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Neonatal Care


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This presentation is from a webinar series on management of the ewe and doe from late gestation through weaning. This presentation is on Neonatal care (care of the lamb and kid from day 0 to day 14).

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Neonatal Care

  1. 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education –<br />2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series<br />Small Ruminant Program<br />
  2. 2. 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series<br />Jan 13 I. Late Gestation<br />Jan 20 II. Vaccinations<br />Feb 3 III. Parturition<br />Feb 10 IV. Neonatal Care<br />Feb 17 V. Lactation<br />Feb 24 VI. Weaning<br />
  3. 3. Neonatal care<br />Care of newborns (day 0-14)<br /><br />
  4. 4. What factors affect neonatal survival?<br />Offspring<br />Birth weight #1 factor!<br />Sex<br />Birth type<br />Behavior (vigor)<br />Dam factors<br />Body condition score #2<br />Parity<br />Maternal behavior<br />Colostrum accumulation #3<br />
  5. 5. Factors affecting with neonatal survival<br />Environmental factors<br />Lambing/kidding system<br />Weather<br />Management<br />Nutrition during pregnancy<br />Ease of birth<br />Sanitation<br />Crowding<br />Genetics<br />Breed<br />Sire<br />
  6. 6. Sour<br />When death losses occurSpooner Agricultural Research Center (Wisconsin) - dairy sheep<br />Source: Lamb mortality and causes: A nine year summary at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station<br />
  7. 7. When death losses occurNational Sheep Health Survey - all sheep operations<br />Source: USDA APHIS NAHSM<br />
  8. 8. What causes neonates to die?<br />U.S. Sheep Experiment Station, Dubois, Idaho: range sheep, shed-lambed<br />
  9. 9. Causes of deathSpooner Agricultural Research Station (Wisconsin): dairy sheep<br />Source: Lamb mortality and causes: A nine year summary at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station<br />
  10. 10. Causes of death in neonatesSmall ruminants in Jordan<br />Source: Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine (2007)<br />
  11. 11. Clip, dip, strip, and sip<br />Clip navel cord (if necessary)<br />Dip navel cord in gentle iodine, chlorhexidine, or betadine.<br />Strip teats to remove wax plugs and open up teats for baby to nurse easier.<br />Make sure lambs and kids nurse.<br />
  12. 12. ColostrumAll newborn mammals require colostrum for optimal health<br />Thick, yellowish first milk that dam produces after parturition (for the first 24 hours).<br />Rich in energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals.<br />Has laxative qualities.<br />Contains maternal antibodies<br />Large protein molecules that can only be absorbed by neonate during the first 24 to 36 hours after birth.<br />Absorption by neonate is most efficient the first few hours after birth.<br />Baby should consume 10% of its body weight in colostrum.<br />
  13. 13. Colostrum sources<br />
  14. 14. Common problems of the neonate<br />Hypothermia<br />Starvation<br />Diarrhea (scours)<br />Pneumonia<br />Floppy kid syndrome<br />
  15. 15. Hypothermia<br /><ul><li>Caused by excessive body heat loss and reduced heat production.
  16. 16. Neonates are unable to regulate their body temperature during their first 36 hours.
  17. 17. Energy is required to generate heat.</li></li></ul><li>Causes<br />Inadequate colostrum<br />Dam rejection<br />Mastitis<br />Teats too large or close to ground<br />Inadequate milk production<br />Joint injury or illness<br />Soremouth<br />Difficult birth<br />Small, weak baby<br />Can’t compete with siblings<br />Symptoms<br />Lethargic<br />Head down<br />Weak<br />Empty stomach<br />Hypothermia<br />Glucose injection<br />Tube feed colostrum<br />Feed milk replacer<br />Artificially rear<br />Starvation<br />Treatment<br />
  18. 18. Tips for tube feeding lambs and kids<br />Use clean equipment<br />Measure how far the tube needs to go in<br />Hold baby between your knees in upright position.<br />Dip tube in clean water.<br />Gentle advance tube towards back of animal’s mouth<br />The animal should swallow as the tube is advanced. It will still be able to bleat and cry.<br /><br />
  19. 19. Tips for tube feeding lambs and kids<br />Feel the tube on the left side of the animal’s neck.<br />Fill syringe with warm milk.<br />Do not force milk with plunger.<br />Let fluid trickle in via gravity.<br />Squeeze end of tube when pulling tube out.<br />Frequent meals are better than big meals<br />2-3 ounces at a time<br /><br />
  20. 20. Intraperitoneal injection<br />Suspend baby by front legs<br />Introduce 1-in, 20-g needle through body wall 1 inch to the side of the navel and 1 inch caudal.<br />Point needle towards tail<br />Slowly inject solution into body cavity.<br />
  21. 21. Causes<br />Environmental <br />Unsanitary conditions<br />Unclean water<br />Infected feces<br />Bacterial<br />E. coli - “watery” mouth<br />Salmonella<br />Cryptospordia<br />Giardia<br />Clostridium perfringins type C<br />Viral<br />Rotavirus<br />Neonatal scours<br />Symptoms<br />Gaunt<br />Depressed<br />Wet, rear legs<br />Dehydration<br />
  22. 22. Treatment<br />Oral electrolytes<br />Oral antibiotics<br />[Rx] Spectinomycin<br />Adequate colostrum intake<br />Good sanitation<br />CD-T vaccinations<br />Neonatal scours<br />Prevention<br />Watery mouth (NADIS UK)<br />
  23. 23. Causative organisms<br />Pasteurellahemolytica<br />Parainfluenza virus-3<br />Symptoms<br />Elevated body temperature<br />Labored breathing<br />Depressed<br />Droopy ears<br />Treat early with injectable antibiotics<br />[Rx] LA-200<br />[Rx] Naxcel/Excenel<br />[Rx] Nuflor<br />[Rx] Micotil (NOT GOATS)<br />Prevention<br />Proper ventilation<br />Adequate colostrum intake<br />Vaccination of dams<br />Bacterial pneumonia<br />Treatment<br />
  24. 24. Cause<br />Unknown<br />Metabolic acidosis<br />Elevated D-lactate levels<br />Symptoms<br />Normal at birth<br />Symptoms develop 3 to 10 days of age<br />Weakness<br />Lateral recumbency<br />No muscle tone<br />Loss of nursing reflex<br />Early detection<br />Correct acid/base status of kid<br />Oral bicarbonate (baking soda) ½ to 1 tsp. in 1 cup of water<br />Electrolytes<br />Floppy kid syndrome<br />Treatment<br />
  25. 25. Slime <br />Scent/odor<br />Skin<br />Stanchion<br />Cross-fostering or grafting<br />
  26. 26. Artificial rearing lambs and kids<br />Why?<br />Dam dies<br />Dam doesn’t have milk<br />Dam doesn’t have enough milk<br />Poor milk producer<br />Genetics<br />Poor nutrition<br />Disease<br />Large litter<br />Dam rejects baby<br />Baby is weak.<br />Dairy enterprise<br />Prevent CAE and OPP<br />
  27. 27. Which baby should you choose for artificial rearing?<br />Old recommendation<br />Remove the largest, most aggressive baby for artificial rearing.<br />New recommendation<br />Remove the smallest weakest baby for artificial rearing.<br />Select lambs/kids 2 to 6 hours after birth for artificial rearing.<br />
  28. 28. How to rear lambs and kids artificially<br />Make sure baby gets adequate colostrum.<br />Let baby nurse dam for first four to six hours.<br />Tube feed colostrum<br />Feed the right milk replacer for optimal performance <br />Sheep milk contains more fat.<br />Follow instructions on bag.<br />Mixing<br />Feeding amount<br />Feeding frequency<br />After first few days, feed milk replacer cold.<br />
  29. 29. How to rear lambs and kids artificially<br />Hand-feed or use self-feeder.<br />Keep feeding equipment clean.<br />Start offering solid food when the lamb or kid is a few days old.<br />High quality lamb or kid starter<br />Soybean meal<br />Vaccinate for CD-T at 4 and 8 weeks of age.<br />
  30. 30. Weaning orphansUsually 4 to 8 weeks<br />Better to wean on weight than age.<br />Common rules of thumb<br />Minimum of 20 lbs. <br />2.5 x birth weight<br />Lamb or kids should be eating solid food and doing well.<br />Lamb: 0.5 lb. creep feed daily<br />Wean abruptly.<br />After weaning, keep lamb or kid on starter diet; do not wean onto lush pasture.<br />
  31. 31. When to feed heat-treated/pasteurized colostrum or milk<br />To prevent CAE<br />To prevent OPP<br />To kids that have recovered from floppy kid syndrome<br />Heat at 130-135ºF (56ºC) for 1 hour<br />Antibodies will be destroyed at 140ºF (60ºC)<br />
  32. 32. Common management practicesThese practices are not done on all farms<br />Ear tagging<br />Before baby leaves jug<br />Weighing<br />At day 0 or 1<br />Docking<br />1 to 7 days of age<br />No later than 6 weeks<br />Castration <br />1 to 7 days of age<br />No later than 6 weeks<br />Disbudding<br />3 days to 2 weeks<br />
  33. 33. WHY?<br />Health<br />Reduce risk of fly strike<br />Hygiene<br />Easier to shear/crutch<br />Easier to observe udder<br />Easier to assist lambing<br />Market preference<br />Tails reduce dressing percentage<br />Cleanliness at harvest<br />Some breeds don’t require docking<br />Hair sheep<br />Short or rat-tailed sheep<br />Low incidence of dagginess.<br />Short-wool breeds<br />Animal welfare concerns<br />DockingShortening the length of the tail<br />WHY NOT?<br />
  34. 34. Length of docked tail<br />Recommendation<br />U.S.<br />Distal end of caudal tail fold.<br />Europe<br />Cover female’s vulva<br />Cover male’s anus<br />Show lambs are usually docked shorter (for appearance)<br />
  35. 35. WHY? <br />Management<br />Prevent unwanted pregnancies<br />Control behavior<br />Sell as pets or grazers<br />Market preference<br />Traditional markets<br />Customer preference<br />Market older animals<br />Tradition<br />Better growth<br />Better carcass<br />Bigger carcass<br />Market at a young age<br />Market preference<br />Ethnic markets<br />Animal welfare<br />CastratingTesticles are removed or their function is inhibited<br />WHY NOT? <br />
  36. 36. Tools for docking and castrating<br />Electric docker<br />Emasculator<br />All-in-one<br />Elastrator<br />Burdizzo® Emasculatome<br />Scalpel<br />Knife<br />
  37. 37. Pros<br />Docking and castrating with an elastrator<br />Quick<br />Easy<br />Bloodless<br />Inexpensive tool<br />Less painful than surgical castration with knife<br />Increased risk of tetanus<br />Painful<br />Can reduce pain by giving an local anesthetic or combining use with Burdizzo<br />It is less painful to make a “short-scrotum” male.<br />Cons<br /><ul><li>Cuts off blood supply to tail and/or testicles
  38. 38. Bands should be applied at 1 to 7 days of age (definitely before 6 weeks of age)</li></li></ul><li>Pros<br />Can dock and castrate older lambs (and kids)<br />Less painful than other methods.<br />Less reliable<br />Requires more skill<br />More expensive tool<br />Docking and castrating with a Burdizzo<br />Cons<br /><ul><li>Crushes spermatic cords inside testicles, thus stopping blood supply, eventually causing atrophy of the testicles.
  39. 39. Use in conjunction with elastrator to minimize pain during docking and castrating
  40. 40. Use small-size Burdizzo</li></li></ul><li>Pros<br />Can dock and castrate older lambs (and kids)<br />Less painful than other methods.<br />Less reliable<br />Requires more skill<br />More expensive tool<br />Docking and castrating with an emasculator<br />Cons<br /><ul><li>Crushes arteries before severing them.</li></li></ul><li>Pros<br />Inexpensive<br />Most reliable method of castration (1 + 1 = 2)<br />Bloody<br />Greatest potential for infection and fly infestation.<br />Most painful method of castration<br />Surgical castrationTools: knife, scalpel, all-in-one<br />Cons<br />Cut off bottom one-third of sac, with a parallel cut to the ground.<br />Pull testicle down away from the body until the cord breaks.<br />Do not cut cords (may sever by scraping with a scalpel).<br />Repeat for other testicle.<br />Minimize pain and stress by performing on young animals only.<br />Use antiseptic to prevent infection.<br />
  41. 41. Pros<br />Less chance of infection<br />Can dock older lambs<br />Probably most humane method of tail docking<br />Requires electricity<br />Requires more physical effort<br />More expensive tool<br />Using an electric docker<br />Cons<br /><ul><li>Cuts and cauterizes tail.</li></li></ul><li>WHY?<br />WHY NOT?<br />Personal preference<br />Safety<br />Animals<br />Humans<br />Management<br />Close confinement<br />Feeders<br />Fences<br />Handling<br />Show or registration requirements<br />Personal preference<br />Handling<br />Loss of “handles” <br />Goats not handled frequently.<br />Natural part of goat<br />Breed character<br />Weapons<br />Welfare (pain)<br />Disbudding<br />Polled trait is linked to infertility in goats: polled x polled horned<br />
  42. 42. Disbudding goats<br />When?<br />1 to 3 weeks of age<br />Horns grow differently<br />Ideal time is just as horn is coming through skin<br />Tools<br />Disbudding box<br />Disbudding iron<br />Clippers (optional)<br />How?<br />[Vx] Numb region around the horn buds with an anesthetic.<br />Carefully press dehorner onto the buds for 8 to 15 seconds.<br />Twist tool to cut through skin to the skull.<br />If the procedure is done correctly, you should see a copper-colored ring around the horn bud.<br />
  43. 43. Thank you for your attention. Any questions?<br />Susan<br />Small Ruminant Program<br />
  44. 44. Thank you for your attention. Questions?<br />Susan Schoenian<br /><br /><br />Small Ruminant Program<br />