Parasite Challenge


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Characterizing the parasite challenge of meat goats grazing summer pastures in Western Maryland

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Parasite Challenge

  1. 1. Characterizing the parasite challenge of meat goats grazing summer pastures in Western Maryland<br />SUSAN SCHOENIANSheep &Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education –<br />
  2. 2. Western Maryland Pasture-based Meat Goat Performance Test<br />Established in 2006 to evaluate the performance of weanling goats on a pasture-only diet with natural exposure to internal parasites.<br />Early June through late September<br />
  3. 3. Central performance testing<br />“A central performance test is where animals from different herds are brought to one central location where performance is recorded. The rationale is that measured differences are more likely due to genetic differences, which will be passed onto offspring, rather than environmental differences which will not. The goal of a central performance test is to identify genetic differences among animals.”<br /> Dr. Dan Waldron Texas A&M University<br />2010 top performing buckConsigned by Craig Adams (IL)Sold for $1,350 to PA<br />
  4. 4. Maryland buck testOne of our most important goals is to identify bucks that are more resistant to internal parasites.<br />Resistance = InfectionFecal egg counts (FECs)<br />Resilience = TolerancePacked cell volume (FAMACHA©)<br />H2 = 20 to 50 percent<br />H2 = 10 to 20 percent<br />
  5. 5. Male goats of any breed or breed cross, born between December 15 (previous year) and March 20 (test year) and weighing 35 to 70 lbs. at the start of the test. Up to 5 goats per consigner (any state).<br />Eligibility<br />
  6. 6. Number of goats tested<br />Five year consignersDon Smith [L] from VirginiaJeanne Dietz-Band [R] from Maryland<br />
  7. 7. 10-acre pasture systemFive 2-acre paddocks for rotational grazing<br />
  8. 8. Cool season grasses <br />Orchardgrass<br />MaxQ™ tall fescue<br />
  9. 9. Warm season grass Dwarf pearl millet (annual)<br />
  10. 10. ChicoryHerb with “anthelmintic-like” properties<br />
  11. 11. Weeds<br />Relative feed value of good alfalfa hay is 170 or higher.<br />
  12. 12. Silvopasture<br />
  13. 13. Extremes in forage conditionsconsiderable seasonal and annual variation in forage quality and quantity<br />
  14. 14. June-September 2006-2010Keedysville, Maryland<br />Monthly and annual rainfall (in) <br />
  15. 15. In the event of severe drought conditions<br />Nutritional tubs<br />Grass hay<br />
  16. 16. Upon arrival to test site<br /><ul><li>Body weights
  17. 17. Body condition score
  18. 18. Coat condition score
  19. 19. Dag score
  20. 20. FAMACHA© score
  21. 21. Fecal egg count
  22. 22. Larvae ID
  23. 23. Stand in footbath
  24. 24. Ear tag
  25. 25. Dewormed with anthelmintics from two different chemical classes (usually moxidectin + levamisole)
  26. 26. Delouse
  27. 27. 3-day treatment for coccidia</li></ul>Data<br />Treatments<br />
  28. 28. Every 14 daysLow-stress livestock handing<br />Weigh<br />FAMACHA© score<br />Body condition score<br />Coat condition score<br />Dag score<br />Health checkTreat as necessary<br />Collect individual fecal sample<br />Collect pooled fecal sample<br />Five Point Check©<br />
  29. 29. Growth performance<br />June<br />September<br />
  30. 30. Fecal egg counts (eggs per gram of feces)<br />Determined by Delaware State University using the modified McMaster procedure. <br />Fecal egg counts are a measure of parasite resistance (infection). Resistant animals shed fewer eggs onto the pasture.<br />June<br />September<br />
  31. 31. Individual egg counts<br />It is estimated that 20% of the animals in a herd shed 80 percent of the eggs. <br />In sheep, the pathogenic burden of the barber pole worm is ~2,000 epg.<br />Individual goats<br />
  32. 32. FAMACHA© eye anemia scores<br />FAMACHA© scores are an estimate of packed cell volume (PCV), which is an indication of parasite “resilience” and the need for deworming.<br />June<br />September<br />
  33. 33. Anthelmintic treatments<br />FAMACHA©scoring<br />1 – no Tx2 – no Tx3 – ?4 – Tx5 – Tx <br />June<br />September<br />
  34. 34. Fecal coproculture (larvae ID)<br />The worm burden has been almost all barber pole worm, especially as the summer progresses.<br />Other worm species in fecal samples: Trichostrongylus*, Oesophagostomum, Nematodiris, Eimeria, and Moniezia<br />June<br />September<br />
  35. 35. Recruiting for the 2011 test<br />Nomination periodApril 1- May 15<br />Testing fee$20 nomination fee$65 due upon delivery$85 total cost per goat<br />Delivery datesJune 3-4<br />Sale, field day, and skillathonSeptember 24 or October 1<br /><ul><li>Top bucks eligible for sale
  36. 36. Sell does via private treaty
  37. 37. Participate in carcass evaluation</li></ul>2007 top consignersKendall and Dana Barnes from Kentucky<br />
  38. 38. Thank you for your attention. Questions?<br />Susan<br /><br /><br />Small Ruminant Program<br />