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Late Gestation


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This presentation is the first is a six part series on management of the ewe and doe from late gestation through weaning. This presentation covers late gestation: management and feeding.

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Late Gestation

  1. 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education –<br />2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series<br />Small Ruminant Program<br />
  2. 2. 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series<br />Jan 13I. Late Gestation<br />Jan 20 II. Vaccinations<br />Feb 3 III. Parturition<br />Feb 10 IV. Neonatal Care<br />Feb 17 V. Lactation<br />Feb 24 VI. Weaning<br />
  3. 3. Late gestation<br />Last 4 to 6 weeks of pregnancy (142-158 days)<br />The most critical period in the female’s production cycle.<br />
  4. 4. What’s happening?!<br />70 percent of fetal growth is occurring.<br />Pregnant ewe lambs and doe kids are still growing.<br />The udder tissue is developing.<br />Rumen capacity is decreasing.<br />Boer x Nubian doe (carrying triplets)<br />
  5. 5. Extra nutrition is needed<br />Why?<br />To support fetal growth<br />To support udder development<br />To prevent pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) and milk fever.<br />To ensure the birth of strong, healthy babies of moderate birth weight.<br />BIRTH WEIGHT SURVIVAL<br />
  6. 6. Nutrient requirements of a 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) at different stages of production<br />66%<br />Lbs. per day<br />66%<br />53%<br />53%<br />10%<br />15%<br />7%<br />8%<br />NRC 2007<br />
  7. 7. Nutrition During Late Gestation<br />Energy (TDN) is the nutrient most likely to be deficient in the late gestation diet of ewes and does.<br />Nutrient requirements vary by species, age, size (weight), and number of fetuses.<br />To meet energy needs, you usually need to feed some grain. <br />Introduce grain slowly and increase incrementally.<br />If forage quality is low, you may also need to supplement protein and calcium.<br />
  8. 8. Do not underfeed (including the fat ones)<br />Inadequate nutrition can result in . . .<br />Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis)<br />Small and weak babies <br />Higher mortality<br />Reduced colostrum quality and quantity<br />Poor milk yield<br />Reduced wool production (in offspring) via fewer secondary follicles<br />
  9. 9. Do not overfeed(including the skinny ones)<br />Because . . . <br />Fat females are more prone to pregnancy toxemia. <br />Overfed females have moredystociaproblems.<br />They are more likely to prolapse their vaginas. <br />Females may have a more difficult time birthing large fetuses.<br />Prolonged births can affect viability of offspring.<br />
  10. 10. Energy (TDN) requirements as affected by species and genetic potential for a 132-lb. mature female<br />Lbs. per day<br />NRC 2007<br />
  11. 11. Nutrient requirements of different size ewes in late gestation (twin fetuses) <br />Lbs. per day<br />52%<br />66%<br />66%<br />10%<br />10%<br />8.5%<br />NRC, 2007<br />
  12. 12. Nutrient requirements of different size (non-dairy) does in late gestation (twin fetuses) <br />Lbs. per day<br />66%<br />66%<br />80%<br />13%<br />13%<br />15%<br />NRC, 2007, Errata<br />
  13. 13. Nutrient requirements of ewes in late gestationas affected by age<br />Lbs. per day<br />-- 79% --<br />~10%<br />66%<br />NRC, 2007<br />
  14. 14. Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. ewe during late gestation, as affected by number of fetuses<br />Lbs. per day<br />66%<br />66%<br />53%<br />8.3%<br />10%<br />10%<br />NRC, 2007<br />
  15. 15. Effect of a lower critical temperature on the energy requirements of a goat needing 2.8 lbs. of TDN.<br />
  16. 16. Nutrition during late gestation<br />What you should do<br />Balance a ration to determine what and how much to feed<br />Evaluate your ration to see if what you are feeding is meeting the nutrient requirements of your pregnant females.<br />Adjust, if necessary<br />What we usually do<br />Free choice hay + some grain (1/2 to 1 lb. per head per day)<br /><br />
  17. 17. Proper feed bunk management<br />Make sure all ewes or does can eat at the same time.<br />Feed pregnant ewe lambs and doelings separately from mature females.<br />Separate males after breeding.<br />Do not feed on the ground.(exception: frozen ground)<br />
  18. 18. Selenium (Se) and vitamin E<br />Many soils are deficient in selenium (Se).<br />Low levels of Se and/or vitamin E have been associated with …<br />Poor reproductive performance<br />Retained placentas<br />White muscle disease in lambs and kids.<br />Se is passed from the placenta to the fetus during late gestation<br />
  19. 19. Selenium (Se) and vitamin E<br />Free choice mineral mixes usually provide adequate selenium.<br />Adding a selenium-fortified mineral mix to the grain ration will ensure adequate intake of Se.<br />On farms with a history of white muscle disease, Se injections are sometimes necessary.<br />Bo-Se must be obtained from a licensed veterinarian.<br />There is a narrow range between what animals need and Se toxicity.<br />
  20. 20. Calcium<br />Calcium requirements virtually double during late pregnancy.<br />Milk fever is caused by low blood calcium resulting from …<br />An inadequate intake of calcium <br />Failure to mobilize calcium reserves.<br />You also need to avoid excessive Ca intake.<br />Save pure legume (alfalfa) hay for lactation diet.<br />This ewe required IV calcium.<br />
  21. 21. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of a 176-lb. ewe (twins)<br />Grams per day<br />NRC, 2007<br />
  22. 22. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of a 132-lb. doe (twins)<br />Grams per day<br />NRC, 2007<br />
  23. 23. Calcium<br />Grains (corn, barley, and oats) and soybean meal are low in calcium.<br />Forages are higher in calcium, especially legumes.<br />Supplemental Ca <br />Complete grain mixes <br />Mineral supplements <br />Dicalcium phosphate<br />Limestone<br />Bonemeal<br />If a low quality forage is fed, calcium should be added to the grain ration.<br />
  24. 24. Pre-lambing/kidding vaccinationsCD-T: clostridium perfringins type C & D (overeating disease) and tetanus<br />Vaccinate pregnant females approximately one month prior to parturition. <br />Only way to protect lambs and kids from type C overeating disease and provide early immunity to tetanus. <br />Females never vaccinated before or whose vaccination status is unknown should receive two vaccinations during late pregnancy.<br />Do not vaccinate within 2 weeks of parturition.<br />Lambs and kids will acquire passive immunity when they consume colostrum (first milk).<br />
  25. 25. Periparturient egg rise<br />Small ruminant females suffer a temporary loss of immunity to parasites around and after parturition.<br />
  26. 26. Management options<br />Deworm all females prior to lambing or kidding.<br />At the time of vaccination<br />Two weeks prior<br />At the time of parturition<br />Use the FAMACHA© system and Five Point Check© to determine the need for deworming individual females.<br />Increase the level of protein in the ration during late gestation.<br />Do not administer Valbazen® during first 30 days of pregnancy.<br />
  27. 27. Feed a coccidiostatTo reduce the number coccidia oocytes in the lambing and kidding environment<br />In feed or mineral<br />Bovatec® - sheep<br />Rumensin® - goats<br />Deccox® - both<br />Continue through weaning.<br />As an aid to prevent abortions caused by Toxoplasmagondii.<br /> Coccidiostats, especially Rumensin® are toxic to the equine family.<br />
  28. 28. AntibioticsIf there is a flock history or risk of abortions<br />Feed<br />Chlortetracycline (aureomycin) fed at a level of 80 mg/head/day during the last 6 weeks of gestation<br />Injections<br />Oxytetracycline (LA-200) at 2 week intervals.<br />
  29. 29. Give injectable antibiotics to remaining females.<br />Isolate aborting females<br />Submit fetuses and placenta to diagnostic lab.<br />Destroy fetuses, fluid, and placenta from abortion females.<br />Disinfect pens.<br />In the event of an abortion “storm”<br />
  30. 30. Shear or crutch before lambing/kidding (about one month prior)<br />Results in a cleaner, drier, healthier, environment for babies.<br />Shorn ewes are less likely to lay on their lambs. <br />Ewes take up less space in barn and around feeders<br /><ul><li>Results in cleaner fleeces</li></ul>Shorn ewes will seek shelter<br />Shorn ewes/does will need more feed to compensate for heat loss from shearing.<br />Freshly shorn ewes/does require adequate shelter.<br />Crutching– removal of wool around udder and vulva area.<br />
  31. 31. Get your facilities, equipment, and supplies ready 2 weeks before the first babies are due.<br />
  32. 32. Clean, dry, draft-free building (cold or inclement weather)<br />Put dams and offspring in small pen after parturition<br />Called a “jug”<br />5 ft. by 5 ft. (bigger or smaller depending upon size of female)<br />1-3 days<br />Clean, well-rested pastures (during mild weather)<br />Have shelter available<br />Pen dams and offspring with problems<br />Lambing and kidding<br />
  33. 33. Recommended supplies to have on hand<br />Frozen colostrum<br />Prolapse retainer or harness<br />Weigh sling<br />Milk replacer<br />Colostrum supplement<br />Elastrator<br />OB lube<br />Needles and syringes<br />Ear tags<br />OB sleeves<br />Antibiotic(s)<br />Rubber rings<br />OB lubricant<br /><ul><li>Nylon rope or snare
  34. 34. Nipples/teats
  35. 35. OB S-curved needle
  36. 36. Esophageal feeding tube
  37. 37. Disinfectant
  38. 38. Hanging scale
  39. 39. Thermometer
  40. 40. Heat lamb or warming box
  41. 41. Dextrose
  42. 42. Oral dosing syringe
  43. 43. Propylene glycol
  44. 44. Bo-Se
  45. 45. Calcium borogluconate
  46. 46. Pocket record keeping book</li></li></ul><li>Do’s and don’ts during late gestation<br />DO’s<br /><ul><li>Increase nutrient intake(increase grain intake slowly)
  47. 47. Monitor calcium intake
  48. 48. Feed a coccidiostat
  49. 49. Vaccinate for CD-T
  50. 50. Encourage exercise
  51. 51. Shear or crutch full-fleeced animals.
  52. 52. Deworm or evaluate need for deworming
  53. 53. Prepare facilities
  54. 54. Inventory supplies</li></ul>DON’T’s<br />Introduce new animals<br />Mix pregnant ewe lambs and doelings with mature females<br />Overfeed<br />Underfeed<br />Stress <br />
  55. 55. Thank you for your attention. Questions?<br />Susan<br /><br />Small Ruminant Program<br />