Marketing sheep and goats to the ethnic markets


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Marketing sheep and goats to the ethnic markets

  1. 1. This presentation was given at the Focus on Farming Conference: Breaking New Ground in Lynnwood, Washington on November 20, 2008.
  2. 2. Marketing sheep and goats to the ethnic markets 2008 Focus on Farming Conference: Breaking New Ground Lynnwood, Washington - Thursday, November 20, 2008 Susan Schoenian Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center University of Maryland Cooperative Extension –
  3. 3. What is an ethnic market? <ul><li>An ethnic market is a group of consumers that share a common cultural background: race, color, national origin, religion, or language. </li></ul>It is many different markets!
  4. 4. Three market segments 31% of American population is considered ethnic. <ul><li>First generation </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream shoppers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Second generation ethnic consumers <ul><li>Dietary habits change as ethnic populations assimilate into the U.S. culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation ethnic customers demand more ready-made ethnic foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic and green movements are crossing over into the ethnic markets. </li></ul>
  6. 6. U.S. Population Demographics 2006 <ul><li>299,398,484 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80.1% white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14.8% Hispanic/Latino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11.1% foreign born 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12.8% black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.4% Asian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% American Indian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17.9% non-English speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median household income: $44,334 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per capita income: $21,587 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. U.S. immigration <ul><li>Immigration is what keeps America growing. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. birthrate (1.9%) is below replacement rate (2.1%). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Washington State <ul><ul><li>2006 Data U.S. averages in parentheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population of 6,395,798 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>84.8% White (80.1%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9.1% Hispanic/Latino (14.8%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.6% Black or African-American (12.8%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.6% Asian (4.4%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.6% American Indian (1.0%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10.4% foreign born (11.1%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per capita income - $22,973 ($21,857) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium household income - $48,438 ($44,334) </li></ul></ul>Source:
  9. 9. American Muslims <ul><li>8 million Muslims in the United States; another 1 million in Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual growth rate is 6% (vs. 0.9% for U.S.) </li></ul><ul><li>Same size community as Hispanics 25 years ago. </li></ul>
  10. 10. American Muslims <ul><li>American Muslims are younger . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>67% of adult Muslims are < 40 years of age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>67% of U.S. adult population is > 40 years of age. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. American Muslims <ul><li>American Muslims are well-educated . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>67% of American Muslims have a Bachelor’s degree or higher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44% of Americans have a Bachelor’s degree or higher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 10 American Muslim households has a medical doctor. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. American Muslims <ul><li>American Muslims are affluent . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>66% of American Muslims households earn over $50,000/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>26% of American Muslims households earn over $100,000/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. average income is $42,158 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mosques in Washington State <ul><li>27 Mosques listed on </li></ul>Seattle’s Northgate Mosque
  14. 14. Major Muslim holidays <ul><li>Ramadan Month of fasting </li></ul><ul><li>Eid ul Fitr Festival of fast-breaking “Little Eid” </li></ul><ul><li>Eid ul Adha Festival of the sacrifice “Big Eid” </li></ul>Eid = Festival Muslim holidays move back 11 days each year.
  15. 15. Aqeeqah <ul><li>Give thanks to God for the birth of a child. </li></ul><ul><li>Baby-naming ceremony. </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s head is shaved 7 days after birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughter one or two sheep and invite relatives and friends to a meal or distribute the meat to relatives, friends, and the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrificed by father. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Halal Arabic word meaning permissible or lawful. <ul><li>Term applies to all facets to life, but (in the West) used mostly to describe food. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No pork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No blood or blood products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper slaughter method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some similarities with Kosher (Jewish ritual slaughter). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Halal slaughter <ul><li>Slaughter should be done by a trained Muslim. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughter is by means of a sharp knife. </li></ul><ul><li>Throat, windpipe, and jugular veins are cut. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughter of an unconscious (stunned) animal is prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal must be slaughtered in the name of God (Allah). </li></ul><ul><li>Animal should be held upright before and during slaughter. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood should be totally drained. </li></ul>Considered humane, but exempt from Humane Slaughter Law.
  18. 18. Halal certification <ul><li>Gives customers assurance that food is Halal. </li></ul><ul><li>Many organizations grant Halal certification. </li></ul><ul><li>In cooperation with USDA. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Knife Restraining device Poster
  20. 20. Hispanic-American Market <ul><li>Fastest growing minority group. </li></ul><ul><li>49% live in Texas or California. </li></ul><ul><li>The Latin wave is bigger than the baby boomer generation. </li></ul><ul><li>76 percent increase in buying power since 1990. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hispanic-American Market <ul><li>Subcultures from over 20 different countries in Central and South America, the Caribbean and Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of Mexican heritage (67%). </li></ul><ul><li>Common link is the Spanish language. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Hispanic-American Market <ul><li>Hispanic Americans are younger . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Hispanic-American is 26 years old. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average American is 33 years old. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hispanic-American households are bigger . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Hispanic-American household has 3.6 people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average American household has 2.5 people. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Hispanic-American Market <ul><li>More likely to cook from scratch. </li></ul><ul><li>Twice as likely to use spices and seasonings. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer fresh ingredients. </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more money on food. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat at home more. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a greater preference for sheep and goat meat in their diet. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Other important ethnic groups <ul><li>Caribbean Islanders </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Orthodox Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Asians </li></ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ethnic demand varies by . . . <ul><li>Time of the year </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Condition (fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Blemishes tails, testicles, horns, ears </li></ul><ul><li>Preference, bias (breed) </li></ul><ul><li>Method of slaughter </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ethnic holiday calendar 2008-2012 December 25 Christmas April 15 April 24 April 4 April 19 Eastern Orthodox Easter April 8 April 24 April 4 April 12 Western Roman Easter December 9-16 December 21-28 December 2-9 December 12-19 December 22-29 Chanukha September 17-18 September 29-30 September 9-10 September 19-20 Rosh Hashanah April 7-14 April 19-26 March 30-April 6 April 9-16 Passover/pesach August 19 August 31 September 10 September 20 Eid ul-Fitr Festival of Fast Breaking July 20 August 1 August 11 August 22 Start of Ramadan Month of fasting February 4 February 15 February 26 March 9 Mawlid al Nabi Prophet’s birthday November 15 November 26 December 7 December 18 December 29 Muharramn Islamic New Year October 25 November 6 November 16 November 27 December 9 Eid ul-Adha Festival of the Sacrifice 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008
  27. 27. The ethnic markets <ul><li>Identify a target market. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what they want, when they want it, and how they want it processed. </li></ul><ul><li>Put your pencil to paper and determine if you can raise and process livestock profitably to meet their demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Do it! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Slaughter options <ul><li>On-farm </li></ul><ul><li>Custom exempt </li></ul><ul><li>State-inspected </li></ul><ul><li>Federally-inspected (USDA) </li></ul>
  29. 29. On-farm slaughter <ul><li>USDA allows exemption for on-farm slaughter by the owner of the livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>On-farm slaughter is allowed for meat that will be consumed by the owner (or owners) or given to their workers or non-paying guests. </li></ul><ul><li>Most states restate USDA regulations or impose more stringent regulations. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Custom-exempt <ul><li>Slaughter for owner of live animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Producer sells live animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt from USDA inspection. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection focuses on facilities, not product. </li></ul><ul><li>Meat must be stamped “not for resale.” </li></ul>
  31. 31. State-inspected <ul><li>27 states operate meat and poultry inspection programs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Washington state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programs must “at least equal to” federal inspection program. </li></ul><ul><li>State-inspected meat is prohibited from interstate movement. </li></ul>
  32. 32. WSDA Custom Meat Program <ul><ul><li>Custom meat facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom farm slaughters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile slaughter unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom slaughter establishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed slaughter facility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. USDA - Federal inspection <ul><li>Inspection of facility and product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ante-mortem (live) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-mortem (carcass) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only federally-inspected plants can produce products that are destined for interstate commerce or for export to foreign countries. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Selling meat consumer, store, restaurant, farmer’s market, internet <ul><li>Livestock must be processed in a federally-inspected plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Must get a federal label. </li></ul><ul><li>Label is attached at processing plant. </li></ul><ul><li>May need/want product liability insurance. </li></ul>
  35. 35. A scarcity of USDA plants <ul><li>Federally inspected plants are disappearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are small plants or businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Big abattoirs are consolidating. </li></ul><ul><li>Many small ruminant producers are located far from USDA abattoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a growing demand for local product that is humanely produced and processed. </li></ul>
  36. 36. A mobile abattoir <ul><li>Mobile – travel to livestock farming areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cost to build than stationary facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cost for processing. </li></ul>3 units in Washington State 6 units nationwide
  37. 37. Producer-owned abattoir On-farm, custom, state, or USDA
  38. 38. Cooperative marketing sub-contract slaughter
  39. 39. Marketing options - live animals <ul><li>To a sale barn local, regional (terminal) </li></ul><ul><li>To a middleman broker, dealer, buying station, live market </li></ul><ul><li>To a processor </li></ul><ul><li>Through a marketing co-op </li></ul><ul><li>On-farm sales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer takes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On farm slaughter by customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom slaughter for customer </li></ul></ul> income per animal, labor
  40. 40. Public auction barns stockyards, livestock auctions <ul><li>Consider the holidays </li></ul><ul><li>Put your livestock in the market one week before the holiday. </li></ul><ul><li>Sell when reported prices are low. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not castrate or dock unless you have to. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not sell poor animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Desired market weights and conditions vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t sell overly fat or thin animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your livestock and fed and properly cared for. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Marketing options - meat value-added, direct, niche, relationship marketing <ul><li>To restaurant </li></ul><ul><li>To store </li></ul><ul><li>To consumer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer’s market </li></ul></ul>*** Requires USDA inspection and labeling. ***
  42. 42. USDA or third party labels Must meet criteria of USDA or group issuing label <ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Grass-fed </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Halal </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-labels </li></ul><ul><li>Humane labels </li></ul>
  43. 43. Other claims <ul><li>Raised on pasture </li></ul><ul><li>No hormones No added hormones </li></ul><ul><li>No antibiotics fed </li></ul><ul><li>Grain-fed </li></ul><ul><li>Breed </li></ul><ul><li>American lamb or goat </li></ul><ul><li>Farm fresh </li></ul><ul><li>Locally produced </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Producer directory </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing directory </li></ul><ul><li>Market inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar of events </li></ul><ul><li>News </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>
  45. 45. Questions. Thank you.