutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
Nutrition Of The Ewe And LambNutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
Nutrition Of The Ewe And Lamb
 
Late gestation
Late gestationLate gestation
Late gestation
 
Getting ready for lambing and kidding (2011)
Getting ready for lambing and kidding (2011)Getting ready for lambing and kidding (2011)
Getting ready for lambing and kidding (2011)
 
IPM
IPMIPM
IPM
 
Genetic Control of Internal Parasites
Genetic Control of Internal ParasitesGenetic Control of Internal Parasites
Genetic Control of Internal Parasites
 
Strategies for enhancement in food production I
Strategies for enhancement in food production IStrategies for enhancement in food production I
Strategies for enhancement in food production I
 
Lactation
LactationLactation
Lactation
 
Online FAMACHA Certification 2020
Online FAMACHA Certification 2020Online FAMACHA Certification 2020
Online FAMACHA Certification 2020
 
Integrated parasite management (IPM) in small ruminants
Integrated parasite management (IPM) in small ruminantsIntegrated parasite management (IPM) in small ruminants
Integrated parasite management (IPM) in small ruminants
 

More from University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program

More from University of Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program (20)

Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
Making a profit with small ruminants (sheep/goats)
 
Hoof Care of Sheep/Goats
Hoof Care of Sheep/GoatsHoof Care of Sheep/Goats
Hoof Care of Sheep/Goats
 
Proper deworming methods
Proper deworming methodsProper deworming methods
Proper deworming methods
 
Show me the signs
Show me the signsShow me the signs
Show me the signs
 
Copper: its complicated
Copper: its complicatedCopper: its complicated
Copper: its complicated
 
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheep
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheepPregnancy Toxemia in sheep
Pregnancy Toxemia in sheep
 
Goat Hoof Health
Goat Hoof HealthGoat Hoof Health
Goat Hoof Health
 
MinimizingDrugUse
MinimizingDrugUseMinimizingDrugUse
MinimizingDrugUse
 
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminantsBeyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
Beyond antibiotics: minimizing drug use in small ruminants
 
Goats 101
Goats 101Goats 101
Goats 101
 
Marketing them
Marketing themMarketing them
Marketing them
 
Keeping them healthy
Keeping them healthyKeeping them healthy
Keeping them healthy
 
Feeding them
Feeding themFeeding them
Feeding them
 
Raising them
Raising themRaising them
Raising them
 
Sheep 101
Sheep 101Sheep 101
Sheep 101
 
Management of Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
Management of  Internal Parasites in Small RuminantsManagement of  Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
Management of Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants
 
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye ScoresDewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance: Introduction to Eye Scores
 
FAMACHA eye anemia system
FAMACHA eye anemia systemFAMACHA eye anemia system
FAMACHA eye anemia system
 
Five Point Check
Five Point CheckFive Point Check
Five Point Check
 
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
Integrating Anthelmintics, FAMACHA and Other Alternative Measures for Control...
 

Recently uploaded

Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatmentsaipooja36
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................MirzaAbrarBaig5
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽中 央社
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi RajagopalEADTU
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesAmanpreetKaur157993
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFVivekanand Anglo Vedic Academy
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMELOISARIVERA8
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...Krashi Coaching
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptxPoojaSen20
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxneillewis46
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...EduSkills OECD
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code ExamplesPeter Brusilovsky
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxVishal Singh
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....Ritu480198
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
 
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptxThe Liver &  Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
The Liver & Gallbladder (Anatomy & Physiology).pptx
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
 
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
 

Periparturient egg rise

  • 1. PERIPARTURIENT EGG RISE (PPER) SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu wormx.info | sheepandgoat.com
  • 2.  Temporary loss of acquired immunity (to parasites) around the time of lambing/kidding.  Associated with an increase in fecal egg (and oocyst) count and adult worm burden.  Caused by hormonal suppression of immunity and nutrition stress around parturition.  Occurs late gestation through early lactation.  Affected by different factors, but usually peaks 30 days after lambing/kidding. What is it?
  • 3. Ewes/does  Milk yield and persistence of lactation can be decreased by 10 to 15 percent in ewes/does infected with parasites.  Clinical mastitis is more prevalent in parasitized ewes. Offspring  Ewes/does deposit more worm eggs onto the pasture, resulting in more contaminated pastures which will be grazed by offspring.  Growing lambs/kids ingest more infective worm larvae, resulting in reduced growth rates and increased mortality. Why is it important?
  • 4.  High production  Multiple births  Age of ewe/doe  Poor nutrition  Low body condition  Poor management  Overstocking/grazing  Stress  Season (weather, climate) Contributing factors
  • 5. Strategies for coping with the PPER  Deworming  Nutrition  Season  Zero grazing  Condensed tannins  BioWorma®  Genetics
  • 6.  Traditional (old) recommendation* Deworm all ewes/does around the time of lambing/kidding or before turnout to spring pasture.  New recommendation Selectively deworm ewes/does around the time of lambing/kidding or before turnout to spring pasture. DEWORMING *Selects for worms resistant to dewormers..
  • 7. Targeted selective treatment (TST)*  Deworm ewes/does with FAMACHA© scores of ≥4.  Deworm ewes/does with body condition scores ≤2.  Deworm ewes/does ≥3 offspring.  Deworm first time mothers (yearlings), especially those with ≥2 offspring.  Deworm high producing dairy females. *TST = deworm those that require treatment or would benefit most from treatment.
  • 8.  Ewes/does in poor body condition (≤2) are more susceptible to parasites around the time of lambing/kidding.  Aim for a body condition score of 3 to 3.5 (out of 5) at the time of lambing/kidding. NUTRITION BODY CONDITION
  • 9.  Nutrient requirements increase in late gestation and lactation, especially for females carrying and raising multiple births (and especially triplets).  Feeding a higher plane of nutrition beginning approximately 1 month before lambing/kidding can reduce the magnitude and duration of the periparturient egg rise.  Protein supplementation above NRC requirements has been shown to reduce fecal egg counts in periparturient ewes. By- pass protein is especially beneficial. NUTRITION YOU NEED TO FEED MORE
  • 10.  The “Spring Rise” While the periparturient egg rise occurs in all seasons, the magnitude is greater when lambing/kidding coincides with hypobiotic (arrested/inhibited) larvae resuming their life cycle -- called the spring rise.  Conception rates and prolificacy are less with fall lambing/kidding.  Adequate facilities are required for winter and late fall lambing/kidding (an added cost). SEASON Lamb/kid at a time of the year when parasites are not prevalent on pasture, usually (early) winter or fall.
  • 11.  Pasture is not contaminated, as worm eggs are deposited in barn or lot, where transmission is usually negligible.  Requires good facilities (barn).  Dry lot is less expensive option.  Another option is to put lambs/kids into confinement or dry lot after weaning, especially early (<90 d) weaned ones.  Doesn’t reduce coccidia. ZERO GRAZING Lamb/kid indoors or in dry lot
  • 12.  Sericea lespedeza (SL) is a perennial warm season legume that grows under sub-optimal conditions.  SL has been shown to have anti-parasitic bioactivity against the barber pole worm and coccidia.  Animals consuming SL have reduced egg/oocyst counts and signs of parasitism.  Bioactivity has been demonstrated in fresh, dry (hay, meal, or pellets), or ensiled forage. Feed condensed tannins Feeding condensed tannin feeds has been shown to prevent a periparturient egg rise in ewes/does.
  • 13.  BioWorma® contains a fungus that kills roundworm larvae in the manure, thus preventing the (re-) infection of pastures with infective worm larvae (L3).  It is a free-thru product that should be fed daily during periods of peak worm transmission, e.g. periparturient period. Feed BioWorma® Feed BioWorma® to periparturient ewes/does to reduce pasture contamination. Based on Premier 1 Supplies prices, 4/16/2020 *Feed for 10 weeks of periparturient period Product $/15-lb. $/oz oz/day 100-lb 160-lb. ewe 110-lb. doe 1 day PPP* 1 day PPP* Livamol® $ 89.50 $ 0.37 1.6 $ 0.95 $ 66.83 $ 0.66 $ 45.94 BioWorma® $ 495.00 $ 2.06 0.1 $ 0.33 $ 23.10 $ 0.23 $ 15.88
  • 14.  Raise breeds that are more resistant to internal parasites.  Cross with breeds that are more resistant to internal parasites.  Select replacements that are more resistant to worms*.  Use sires with proven resistance to internal parasites.  Cull ewes/does that are less resistant to worms.* GENETICS *But don’t penalize higher-producing females or lambs/kids from larger litters.
  • 15. 1. On-farm selection* 2. Central Performance (Ram/Buck) Tests University of Maryland West Virginia University (bucks) Langston University (bucks) Eastern Oklahoma (bucks) Virginia Tech (rams) 3. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) via the National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP; nsip.org) and Australia’s Lamb/KidPlan are the most accurate method of selection. Tools of selection
  • 16.  Fecal egg count (FEC) is the most accurate way to select for parasite resistance.  Though variable, parasite resistance (FEC) in growing animals is a moderately heritable trait.  Selecting lambs/kids (weanlings) for parasite resistance is challenging because they are very susceptible to parasites, but infection levels need to be high enough (>500 EPG) to identify genetic differences. On-farm selection for parasite resistance
  • 17.  Collection of fecal egg count data on less susceptible adults is a possible alternative method of selection.  Periparturient fecal egg count is repeatable (across years) and low to moderately heritable (in sheep).  Culling females with high egg counts will reduce contamination of pastures and subsequent infection of young stock. On-farm selection for parasite resistance
  • 18. Everyone needs to do something to manage the PPER.  Deworming  Nutrition  Season  Zero grazing  Condensed tannins  BioWorma®  Genetics
  • 19. SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu wormx.info | sheepandgoat.com Thank you. Questions? Comments? The next worm webinar will be April 28 noon FECAL EGG COUNT PRIMER Dr. Dahlia O’Brien, Virginia State University