SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center firstname.lastname@example.org - www.sheepandgoat.comNutrient -“a substance that provides nourishment”
1) Water Livestock do not require specific feedstuffs; they require nutrients in certain quantities and ratios.2) Protein3) Energy4) Fat5) Vitamins6) Minerals
Many (most) feedstuffs contain more than one of the essential six nutrients. Feedstuffs vary considerably in their content of the six essential nutrients. No single feedstuff can supply all six essential nutrients that an animal needs to survive and thrive.
There are “linkages” or relationships between essential nutrients. You have to “balance” the ratio of different feed ingredients to meet the individual animal’s needs. The nutrient needs of an animal varies depending upon species, age, stage and level of production, and other factors.
The most critical nutrient. Has many important functions in the body. Needs vary by species, stage and level of production, and climate. Quantity + Quality
Feedstuff % DMLettuce 5 percentPumpkins 10 percentOrchardgrass pasture 24 percentCorn silage 34 percentWet distiller’s grains 25 percentMolasses, cane 76 percentGrass hay 88 percentWhole corn 88 percentGround limestone 98 percentUrea 99 percent Pineapple Feedstuffs contain water. The amount of moisture in the feed must be considered when balancing rations. Rations are balanced on a dry matter (DM) basis.
Nutrient needed in the greatest quantity. Building blocks for other nutrients. Dietary excess is stored as fat. Expressed as 1. TDN - total digestible nutrients 2. ME - metabolizable energy 3. NE - net energy [maintenance, gain, and lactation]
Cheapest energy source. 2.25x as much energy as carbohydrates. Used to raise energy level of feed, improve flavor, texture, and palatability. Source of heat, insulation and body protection. Essential fatty acids. Can manipulate to change nutritional profile of meat.
Most expensive ingredient in feed ration. Need decreases as animal matures. Source of essential amino acids. Excess dietary protein is converted to energy, fat. Expressed as CP - crude protein ▪ DIP – degradable intake protein ▪ UIP – undegradable intake protein MP - metabolizable protein [microbial protein + UIP]
1) Water soluble B&C2) Fat soluble A, D, E , & K Multiple functions in body. Requirements increase with age. No dietary requirement for vitamin K or B complex.
Vitamin Feedstuffβ-caroteen Green, pasture forage; dehydrated hay; (vitamin A) cured hay, vitamin supplements D Ultraviolet irradiation, sun-cured hays, vitamin supplements E High quality legume hay, dehydrated alfalfa, wheat germ, vitamin supplements K Green, leafy feedstuffs (K1). K2 synthesized in rumen B Not required in diets of ruminants
1) Ca - Vitamin D2) P - Vitamin D3) Co - Vitamin B124) Se - vitamin E5) Cu - Mo - S