Nutrients p2

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Nutrients p2

  1. 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.comNutrient -“a substance that provides nourishment”
  2. 2.  Species Size (weight) Sex Age Genetics Stage and level of production Climate, environment, and activity. Body condition
  3. 3. 5.0 4.5Lbs. per day 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 Maintenance Early Gestation Late gestation Early lactation Dairy doe Non-dairy doe Ewe Parlor-milked ewe Parlor-milked doe NRC 2007
  4. 4.  Sheep have lower maintenance requirements than goats. Dairy goats have higher maintenance requirements than meat and fiber goats. Females with a higher genetic potential for milk production have higher nutritional requirements.
  5. 5. 7.0 6.5 110-lb. ewe 6.0 5.5 154-lb. ewe 5.0 4.5 198-lb. eweLbs. per day 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 52% 2.0 1.5 66% 1.0 0.5 66% 0.0 10% 10% 8.5% Dry matter intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
  6. 6. 4.5 66-lb. doe 4.0 110-lb. doe 3.5 154-lb. doe 3.0Lbs. per day 2.5 2.0 66% 1.5 1.0 66% 0.5 80% 15% 13% 13% 0.0 Dry matter intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007, Errata
  7. 7.  Bigger animals have lower maintenance requirements than smaller animals.   % body weight Bigger animals need to eat more and consume larger quantities of nutrients.   lbs. TDN and  lbs. CP However, smaller animals need to consume a more nutrient-dense diet.   %TDN and  %CP
  8. 8. 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) 5.0 132-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 4.5 110-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 4.0 110-lb. ewe lamb (single)Lbs. per day 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 -- 79% -- 1.5 1.0 ~10% 0.5 66% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
  9. 9. 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) 12.0 132-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 110-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 10.0 110-lb. ewe lamb (single) 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P) NRC, 2007
  10. 10.  Mature females are usually bigger and need to eat more.  More lbs. of dry matter  More lbs. of energy  More lbs. of protein  More grams of Ca and P However, young females need a more nutrient-dense diet.  Higher % of energy  Higher % of Ca and P  But NOT protein!
  11. 11. 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5Lbs. per day 3.0 66% 2.5 2.0 66% 1.5 53% 1.0 0.5 53% 7% 8% 10% 15% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007
  12. 12. 10.0 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactationNRC, 2007
  13. 13.  Energy requirements during late gestation are more than 50 percent higher than for maintenance. Ewes require a more nutrient-dense diet during late gestation and lactation. Protein requirements don’t increase significantly until the female begins to lactate. Calcium requirements are highest during late gestation. Phosphorus requirements are highest during lactation.
  14. 14. 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0Lbs. per day 2.5 2.0 1.5 ? 1.0 0.5 ? 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007, Errata
  15. 15. 10.0 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactationNRC, 2007
  16. 16. 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0Lbs. per day 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007 Errata
  17. 17.  Energy requirements during late gestation are more than 50 percent higher than for maintenance. Calcium and Phosphorus requirements are highest during lactation. Females with a higher genetic potential for milk production have much higher nutritional requirements during lactation.
  18. 18. 6.0 Single lamb 5.0 Twin lambs Three or more 4.0Lbs. per day 3.0 66% 2.0 66% 53% 1.0 8.3% 10 10% 0.0 % DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
  19. 19. 12.0 Single lamb 10.0 Twin lambs Three or moreGrams per day 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus NRC, 2007
  20. 20.  Ewes carrying twins and triplets need to eat more.  Dry matter  Energy (TDN)  Protein (CP)  Calcium and phosphorus Ewes carrying twins and triplets need a more nutrient-dense diet. A ewe carrying triplets needs 43% more energy than a ewe carrying a single fetus.
  21. 21. Single lamb 6.0 Twin lambs Three or more 5.0 Parlor milked 4.0Lbs. per day 80% 3.0 66% 2.0 1.0 53% 19% 15% 11% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
  22. 22. Single kid 8.0 Twin kids Three or more 7.0 Parlor milked 6.0Lbs. per day 79% 5.0 66% 4.0 53% 3.0 53% 2.0 1.0 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) NRC, 2007
  23. 23.  The more milk a female produces the more nutrients she needs to consume.  Energy  Protein  Minerals In some cases, animals can simply be fed more, but in the case of higher-producing animals, a more nutrient dense diet must be fed. Nutrient requirements are significantly higher for dairy does and ewes.
  24. 24.  Their nutritional requirements are affected by many of the same factors.  Age  Species  Size  Genetic type and potential  Level of performance  Environment, activity
  25. 25. EARLY MATURING LATE MATURING 4 months old 8 months old 4 months old 8 months old 4.0 3.5 5.5% 3.0Lbs. per day 79% 2.5 4.2% 2.0 3.4% 79% 79% 1.5 2.9% 1.0 66% 0.5 18% 15% 12% 9% 0.0 DM TDN CP NRC, 2007
  26. 26.  Assuming the same size and rate-of-gain:  Young lambs convert feed more efficiently, but need a higher percentage of protein in their diet.  Older lambs need to eat more and require a more digestible diet to achieve the same rate-of-gain.  Later maturing lambs need to eat more, but have lower protein requirements.
  27. 27. 4.0 Weight % TDN % CP 3.5 22 87.5% 16.5% 44 67.1% 11.2% 3.0 66 67.0% 10.7%Lbs. per day 2.5 88 48.9% 7.6% 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP 22 lbs. 44 lbs. 66 lbs. 88 lbs. NRC, 2007
  28. 28.  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.22 lbs/day):  Smaller kids (weight) need to consume a more nutrient-dense diet, both energy and protein.  Bigger kids need to consume more quantity of nutrients, but the diet does not need to be as high Weight 22 % TDN 87.5% % CP 16.5% quality (% TDN, CP). 44 67.1% 11.2% 66 67.0% 10.7% 88 48.9% 7.6%
  29. 29. 3.0 Type % TDN % CP Dairy 87.7% 14.4% Boer 66.3% 15.1% 2.5 Indigenous 67.0% 13.0% 2.0Lbs. per day 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP Dairy Boer Indigenous
  30. 30.  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.44 lbs/day).  Dairy goat bucks don’t need to eat as much as Boer bucks, but their diet needs to be more energy-dense.  Boer bucks need to eat the most, but their diet doesn’t need to be as energy-dense.  Boer bucks have the highest requirements for protein: lbs. and %.  Indigenous (local) breed goats have Type % TDN % CP lower requirements for protein than Dairy 87.7% 14.4% improved breeds. Boer 66.3% 15.1%Indigenous 67.0% 13.0%
  31. 31. 2.5 2.0Lbs. per day 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 As Fed DM TDN CP Doelings and wethers Intact males
  32. 32.  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.44 lbs/day).  Bucks need to eat more dry matter and energy.  Bucks and does require the same amount of protein.  But since does eat less, they require a higher percentage of protein in their diet.  Realistically, the differences will be larger as bucks will gain Sex % TDN % CP faster and you don’t want to Doelings, wethers 65.8% 15.9% feed does to gain as fast. Intact males 66.3% 14.5%
  33. 33. 2.0 1.5Lbs. per day 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP 0 lbs/day 0.22 lbs/day 0.33/lbs/day 0.44 lbs/day 0.55 lbs/day NRC, 2007
  34. 34.  Assuming the same genetic potential for growth:  The more you feed a kid or lamb the more it will gain.  Better performance requires both more feed and better quality feed. ▪ Higher % TDN ▪ Higher % CP  The bigger question is: is better ADG 0 lbs/day % TDN 49.7% % CP 7.8% performance economical? 0.22 lbs/day 67.1% 13.8% 0.33/lbs/day 87.9% 19.9% 0.44 lbs/day 89.2% 21.7% 0.55 lbs/day 88.6% 23.1%
  35. 35. Next webinar – Thursday, 1/26, 7:30 p.m. EST Topic: Feedstuffs w/Jeff Semler Thank you for your attention. Any questions? Susan Schoenian sschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com

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