IPM 2010

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This file is a copy of the PowerPoint slides for the presentation, "Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) in small ruminants" by Susan Schoenian, University of Maryland Extension Sheep & Goat Specialist.

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IPM 2010

  1. 1. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) in Small Ruminants Haemonchus contortus The Barber Pole Worm A blood-sucking parasite (roundworm) that pierces the mucosa of the abomasum (ruminant “stomach”) and causes blood plasma and protein loss to the sheep, goat, or camelid. I want your SUSAN SCHOENIAN blood! Sheep & Goat Specialist Female worm University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu 0.05 ml blood per day www.sheepandgoat.com Rough hair coat wormx.org - wormcontrol.org - controlworms.org - scsrpc.org Barber Pole Worm Symptoms Weight loss, unthrifty Pale mucous membranes •Veterinarians Edema (bottle jaw) •Parasitologists NOT diarrhea (scours) •Animal scientists Ill thrift Sudden DEATH •Extension specialists Difficult to control Short, direct life cycle SOUTHERN CONSORTIUM Prolific egg producer Can go into “hypobiotic” (arrested) state during FOR SMALL RUMINANT winter to survive. Can survive on pasture for Bottle jaw PARASITE CONTROL (SCSRPC) a long time. → Adaptable Pale membranes Internal Parasites Other gastro-intestinal (round) #1 health problem in sheep and goats in warm, moist climates worms (strongyle family) Sheep and goats are the most Direct life cycles susceptible livestock to internal Burrow into the wall of the parasites. abomasum or intestines. Close grazing → Usually secondary in importance. Graze near fecal pellets Slow-to-develop immunity → Usually have an additive effect in mixed parasitic infections infections. We can no longer rely on anthelmintic treatments alone to Symptoms: scouring, weight loss, control parasites; a much more rough hair coat, ill thrift, poor integrated approach is necessary. appetite. Few anthelmintics are FDA-approved for sheep, even fewer for goats. Anthelmintic resistance is real and increasing. *Trichostrongylus New drugs take a lot of time and money to develop and reach the market place (if ever). Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) Oesophagostomum Nematodirus anthelmintic = dewormer = anti-parasitic drugS. Schoenian 1
  2. 2. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Fecal egg counts - Larvae ID Liver flukes 2009 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test Fasciola hepatica Generally not considered to be a problem in Mid-Atlantic area. Gulf states and Pacific Northwest. Requires open water and aquatic snails (wet conditions) to complete life cycle. y Can kill adult liver flukes with Albendazole (Valbazen®) or Ivomec® Plus). Pasture mite Tapeworms Coccidia Moniezia spp. Eimeria sp. (species-specific) Life Cycle Worms live in the small intestines. Eggs pass out through feces. Normal inhabitant of ruminant’s GI system. The egg is eaten by a pasture mite. The egg hatches. The mite is eaten by the sheep or Single-cell protozoa that g goat. damage the lining of the small g g intestines. Is the only parasite we can see in the feces. Causes diarrhea that may be smeared with blood and/or Light loads of tapeworms tend not to mucous. be a problem, but severe infestations Signs of disease occur ~17 could cause GI problems. days after infection (ingestion of oocytes). → Tapeworms are generally considered Damage can be permanent! to be non-pathogenic. Prevent with good sanitation → Deworming for tapeworms has not been shown to increase performance Fecal samples may or may not be and proper stocking. in lambs. helpful in diagnosing disease. Coccidia Lungworms Eimeria sp. (species-specific) Indirect or direct life cycle. Can use additives in feed, mineral, or water to prevent Transmitted in feces. clinical disease in groups of animals: Difficult to see in fecal Lasalocid (Bovatec®)13 sample. sample Monensin (R M i (Rumensin®)23 i ®) Decoquinate (Deccox®)12 Severe infestations can Amprolium (Corid®) in result in coughing, fluid on water lungs, pneumonia. Treat (individual animals) Diagnosis is usually via with Amprolium or sulfa necropsy. drugs. 1FDA-approved for sheep Most drugs which kill 2FDA-approved stomach worms kill lung for goats 3TOXIC to EQUINES!!!!!! worms.S. Schoenian 2
  3. 3. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Meningeal worm (deer, brain worm) Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Parasite identification Parasite of White Tail Deer 1) Fecal flotation or egg count Small ruminants are abnormal hosts. sheep, goats, llama, alpaca, horse Can differentiate between strongyle (stomach), tapeworm, and coccidia Parasite has indirect life cycle Snails and slugs needed for infection. eggs. Can’t differentiate between most Once ingested, larva travel from strongyle (stomach) worm eggs. intestinal tract to spinal cord to eggs (except Nematodirus) brain, causing progressively worse symptoms . . . Meningeal worm does not pass eggs Lameness Do-it-yourself Gait abnormality • Public lab Hind quarter weakness Paralysis • Diagnostic lab DEATH • Private lab Cannot diagnose in a living sheep/goat • Veterinarian Eimeria spp. (necropsy or spinal fluid) Animals maintain appetite Moniezia spp. Meningeal worm Stomach worm identification Treatment 2) Fecal coproculture / larvae ID High doses of anthelmintics Ivermectin Differentiate between strongyle Fenbendazole (stomach) worms (H. contortus, Anti-inflammatory drugs Teladorsagia, and trichostrongyles) • University of Georgia Some recover on their own. (Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab) Kaplan s Cannot repair damaged tissue. Can take test one step further to determine Prevention anthelmintic resistance -- larval development Restrict access to certain areas assay (LDA) or DrenchRite® test. of pasture. • Fence off wet areas • Areas with lots of debris 3) Lectin-staining test (new) Control deer population Determine percent of Haemonchus Control snail/slug population contortus eggs in sample. Monthly deworming Only if problem is severe! • Oregon State University Fencing to exclude deer • University of Georgia is not usually practical. sheep/goats + grazing (pasture) = worm infection L3’s infective larvae ingested L4’s and adults suck blood How do you know what kind of How do sheep and goats worms your sheep or goats have? get infected with parasites?S. Schoenian 3
  4. 4. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Population Demographics of Life Cycle of Stomach Worms Gastrointestinal Nematodes Worm problems vary by Haemonchus contortis May-June July-September location, farm, year, and season. How long before high pasture 3 weeks1 2 weeks1 infectivity? When are the highest levels of 5-9 weeks 3-9 weeks pasture infectivity? How long until low levels of pasture 3 months 3 months infectivity? 1 Earlier if high temperatures coincided with rain. Patterns of Ostertagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Cooperia curticei were basically similar to H. contortis. Strongyloides papillosus larvae emerge within 2 weeks on pasture and survival is short. Nematodirus larvae took a lot longer to emerge on pasture than the other trichostrongylids. Utrecht University (Netherlands) 1999-2003 Research conclusion: Only a small number of farms can use evasive grazing as the only method of parasite control. For most farms, evasive grazing Eggs require warmth (60°F) and humidity to hatch to first stage larvae. needs to be combined with other pasture control strategies. When Are Larva On Pasture A Problem? Why & How Do Seasonal Increases Occur? Integrated Parasite ( If No Treatment) Management (IPM) How did these larva get here FEC From here? Nov 1st Lambing Rise Spring Rise Goal is not to create parasite-free animals. It is normal for sheep and goats to have parasites. Goal J F M A M J J A S O N D J is to prevent clinical disease and production losses. Fecal Egg Counts (What happens in ewes and lambs) Ewes Consider host resistance Lambs Most susceptible Less susceptible Weaned lambs and kids Mature animals Orphan lambs and kids Males Yearlings Dry ewes High producing females Pets Lambing Late b L t -born l lambs and kids b d kid Mature wethers M t th Geriatric animals Sheep Weaning Goats Unadapted breeds F M A M J J A S O N D J F Spring Summer Fall WinterS. Schoenian 4
  5. 5. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Parasite control begins with good management and common sense Use of “clean or safe” pastures New pasture Good sanitation. A pasture that has been renovated with tillage. Use of feeders which prevent wastage and contamination. A pasture that has not been grazed by sheep or goats for the past 6 to 12 months. Clean water, free from fecal water matter and other debris. A pasture that has been grazed by horses and/or cattle for the past 6 to 12 months. Avoid overstocking pens and A pasture in which a hay or silage pastures. crop has been removed. Isolate and deworm new A pasture that has been rotated with row crops. additions to the farm. Pasture that has been burned The primary cause of internal Severely overgrazed pasture???? parasitism is overstocking. Cleaner, safer pastures are a more realistic goal for most producers. Winter lambing/kidding Graze multiple species Sheep and goats share the same internal parasites, but they are Market by July 1 different from the parasites that affect cattle and horses. Except barber pole worm in young calves. Lambing Producers who graze multiple Kidding Weaning species of livestock report fewer parasite problems. Cattle and horses “vacuum” sheep/goat pastures of infective worm larvae. There are other benefits to mixed J F M A M J J A S O N D species grazing, such as complimentary grazing habits. Winter Spring Summer Fall Fall lambing and kidding Pasture Rest and Rotation Pasture rotation is a recommended strategy for controlling internal parasites because it allows the use of safe or safer pastures. BUT, intensive rotational grazing Lambing generally may not help to reduce Weaning Early marketing parasitism unless rest periods are Kidding long enough. Due to increased stocking rates, management intensive grazing may increase internal parasite problems in sheep and goats. In a rotational grazing system, J F M A M J J A S O N D ideally, sheep/goats should not be returned to the same pasture for 2 to 3 months. Winter Spring Summer FallS. Schoenian 5
  6. 6. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Alternative forages Nutritional Management Livestock that browse have Animals on a high plane of fewer parasite problems. No worm larvae nutrition and in better body up here condition are better able to withstand worm burdens. Livestock grazing tall- growing forages will have Nutrition in early pregnancy (fat less parasite problems problems. t ) ff t th i stores) can affect the immune response to internal parasites. 80% of parasites live in the first 2 inches of the Sheep receiving higher levels of vegetation. protein prior to lambing have lower fecal egg counts. Grazing tanniferous may reduce the effects of Supplementing grazing lambs with parasitism. protein has been shown to reduce fecal egg counts. Nutritional supplementation is most likely to be beneficial when pregnant females and young animals are below optimal body condition at a time when pasture quality and/or quantity is limited. Forage Sericea Lespedeza “Zero” grazing Chicory bedded pens, dry lot with no green vegetation, slatted floors Sheep/goats raised in confinement or dry lot (zero grazing) tend to have fewer worm problems. Birdsfoot Trefoil Sheep/goats put in confinement or dry lot do Chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, and not usually get re-infected with worms. Sericea Lespedeza have all been shown to reduce fecal Coccidiosis could still be a egg counts and/or inhibit problem, if preventative larval development. measues are not taken. Good sanitation Proper feeders Coccidiostats Sericea lespedeza Genetics and worms Lespedeza cuneata (high tannin variety) Two important traits: resistance and resilience Resistance Warm season legume Ability of host to limit infection that grows in acidic soils with low fertility and Assessed by fecal egg counts (FEC) tolerates drought well. Resilience Fed as . . . Ability of host to withstand Fresh forage challenge and/or infection, and Loose or ground hay thus maintain health and Pelleted supplement productivity. Assessed by blood hematocrit or Goats readily eat. packed cell volume (PCV) and Sheep will eat. estimated by FAMACHA© eye anemia score. For control of barber pole worm only Parasite traits are moderately heritable – 20-40 percent Images from scsrpc.orgS. Schoenian 6
  7. 7. Integrated parasite management (IPM) “Resistant” Breeds Some sheep and goat breeds are more resistant to worms. Heritability of FEC and PCV FEC PCV Sheep Goats (resistance) (resilience) Gulf Coast Native Spanish/Brush Hair sheep Myotonic/ Ewes 0.31 0.15 St. Croix Tennessee Fainting goat Barbados Blackbelly Kiko Katahdin K t hdi Lambs 0.10 0.39 NOT NOT 2004, Vanimisetti, Andrew, Zazac, Notter Traditional wooled Boer goats breeds Dairy goats Angora goats Selection for Maybe parasite resistance Dorper ? is possible and will Royal white Pygmy Other breeds? Savannah not adversely affect growth of lambs and fertility of ewes. Comparison of Genetic and “Resistant” animals Non-genetic Control Strategies There is as much difference within breeds as between breeds. The 80-20 rule Strategy Reduction in FEC’s Approximately 20 percent of the flock sheds most (~80 Genetic Selection 69% percent) of the parasite eggs. Protein supplementation 35% Focusing deworming on susceptible animals will Strategic deworming 28% significantly reduce pasture Experimental vaccine 0% contamination. Australia, 2002 Culling worm-susceptible animals will increase flock •Monitor sheep, run in the plots after the end of the experiment had resistance and reduce lower FEC’s when run in the plots previously grazed by supplemented sheep (35%) or selected sheep (46%). pasture contamination. •The largest and most persistent effect on FEC’s and worm contamination of pasture was achieved by genetic selection. Distribution of FECs in a herd Drugs Epg, August 29, 2009 16,000 14,000 (anthelmintics) 12,000 12 000 A valuable, limited resource that 10,000 8,000 must be managed properly. 6,000 4,000 2,000 0S. Schoenian 7
  8. 8. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Three drug families Fenbendazole Drugs kill parasites by starving them or paralyzing them. SafeGuard®, Panacur® drench FDA-approved for goats (6 day slaughter withdrawal). 1) Benzimidazoles Chemical name ends in Labeled dosage should be doubled ..dazole (per Intervet). Fenbendazole, Albendazole, Oxybendazole For control of adult GI worms and o o o o adu G o a d L4 larvae. 2) Nicotinics Levamisole, Morantel, Widespread resistance across industry. Pyrantel 3) Macrolytic lactones Fast animals to improve efficacy. a) Avermectins Double dosage will kill heads and Ivermectin, Doramectin segments of tapeworms. b) Milbemycins Moxidecin One of the preferred drugs for treating meningeal worm. Benzimidazoles The “white drenches” Nicotinics 1. Fenbendazole First class of modern Levamisole (clear drench) SafeGuard®, anthelmintics. Tramisol ®, Levasole®, Prohibit® Panacur® Morantel Most broad spectrum: 2. Albendazole Rumatel®, Positive Pellet, Goat Care-2X adult and L4 larvae Valbazen® V lb ® Pyrantel hypobiotic larvae 3. Oxyfendazole Strongid® Tapeworms Synantic ® liver flukes Wide margin of safety → High level of resistance across industry. Albendazole Levamisole Valbazen® drench Prohibit®, Levasole®, Tramisol® drench or oblets FDA-approved for sheep (7 day slaughter withdrawal). FDA-approved for sheep (3 days slaughter withdrawal) Labeled for control of liver flukes in non- lactating goats (7 day slaughter withdrawal) For control of Adult and L4 larvae stages of GI For control of … worms 1. Adult and 4th stage larvae of GI worms Hypobiotic larvae (?) 2. Varying levels of activity against hypobiotic Adult and larvae forms of lungworm larvae. 3. Adult and larval forms of lungworms 4. Heads and segments of tapeworms → Probably the most effective 5. Adult liver flukes anthelmintic. Safe, but use restricted during pregnancy Lowest margin of safety (1st 30 days). Treat based on accurate weights Administer orally. Widespread resistance across industry. Goats – 1.5x sheep dose Fast animals to improve efficacy. Back on the market, but in limited supply.S. Schoenian 8
  9. 9. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Rumatel Moxidectin Morantel tartrate Cydectin® drench Newest drug (1997). Medicated feed. For control of mature and L4 larval stages of GI worms. Best to feed goats individually. 7-day slaughter withdrawal FDA-approved for all classes of goats . Similar to ivermectin, but disrupts different chemical For control of mature worms neurotransmitter. only. May kill ivermectin-resistant 30-day slaughter withdrawal. worms. Not much is known about its Due to similarity to Ivermectin, efficacy or resistance. resistance will develop rapidly if it is overused. Macrolides Extra-label Drug Use (Macrolytic lactones, ML’s) 1) Avermectins Newest Only Fenbendazole Ivermectin Broad spectrum (SafeGuard®) and Morantel Ivomec®, Zimecterin®, Adult and L4 larvae GI worms (Rumatel®) are FDA-approved Eprinex®, Promectin® Hypobiotic larvae for goats. Adults and larvae stages of Doramectin lungworm Albendazole (Valbazen®), Dectomax® External parasites (biting) I Ivomec® d h C d ti drench, Cydectin drench, and Levamisole (drench and bolus) are FDA- 2) Milbemycins Wide margin of safety approved for sheep. Moxidectin Use of a product that is Cydectin®, Quest® Persistent activity different from its label constitutes extra-label drug use and requires a veterinary prescription and valid veterinarian-patient-client relationship. Avermectins: Ivermectin Ivomec® drench Withdrawal for extra-label drugs Introduced in the 1980’s. Use longer withdrawals for extra-label drugs. Drug of choice for meningeal Meat withdrawal for worm. Cydectin® drench is 23 days when administered to For F control of . . . t l f goats at double the dosage as compared to 7 days for Adult and L4 larvae GI worms sheep. (source: farad.org) Hypobiotic larvae Adult and larvae lungworms Meat withdrawal is 120-130 Larval stages of nosebot days for Cydectin® 1% injectable when administered to goats as 11-day slaughter withdrawal compared to 21 days for cattle. (source: farad.org) High levels of resistance in industry. Keep records of anthelmintic use. Fast animals to improve efficacyS. Schoenian 9
  10. 10. Integrated parasite management (IPM) The future of parasite control Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) 1) New anthelmintics Made from Copasure®, a copper bolus marketed for Zolvix® copper deficiency in cattle. Repackage into doses 2) Natural “dewormers” suitable for sheep and goats. • COWP In research trials, the • Others minimum dose that has demonstrated control is 0.5 g, but as much as 2-4 g may be necessary. 3) Vaccination Use FAMACHA© system to • “Paravac” consortium determine who gets a copper COWP bolus. 4) Gene-marker assisted For barber pole worm only. selection Zolvix® (monepantel) Anthelmintic resistance How to measure New drug class Fecal Egg Count Reduction Amino-acetonitrile derivative (ADD) Test (FECRT) Unique mode of action Conduct fecal egg count before deworming First new anthelmintic class in 25 years Fecal egg count 7-10 days after Kills worms that are resistant to other deworming anthelmintics th l i ti Control group to confirm resistance/efficacy. DrenchRite® (Univ. of GA) Larval development assay (LDA) Drug resistance Currently only registered for use in New Zealand, Great Britain, and Uruguay. < 95 % egg reduction When/will will it be available in the U.S.? Severe Resistance Will it be approved for sheep and goats? < 60 % egg reduction Overuse will cause worms to develop resistance to it just like the other drugs. ** Caused by overuse and misuse of drugs. ** Non-chemical “anthelmintics” Anthelmintic resistance Diatomaceous earth SafeGuard® & Valbazen® Widespread resistance Pumpkin seed Garlic Levamisole Papaya Still Effective in many places ( newly back on market) Tobacco Wormwood Ivermectin Widespread resistance Others So far, efficacy of natural Moxidectin “anthelmintics” has not been Mostly effective proven under controlled, scientific experimentation. Experiments are continuing. ** Caused by overuse and misuse of drugs. **S. Schoenian 10
  11. 11. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Maximize the effect of a Slowing Down Drug Resistance single treatment DO NOT overuse drugs, especially Give proper dose; do not Levamisole and Moxidectin. underdose. DO NOT introduce resistant-worms to Dose orally. your farm Isolate new animals and deworm Deposit anthelmintic in esophagus them with anthelmintics from two (not mouth) to prevent drug from different chemical classes classes. by-passing rumen rumen. DO NOT underdose Fast animals to increase efficacy of Weigh animals or dose for heaviest some drugs. animals in group. Use higher dose for goats than DO NOT rotate dewormers after each listed on label. Goats usually treatment require 1.5-2X the sheep/cattle Rotate dewormers annually dose. Rotate among drug families Consult with veterinarian for proper dose for goats. Use specific dewormers for specific situations. Use drugs from two different chemical classes. DO NOT treat everybody Leave some animals untreated “Refugia” In refuge from the drug Routes of administration What is refugia? Oral Medicated Injectable Pour-On Worms not exposed to Drench/oblets Pellet drug;therefore still FDA-approved FDA-approved Not FDA-approved Not FDA-approved Most effective ? Easy to administer Stays in system longer, Not formulated for susceptible to treatment. accelerating drug sheep and goats Shorter withdrawal Sick animal won’t eat The goal g Easier to administer Accurate dosage??? resistance Accelerates drug Safer Longer withdrawal L ithd l resistance. i t Increase the population of Potential for abscesses susceptible worms. Less expensive How? Selective treatment – leave some animals untreated. After deworming, do not Oral Paste/Gel move animals to a clean Not FDA-approved Choose . . . pasture. Hard to calibrate 1- Sheep Products Hard to administer over tongue Most expensive 2- Cattle Products 3- Horse Products You do not have to deworm every animal. Don’t have to buy as much Parents How We Select for Drug resistance Periparturient egg rise Drug Treatment Next Generation Temporary loss of immunity to parasites at the time of parturition. Egg counts ↑ Often coincides with hypobiotic larvae resuming their life cycles g y in the spring. Dams are the primary source of Resistant infection to their offspring. Consider deworming with an anthelmintic that is effective against hypobiotic larvae. Resistant Increase protein in late gestation ration to counter egg rise.S. Schoenian 11
  12. 12. Integrated parasite management (IPM) When should you deworm sheep and goats? Fecal Egg Counting What you need When they Microscope (min. 100x) Flotation solution need it Mixing vial • Mixing vial and strainer for q qualitative analysis y • Calibrated mixing vial and syringe for quantitative Use fecal egg analysis counts and Slides • Regular slides and cover FAMACHA© to slips for qualitative analysis. help determine • McMaster egg counting slide for quantitative the need for analysis deworming. What do fecal egg counts tell you? Potential pasture contamination. Fecal egg counts are not mathematically correlated Fecal Egg Analysis gg y to worm numbers or the severity of parasitic disease. Monitor and maintain low egg counts; deworm when appropriate to keep Qualitative vs. Quantitative contamination of pasture low. Determine the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment by comparing paired samples from the same animals (treatment and control group). Fecal Egg Counting When to deworm based on FEC’s Qualitative Analysis Example recommendations Shows presence or >1,000 epg in spring, summer absence of eggs >2,000 epg in fall, winter (TN) Identify egg types ------------------- Shows general trends in egg numbers. >500 epg or when there is dramatic h th i d ti increase (Microbus, HI) ------------------- Quantitative Analysis >1,000 epg for goats (OK) Shows specific number of eggs per (>500 for susceptible animals) gram of feces (epg) ------------------- Uses known quantity > 500 epg for goats (Australia) of feces and flotation solution. Depends on worm species, time of year, susceptibility of animals, as well as method of fecal analysis.S. Schoenian 12
  13. 13. Integrated parasite management (IPM) Paracount-EPG™ Fecal Analysis Kit FAMACHA© Treatment Recommendations Deworm adults at scores 4 and 5* Chalex Corporation Treat lambs and kids at categories 3, 4, and 5 (Advanced Equine Products) *South Africa recommends goats be treated at categories 3, 4, and 5 5004 – 228th Ave. SE Issaquah, WA 98029 I h (425) 391-1169 Packed chalexcorp@att.net Clinical Eye Lid Cell Deworm? Category Color http://vetslides.com Volume 1 Red > 28 No $50-60 for kit 2 Red-Pink 23-27 No 3 Pink 18-22 ? $15 each for two slides 4 Pink-White 13-17 Yes $20 for green grid 5 White < 12 Yes FAMACHA© • Reduces the number of treatments by determining which animals to treat vs. treating the whole flock. FAMACHA© • Reduces rate at which worms become resistant to drugs by increasing “refugia” – worms that and Selective Deworming are still susceptible to drug treatment. • Identifies animals that need treatment most often and vice versa; thus offering the opportunity for genetic selection for parasite resistance. Resistance is 20-40 percent heritable. 20-30 percent of flock harbor most of worms and are responsible for most of the egg output. FAMACHA© Precautions • Only useful where Haemonchus contortis is the primary parasite species. • System developed in South • Cannot be used in a vacuum; other Africa in response to the factors need to be considered when emergence of severe making treatment decisions. Ex: Bottle jaw anthelmintic resistance. Body condition Fecal consistency • A system to assess Evidence of scouring Haemonchus contortis Age and susceptibility of animal (barber pole worm) • There are other causes of pale or infection in sheep and goats red eye lids. and the need for deworming individual animals. • Should be incorporated into an integrated parasite management • Named for its originator: (IPM) program that includes proper anthelmintic use, pasture rest and rotation, fecal egg counting, mixed Dr. Francois “Faffa” MAlan CHArt species grazing, etc.)S. Schoenian 13

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