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Integrated Parasite Management
(IPM) in Small Ruminants
SUSAN SCHOENIAN
Sheep & Goat Specialist
University of Maryland Extension
sschoen@umd.edu
www.sheepandgoat.com
www.wormx.info
SMALL RUMINANT PROGRAM
AMERICAN CONSORTIUM
FOR SMALL RUMINANT
PARASITE CONTROL (ACSRPC)
www.acsrpc.org – www.wormx.info
•Veterinarians
•Parasitologists
•Animal scientists
•Extension specialists
Internal Parasites
#1 health problem in sheep and goats in warm, moist climates
Sheep and especially goats are the
most susceptible livestock to internal
parasites (because?)
Close grazing, especially by sheep
Graze close to fecal pellets
Slow-to-develop immunity, esp. goats.
Temporary loss of immunity at parturition
Affected by one of deadliest parasites
We can no longer rely on
anthelmintic treatments alone to
control parasites; a more integrated
approach is necessary.
Few anthelmintics are FDA-approved for
sheep; even fewer for goats.
Worms have developed resistance to all
anthelmintics and anthelmintic classes.
Can’t count on many new drugs.
anthelmintic = dewormer = drench = anti-parasitic drug
Haemonchus contortus
The Barber Pole Worm
A blood-sucking parasite
(roundworm) that pierces the
mucosa of the abomasum
(ruminant “stomach”) and
causes blood plasma and
protein loss to the sheep,
goat, or camelid.
I want your
blood!
0.05 ml blood per day
Female worm
Barber Pole Worm
Symptoms
Anemia: pale mucous
membranes
Submandibular edema
(bottle jaw)
NOT diarrhea (scours)
Ill thrift
 Sudden DEATH
Difficult to control
Short, direct life cycle
Prolific egg producer
Can go into “hypobiotic”
(arrested) state during
adverse environmental
conditions (e.g. winter)
Can survive on pasture
for a long time.
→ Adaptable to environment
Bottle jaw
Pale mucous
membranes
Weight loss, unthrifty
Rough hair coat
Other gastro-intestinal (round)
worms from strongyle family
Direct life cycles
Burrow into the wall of the
abomasum or intestines.
→ Usually secondary in importance.
→ Usually have an additive effect in
mixed parasitic infections.
Symptoms: scouring, weight loss,
rough hair coat, ill thrift, poor
appetite.
*Trichostrongylus
Teladorsagia (Ostertagia)
Fecal egg counts - Larvae ID
2009 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test
Tapeworms
Moniezia spp.
Indirect life cycle
 Worms live in the small intestines.
 Eggs pass out through feces (in segments)
 The egg is eaten by a pasture mite.
 The egg hatches.
 The mite is eaten by the sheep or goat.
 It is the only parasite we can see in the
feces – that’s why we don’t like it!
Light/moderate loads of tapeworms tend
not to be a problem, but heavy infestations
could cause an intestinal blockage or affect
gut motility.
Tapeworms are generally considered to be
non-pathogenic.
Treat with albendazole or praziquantel.
→ Deworming for tapeworms has not been
shown to increase performance in lambs.
Pasture mite
Lungworms
Can have indirect or direct life
cycle.
Transmitted in feces.
Difficult to see in fecal sample
(larvae) – different procedure
is needed.
Severe infestations can result
in coughing, fluid on lungs,
pneumonia.
Difficult to diagnose in live
animal; diagnosis is usually
via necropsy.
Most drugs which kill stomach
worms kill lung worms.
Liver flukes
Fasciola hepatica
Generally not considered to be a
problem in Mid-Atlantic area.
Gulf states and Pacific Northwest.
Require open water and aquatic
snails (wet conditions) as
intermediate hosts.
Can kill adult liver flukes with
Albendazole (Valbazen®) or
Ivomec® Plus (Plus=clorsulon).
Coccidia
Eimeria spp. (host-specific)
Normal inhabitant of ruminant’s
GI system.
More than 10 species affect sheep
or goats.
Not all are pathogenic or equally
pathogenic.
Single-cell protozoa that damage
the lining of the small intestines,
affecting absorption of nutrients.
Causes diarrhea that may be
smeared with blood and/or
mucous.
Signs of disease occur ~17 days
after infection (ingestion of
oocysts).
Damage can be permanent!
 Prevent with good sanitation and
management.
Fecal samples are of limited
value in diagnosing coccidiosis.
Coccidia
Eimeria spp. (host-specific)
Can use additives in feed,
mineral, or water to help
prevent clinical disease in
groups of animals:
Lasalocid (Bovatec®)13
Monensin (Rumensin®)23
Decoquinate (Deccox®)12
Amprolium (Corid®) in
water
Sericea lespedeza may help
to control coccidia.
Treat (individual animals)
with Amprolium or sulfa
drugs (requires Rx).
1FDA-approved for sheep
2FDA-approved for goats
3TOXIC to EQUINES!
Meningeal worm (deer, brain worm)
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Parasite of the White Tail Deer
Small ruminants are abnormal hosts
for the parasites.
sheep, goats, llama, alpaca, horse
Parasite has indirect life cycle
Terrestrial snails and slugs are needed
as intermediate host
Once ingested, larva travel from
intestinal tract to spinal cord to brain,
causing progressively worse
symptoms . . .
Lameness
Gait abnormality
Hind quarter weakness
Paralysis
DEATH
Animals often maintain appetite
Cannot easily diagnose in
a living sheep/goat
(necropsy or spinal fluid)
Treatment
No proven treatment
High doses of anthelmintics
Ivermectin (Ivomec®)
Fenbendazole (SafeGuard®)
Steriods
(anti-inflammatory drugs)
Some recover on their own.
Some do not respond to Tx.
Cannot repair damaged tissue.
Prevention
Restrict access to certain
areas of pasture, certain times
of year.
Control deer population
Control snail/slug population
Monthly deworming with
ivermectin.
LongRange™
Meningeal worm
Fencing to exclude deer
is not usually practical.
How do you know what kind of
worms your sheep or goats have?
Parasite identification
1) Fecal flotation or egg count
 Can differentiate between strongyle
(stomach), tapeworm, and coccidia
eggs.
 Can’t differentiate between most
strongyle (stomach) worm eggs.
eggs (except Nematodirus)
 Meningeal worm does not pass eggs
 Do-it-yourself
• Public lab
• Diagnostic lab
• Private lab
• Veterinarian Eimeria spp.
Moniezia spp.
Stomach worm identification
2) Fecal coproculture / larvae ID
Differentiate between strongyle
(stomach) worms (H. contortus,
Teladorsagia, and trichostrongyles)
• University of Georgia
(Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab)
 Can take test one step further to determine
anthelmintic resistance -- larval development
assay (LDA) or DrenchRite® test.
3) Lectin-staining test (new)
Determine percent of Haemonchus
contortus eggs in sample.
• Oregon State University
• University of Georgia
How do sheep and goats
get infected with parasites?
sheep/goats + grazing (pasture) = worm infection
L3’s infective larvae ingested  L4’s and adults suck blood
Life Cycle of Stomach Worms
Eggs require warmth (60°F) and humidity to hatch to first stage larvae.
Worm problems vary by
location, farm, year, and season.
S O NA J AM J DM JFJ
When Are Larva On Pasture A Problem?
Why & How Do Seasonal Increases Occur?
Lambing Rise
Spring Rise
FEC
Nov 1st
( If No Treatment)
JMF AM J A S O N D J
Spring WinterFallSummer
F
Fecal Egg Counts
(What happens in ewes and lambs)
Lambing
Weaning
Ewes
Lambs
Population Demographics of
Gastrointestinal Nematodes
Haemonchus
contortis
May-June July-September
How long before
high pasture
infectivity?
3 weeks1 2 weeks1
When are the
highest levels of
pasture infectivity?
5-9 weeks 3-9 weeks
How long until low
levels of pasture
infectivity?
3 months 3 months
1 Earlier if high temperatures coincided with rain.
Patterns of Ostertagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Cooperia curticei were basically
similar to H. contortis. Strongyloides papillosus larvae emerge within 2 weeks on pasture and
survival is short. Nematodirus larvae took a lot longer to emerge on pasture than the other
trichostrongylids.
Utrecht University (Netherlands) 1999-2003
Research conclusion: Only a small number of farms can use evasive grazing
as the only method of parasite control. For most farms, evasive grazing
needs to be combined with other pasture control strategies.
Integrated Parasite
Management (IPM)
Goal is not to create parasite-free animals. It is
normal for sheep and goats to have parasites. Goal
is to prevent clinical disease and production losses.
Consider host resistance
Most susceptible
Weaned lambs and kids
Orphan lambs and kids
Yearlings
High producing females
Late -born lambs and kids
Geriatric animals
Goats
Unadapted breeds
Less susceptible
Mature animals
Males
Dry ewes
Pets
Mature wethers
Sheep
Parasite control begins with good
management and common sense
Good sanitation.
Use of feeders which prevent
wastage and contamination.
Clean water, free from fecal
matter and other debris.
Avoid overstocking pens and
pastures.
Isolate and deworm new
additions to the farm.
The primary cause of internal
parasitism is overstocking.
JMF AM J A S O N D
Spring FallSummer
Weaning
J
Winter
Lambing
Kidding
Market by July 1
Winter lambing/kidding
JMF AM J A S O N D
Spring FallSummer
Weaning
J
Winter
Lambing
KiddingEarly marketing
Fall lambing and kidding
Use of “clean or safe” pastures
New pasture
A pasture that has been renovated
with tillage.
A pasture that has not been grazed
by sheep or goats for the past 6 to 12
months.
A pasture that has been grazed by
horses and/or cattle for the past 6 to
12 months.
A pasture in which a hay or silage
crop has been removed.
A pasture that has been rotated with
row crops.
Pasture that has been burned
Severely overgrazed pasture????
Cleaner, safer pastures are a more realistic goal for most producers.
Graze multiple species
Sheep and goats share the same
internal parasites, but they are
different from the parasites that
affect cattle and horses.
Except barber pole worm in young calves.
Producers who graze multiple
species of livestock report fewer
parasite problems.
Cattle and horses “vacuum”
sheep/goat pastures of infective
worm larvae.
There are other benefits to mixed
species grazing, such as
complimentary grazing habits.
Pasture Rest and Rotation
Pasture rotation is a recommended
strategy for controlling internal
parasites because it allows the use
of safe or safer pastures.
BUT, intensive rotational grazing
may not help to reduce parasitism
unless rest periods are long
enough.
Due to increased stocking rates,
management intensive grazing
could increase internal parasite
problems in sheep and goats.
In a rotational grazing system,
ideally, sheep/goats should not be
returned to the same pasture for 2
to 3 months.
Alternative forages
Livestock that browse have
fewer parasite problems.
Livestock grazing tall-
growing forages will have
less parasite problems.
80% of parasites live in the
first 2 inches of the
vegetation.
Grazing tanniferous forages
may reduce the effects of
parasitism.
No worm larvae
up here
Chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, and
Sericea Lespedeza have all
been shown to reduce fecal
egg counts and/or inhibit
larval development.
Birdsfoot Trefoil
Forage
Chicory
Sericea Lespedeza
Sericea lespedeza
Lespedeza cuneata (high tannin variety)
Warm season legume that
grows in acidic soils with low
fertility and tolerates drought
well.
Fed as . . .
Fresh forage
Loose or ground hay
Pelleted supplement (leaf meal)
Goats readily eat.
Sheep will eat.
For control of barber pole worm
May also control coccidiosisImages from acsrpc.org
Nutritional Management
Animals on a high plane of
nutrition and in better body
condition are better able to
withstand worm burdens.
Nutrition in early pregnancy (fat
stores) can affect the immune
response to internal parasites.
Sheep receiving higher levels of
protein prior to lambing have
lower fecal egg counts.
Supplementing grazing lambs with
protein has been shown to reduce
fecal egg counts.
Nutritional supplementation is most likely to be beneficial when pregnant females and young animals
are below optimal body condition at a time when pasture quality and/or quantity is limited.
“Zero” grazing
bedded pens, dry lot with no green vegetation, slatted floors
Sheep/goats raised in
confinement or dry lot
(zero grazing) tend to
have fewer worm
problems.
Sheep/goats put in
confinement or dry lot do
not usually get re-
infected with worms.
Coccidiosis could still be
a problem, if
preventative measures
are not taken.
Good sanitation
Proper feeders
Coccidiostats
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Avg. Fecal egg counts (FEC, epg)
Genetics and worms
Two important traits: resistance and resilience
Resistance
Ability of host to limit infection
Quantified by fecal egg counts (FEC)
FECs estimate number of worms in gut.
Resilience
Ability of host to withstand challenge
and/or infection, and thus maintain
health and productivity.
Quantified by blood hematocrit or
packed cell volume (PCV)
FAMACHA© scores estimate PCV
Parasite traits are moderately heritable - 20-40 percent
“Resistant” Breeds
Some sheep and goat breeds are more resistant and resilient to worms.
Sheep
Natives
Gulf Coast, Florida, Louisiana
Hair sheep
St. Croix
Barbados Blackbelly
Katahdin
NOT
Traditional wooled
breeds
Maybe
Dorper (resilient?)
Royal white
Other
Texel (?)
Goats
Indigenous
Spanish
Myotonic/Tennessee Fainting
Kiko
NOT
Boer goats
Dairy goats
Angora goats
Not sure
Pygmy
Savannah
There is less data comparing
parasite resistance in goat breeds.
“Resistant” animals
There is as much difference within breeds as between breeds.
The 80-20 rule (70:30)
Approximately 20 percent of
the flock sheds most (~80
percent) of the parasite eggs.
Focusing deworming on
susceptible animals will
significantly reduce pasture
contamination.
Culling worm-susceptible
animals will increase flock
resistance and reduce
pasture contamination.
Only resistant males should
be used for breeding!
Distribution of FECs in a herd
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
EPG, August 29, 2009
Heritability of FEC and PCV
FEC
(resistance)
PCV
(resilience)
Ewes 0.31 0.15
Lambs 0.10 0.39
2004, Vanimisetti, Andrew, Zazac, Notter
Selection for
parasite resistance
is possible and will
not adversely affect
growth of lambs and
fertility of ewes.
Comparison of Genetic and
Non-genetic Control Strategies
Strategy Reduction in FEC’s
Genetic Selection 69%
Protein supplementation 35%
Strategic deworming 28%
Experimental vaccine 0%
Australia, 2002
•Monitor sheep, run in the plots after the end of the experiment had
lower FEC’s when run in the plots previously grazed by
supplemented sheep (35%) or selected sheep (46%).
•The largest and most persistent effect on FEC’s and worm
contamination of pasture was achieved by genetic selection.
Drugs
(anthelmintics)
A valuable, limited resource that
must be managed properly.
Three drug families
Drugs kill parasites by starving them or paralyzing them.
1) Benzimidazoles
Chemical name ends in '..dazole
Fenbendazole, Albendazole,
Oxybendazole
2) Nicotinics
a) Imidazothiaoles
Levamisole
b) Tetrahydropyrimidines
Morantel, Pyrantel
3) Macrolytic lactones
a) Avermectins
Ivermectin, Doramectin
b) Milbemycins
Moxidecin
Benzimidazoles
“white drenches”
1. Fenbendazole
SafeGuard®,
Panacur®
2. Albendazole
Valbazen®
3. Oxyfendazole
Synantic ®
First class of modern
anthelmintics.
Most broad spectrum:
adult and L4 larvae
hypobiotic larvae
Tapeworms
liver flukes
Wide margin of safety
→ High level of resistance
across industry.
Albendazole
Valbazen® drench
FDA-approved for sheep
(7 day slaughter withdrawal).
Labeled for control of liver flukes in non-
lactating goats (7 day slaughter withdrawal)
For control of …
1. Adult and 4th stage larvae of GI worms
2. Varying levels of activity against hypobiotic
larvae.
3. Adult and larval forms of lungworms
4. Heads and segments of tapeworms
5. Adult liver flukes
Safe, but use restricted during pregnancy
(1st 30 days).
Widespread resistance across industry.
Fast animals to improve efficacy.
Fenbendazole
SafeGuard®, Panacur® drench
FDA-approved for goats (6 day
slaughter withdrawal).
Labeled dosage should be doubled
(per Intervet).
For control of adult GI worms and
L4 larvae.
Widespread resistance across
industry.
Fast animals to improve efficacy.
Double dosage will kill heads and
segments of tapeworms.
One of the preferred drugs for
treating meningeal worm.
Nicotinics
Levamisole (clear drench)
Tramisol ®, Levasole®, Prohibit®
Morantel
Rumatel®, Positive Pellet, Goat Care-2X
Pyrantel
Strongid®
Levamisole
Prohibit®, Levasole®, Tramisol® drench or oblets
FDA-approved for sheep
(3 days slaughter withdrawal)
For control of
Adult and L4 larvae stages of GI
worms
Hypobiotic larvae (?)
Adult and larvae forms of lungworm
→ Probably the most effective
anthelmintic.
Lowest margin of safety
Treat based on accurate weights
Administer orally.
Goats – 1.5x sheep dose
Rumatel
Morantel tartrate
Medicated feed.
Best to feed goats individually.
FDA-approved for all classes of
goats .
For control of mature worms
only.
30-day slaughter withdrawal.
Not much is known about its
efficacy or resistance.
Macrolides
(Macrolytic lactones, ML’s)
1) Avermectins
Ivermectin
Ivomec®, Zimecterin®,
Eprinex®, Promectin®
Doramectin
Dectomax®
2) Milbemycins
Moxidectin
Cydectin®, Quest®
Newest
Broad spectrum
Adult and L4 larvae GI worms
Hypobiotic larvae
Adults and larvae stages of
lungworm
External parasites (biting)
Wide margin of safety
Persistent activity
Avermectins: Ivermectin
Ivomec® drench
Introduced in the 1980’s.
Drug of choice for meningeal
worm.
For control of . . .
Adult and L4 larvae GI worms
Hypobiotic larvae
Adult and larvae lungworms
Larval stages of nosebot
11-day slaughter withdrawal
High levels of resistance in
industry.
Fast animals to improve efficacy
Moxidectin
Cydectin® drench
Newest drug (1997).
For control of mature and L4
larval stages of GI worms.
7-day slaughter withdrawal
Similar to ivermectin, but
disrupts different chemical
neurotransmitter.
May kill ivermectin-resistant
worms.
Due to similarity to Ivermectin,
resistance will develop rapidly if
it is overused.
Extra-label Drug Use
Only Fenbendazole
(SafeGuard®) and Morantel
(Rumatel®) are FDA-approved
for goats – and only at dosages
listed on label.
Albendazole (Valbazen®),
Ivomec® drench, Cydectin
drench, and Levamisole
(drench and bolus) are FDA-
approved for sheep.
Use of a product that is
different from its label
constitutes extra-label drug
use and requires a veterinary
prescription and valid
veterinarian-patient-client
relationship.
Withdrawal for extra-label drugs
Use longer withdrawals
for extra-label drugs.
Meat withdrawal for
Cydectin® drench is 23
days when administered to
goats at double the dosage
as compared to 7 days for
sheep. (source: farad.org)
Meat withdrawal is 120-130
days for Cydectin® 1%
injectable when
administered to goats as
compared to 21 days for
cattle. (source: farad.org)
Keep records of
anthelmintic use.
The future of parasite control
1) New anthelmintics
 Zolvix®
2) Natural “dewormers”
• COWP
• Others
3) Vaccination
• “Paravac” consortium
4) Gene-marker assisted
selection
Zolvix® (monepantel)
New drug class
Amino-acetonitrile derivative (ADD)
Unique mode of action
First new anthelmintic class in 25 years
Kills worms that are resistant to other
anthelmintics
Currently only registered for use in New Zealand,
Great Britain, and Uruguay.
Testing is complete in US; waiting for company to
release it.
Will it be approved for goats?
Overuse will cause worms to develop resistance
to it just like the other drugs.
Natural “anthelmintics”
Diatomaceous earth
Pumpkin seed
Garlic
Papaya
Tobacco
Wormwood
Others
Natural “anthelmintics” have
not been shown to be effective
at treating parasitism, but
perhaps their use will reduce
the number of animals that
require treatment.
Copper oxide wire particles (COWP)
Made from Copasure®, a
copper bolus marketed for
copper deficiency in cattle.
Can repackage into doses
suitable for sheep and goats.
Also commercially available in 2
and 4 g doses.
In research trials, the minimum
dose that has demonstrated
control is 0.5 g, but as much as
2-4 g may be necessary.
Use FAMACHA© system to
determine who gets a copper
COWP bolus.
For barber pole worm only.
Anthelmintic resistance
How to measure
Fecal Egg Count Reduction
Test (FECRT)
Conduct fecal egg count before
deworming
Fecal egg count 7-10 days after
deworming
Control group to confirm
resistance/efficacy.
DrenchRite® (Univ. of GA)
Larval development assay
(LDA)
Drug resistance
< 95 % egg reduction
Severe Resistance
< 60 % egg reduction
** Caused by overuse and misuse of drugs. **
Anthelmintic resistance
SafeGuard® & Valbazen®
Widespread resistance
Levamisole
Still Effective in many places
Ivermectin
Widespread resistance
Moxidectin
Mostly effective
** Caused by overuse and misuse of drugs. **
Slowing Down Drug Resistance
DO NOT overuse drugs, especially
Levamisole and Moxidectin.
DO NOT introduce resistant-worms to
your farm
Isolate new animals and deworm
them with anthelmintics from two
different chemical classes.
DO NOT underdose
Weigh animals or dose for heaviest
animals in group.
DO NOT rotate dewormers after each
treatment
Rotate dewormers annually
Rotate among drug families
Use specific dewormers for specific
situations.
DO NOT treat everybody
Leave some animals untreated
“Refugia”
In refuge from the drug
What is refugia?
Worms not exposed to
drug;therefore still
susceptible to treatment.
The goal
Increase the population of
susceptible worms.
How?
Selective treatment –
leave some animals
untreated.
After deworming, do not
move animals to a clean
pasture.
You do not have to deworm every animal.
Parents How We Select for
Drug resistance
Resistant
Next Generation
Resistant
Drug Treatment
Maximize the effect of a
single treatment
Give proper dose; do not
underdose.
Dose orally.
Deposit anthelmintic in esophagus
(not mouth) to prevent drug from
by-passing rumen.
Fast animals to increase efficacy of
some drugs.
Use higher dose for goats than
listed on label. Goats usually
require 1.5-2X the sheep/cattle
dose.
Consult with veterinarian for proper dose
for goats.
Use drugs from two different
chemical classes to get a
synergistic effect.
Routes of administration
Oral
Drench/oblets
Medicated
Pellet
Injectable Pour-On
FDA-approved
Most effective ?
Shorter withdrawal
Easier to administer
Safer
FDA-approved
Easy to administer
Sick animal won’t eat
Accurate dosage???
Not FDA-approved
Stays in system longer,
accelerating drug
resistance
Longer withdrawal
Potential for abscesses
Less expensive
Not FDA-approved
Not formulated for
sheep and goats
Accelerates drug
resistance.
Oral Paste/Gel
Not FDA-approved
Hard to calibrate
Hard to administer over tongue
Most expensive
Don’t have to buy as much
Choose . . .
1- Sheep Products
2- Cattle Products
3- Horse Products
Periparturient egg rise
Temporary loss of immunity to
parasites at the time of
parturition. Egg counts ↑
Often coincides with hypobiotic
larvae resuming their life cycles
in the spring.
Dams are the primary source of
infection to their offspring.
Management options
Deworm with an anthelmintic that is
effective against hypobiotic larvae.
Increase protein in late gestation ration
to counter egg rise.
When should you deworm
sheep and goats?
When they
need it
Use fecal egg
counts and
FAMACHA© to
help determine
the need for
deworming.
Fecal Egg Analysis
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
Fecal Egg Counting
Qualitative Analysis
Shows presence or
absence of eggs
Identify egg types
Shows general trends
in egg numbers.
Quantitative Analysis
Shows specific
number of eggs per
gram of feces (epg)
Uses known quantity
of feces and flotation
solution.
Fecal Egg Counting
What you need
Microscope (min. 100x)
Flotation solution
Mixing vial
• Mixing vial and strainer for
qualitative analysis
• Calibrated mixing vial and
syringe for quantitative
analysis
Slides
• Regular slides and cover
slips for qualitative
analysis.
• McMaster egg counting
slide for quantitative
analysis
What do fecal egg counts tell you?
Potential pasture contamination.
Fecal egg counts are not
mathematically correlated to
worm numbers or the severity of
parasitic disease.
Monitor and maintain low egg
counts; deworm when appropriate
to keep contamination of pasture
low.
Determine the efficacy of
anthelmintic treatment by
comparing paired samples from
the same animals (treatment and
control group).
Compare parasite resistance
among animals in the same
contemporary group.
Paracount-EPG™ Fecal Analysis Kit
Chalex Corporation
(Advanced Equine Products)
5004 – 228th Ave. SE
Issaquah, WA 98029
(425) 391-1169
chalexcorp@att.net
http://vetslides.com
$50-60 for kit
$15 each for two slides
$20 for green grid
FAMACHA©
and Selective Deworming
FAMACHA©
• System developed in South
Africa in response to the
emergence of severe
anthelmintic resistance.
• A system to assess
Haemonchus contortis
(barber pole worm)
infection in sheep and goats
and the need for deworming
individual animals.
• Named for its originator:
Dr. Francois “Faffa” MAlan CHArt
FAMACHA©
Clinical
Category
Eye Lid
Color
Packed
Cell
Volume
Deworm?
1 Red > 28 No
2 Red-Pink 23-27 No
3 Pink 18-22 ?
4 Pink-White 13-17 Yes
5 White < 12 Yes
Treatment Recommendations
Deworm adults at scores 4 and 5*
Treat lambs and kids at
categories 3, 4, and 5
*South Africa recommends goats
be treated at categories 3, 4, and 5
FAMACHA©
• Reduces the number of treatments
by determining which animals to
treat vs. treating the whole flock.
• Reduces rate at which worms
become resistant to drugs by
increasing “refugia” – worms that
are still susceptible to drug
treatment.
• Identifies animals that need
treatment most often and vice
versa; thus offering the
opportunity for genetic selection
for parasite resistance.
Resistance is 20-40 percent
heritable.
20-30 percent of flock harbor most
of worms and are responsible for
most of the egg output.
Precautions
• Only useful where Haemonchus
contortis is the primary parasite
species.
• Cannot be used in a vacuum; other
factors need to be considered when
making treatment decisions. Ex:
 Bottle jaw
 Body condition
 Fecal consistency
 Evidence of scouring
 Age and susceptibility of animal
• There are other causes of pale or
red eye lids.
• Should be incorporated into an
integrated parasite management
(IPM) program that includes proper
anthelmintic use, pasture rest and
rotation, fecal egg counting, mixed
species grazing, etc.)
Must know if anthelmintic is
effective.
FECRT
DrenchRite®
How often should you check
animals?
Depends on season and
weather
Always use card! Compare eye
color to chart. Replace card
after 12 months of use.
Should only be used by
properly trained individuals;
improper use can lead to death
of animals.
Precautions
Using the FAMACHA© system to control
internal parasites in grazing lambs
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
10-Jun
24-Jun
11-Jul
22-Jul
5-Aug
19-Aug
2-Sep
19-Sep
30-Sep
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Avg FAMACHA Score
# Lambs Dewormed
26.2%
41.7%
16.7%
7.1%
4.8%
1.2%
1.2%
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
% Lambs/
No. times treated
2005
Using the FAMACHA© system to control
internal parasites in grazing goats
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
10-Jun
23-Jun
7-Jul
21-Jul
4-Aug
18-Aug
31-Aug
15-Sep
29-Sep
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Avg. FAMACHA© score
# Goats Dewormed
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
9-Sep
22-Jun
6-Jul
20-Jul
3-Aug
17-Aug
29-Aug
12-Sep
26-Sep
0
10
20
30
40
50
Avg. FAMACHA© score
# Goats Dewormed
2006 2007
Five Point Check©
5. ©
Back
body condition (and coat condition)
Tail
soiling , dags
(scours)
Nose
nasal discharge
(nose bots)
Jaw
swelling, edema
“bottle jaw”
Eye
anemia
FAMACHA© score
1 3
2
4 5
FIVE POINT CHECK© (5.©)
FOR TARGETED SELECTIVE TREATMENT OF INTERNAL PARASITES IN SMALL RUMINANTS
G.F. BATH AND J.A. VAN WYK, FACULTY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA
Parasite control requires an integrated approach.
Pasture
Rest/Rotation
Strategic
deworming
Fecal egg counts
Mixed species grazing
Alternative forages
Good nutrition
Zero grazing
Genetic selection
Manage anthelmintic resistance
Browsing
Resistant
breed(s)
Good
management
FAMACHA© and
selective deworming
Proper Anthelmintic UseClean(er)
Pastures
Manage grazing height
Protein supplementation
Test for anthelmintic resistance
Early or out-of-season
lambing/kidding
Questions?
www.sheepandgoat.com
www.wormx.info

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Integrated parasite management (IPM) in small ruminants

  • 1. Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) in Small Ruminants SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu www.sheepandgoat.com www.wormx.info SMALL RUMINANT PROGRAM
  • 2. AMERICAN CONSORTIUM FOR SMALL RUMINANT PARASITE CONTROL (ACSRPC) www.acsrpc.org – www.wormx.info •Veterinarians •Parasitologists •Animal scientists •Extension specialists
  • 3. Internal Parasites #1 health problem in sheep and goats in warm, moist climates Sheep and especially goats are the most susceptible livestock to internal parasites (because?) Close grazing, especially by sheep Graze close to fecal pellets Slow-to-develop immunity, esp. goats. Temporary loss of immunity at parturition Affected by one of deadliest parasites We can no longer rely on anthelmintic treatments alone to control parasites; a more integrated approach is necessary. Few anthelmintics are FDA-approved for sheep; even fewer for goats. Worms have developed resistance to all anthelmintics and anthelmintic classes. Can’t count on many new drugs. anthelmintic = dewormer = drench = anti-parasitic drug
  • 4. Haemonchus contortus The Barber Pole Worm A blood-sucking parasite (roundworm) that pierces the mucosa of the abomasum (ruminant “stomach”) and causes blood plasma and protein loss to the sheep, goat, or camelid. I want your blood! 0.05 ml blood per day Female worm
  • 5. Barber Pole Worm Symptoms Anemia: pale mucous membranes Submandibular edema (bottle jaw) NOT diarrhea (scours) Ill thrift  Sudden DEATH Difficult to control Short, direct life cycle Prolific egg producer Can go into “hypobiotic” (arrested) state during adverse environmental conditions (e.g. winter) Can survive on pasture for a long time. → Adaptable to environment Bottle jaw Pale mucous membranes Weight loss, unthrifty Rough hair coat
  • 6. Other gastro-intestinal (round) worms from strongyle family Direct life cycles Burrow into the wall of the abomasum or intestines. → Usually secondary in importance. → Usually have an additive effect in mixed parasitic infections. Symptoms: scouring, weight loss, rough hair coat, ill thrift, poor appetite. *Trichostrongylus Teladorsagia (Ostertagia)
  • 7. Fecal egg counts - Larvae ID 2009 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test
  • 8. Tapeworms Moniezia spp. Indirect life cycle  Worms live in the small intestines.  Eggs pass out through feces (in segments)  The egg is eaten by a pasture mite.  The egg hatches.  The mite is eaten by the sheep or goat.  It is the only parasite we can see in the feces – that’s why we don’t like it! Light/moderate loads of tapeworms tend not to be a problem, but heavy infestations could cause an intestinal blockage or affect gut motility. Tapeworms are generally considered to be non-pathogenic. Treat with albendazole or praziquantel. → Deworming for tapeworms has not been shown to increase performance in lambs. Pasture mite
  • 9. Lungworms Can have indirect or direct life cycle. Transmitted in feces. Difficult to see in fecal sample (larvae) – different procedure is needed. Severe infestations can result in coughing, fluid on lungs, pneumonia. Difficult to diagnose in live animal; diagnosis is usually via necropsy. Most drugs which kill stomach worms kill lung worms.
  • 10. Liver flukes Fasciola hepatica Generally not considered to be a problem in Mid-Atlantic area. Gulf states and Pacific Northwest. Require open water and aquatic snails (wet conditions) as intermediate hosts. Can kill adult liver flukes with Albendazole (Valbazen®) or Ivomec® Plus (Plus=clorsulon).
  • 11. Coccidia Eimeria spp. (host-specific) Normal inhabitant of ruminant’s GI system. More than 10 species affect sheep or goats. Not all are pathogenic or equally pathogenic. Single-cell protozoa that damage the lining of the small intestines, affecting absorption of nutrients. Causes diarrhea that may be smeared with blood and/or mucous. Signs of disease occur ~17 days after infection (ingestion of oocysts). Damage can be permanent!  Prevent with good sanitation and management. Fecal samples are of limited value in diagnosing coccidiosis.
  • 12. Coccidia Eimeria spp. (host-specific) Can use additives in feed, mineral, or water to help prevent clinical disease in groups of animals: Lasalocid (Bovatec®)13 Monensin (Rumensin®)23 Decoquinate (Deccox®)12 Amprolium (Corid®) in water Sericea lespedeza may help to control coccidia. Treat (individual animals) with Amprolium or sulfa drugs (requires Rx). 1FDA-approved for sheep 2FDA-approved for goats 3TOXIC to EQUINES!
  • 13. Meningeal worm (deer, brain worm) Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Parasite of the White Tail Deer Small ruminants are abnormal hosts for the parasites. sheep, goats, llama, alpaca, horse Parasite has indirect life cycle Terrestrial snails and slugs are needed as intermediate host Once ingested, larva travel from intestinal tract to spinal cord to brain, causing progressively worse symptoms . . . Lameness Gait abnormality Hind quarter weakness Paralysis DEATH Animals often maintain appetite Cannot easily diagnose in a living sheep/goat (necropsy or spinal fluid)
  • 14. Treatment No proven treatment High doses of anthelmintics Ivermectin (Ivomec®) Fenbendazole (SafeGuard®) Steriods (anti-inflammatory drugs) Some recover on their own. Some do not respond to Tx. Cannot repair damaged tissue. Prevention Restrict access to certain areas of pasture, certain times of year. Control deer population Control snail/slug population Monthly deworming with ivermectin. LongRange™ Meningeal worm Fencing to exclude deer is not usually practical.
  • 15. How do you know what kind of worms your sheep or goats have?
  • 16. Parasite identification 1) Fecal flotation or egg count  Can differentiate between strongyle (stomach), tapeworm, and coccidia eggs.  Can’t differentiate between most strongyle (stomach) worm eggs. eggs (except Nematodirus)  Meningeal worm does not pass eggs  Do-it-yourself • Public lab • Diagnostic lab • Private lab • Veterinarian Eimeria spp. Moniezia spp.
  • 17. Stomach worm identification 2) Fecal coproculture / larvae ID Differentiate between strongyle (stomach) worms (H. contortus, Teladorsagia, and trichostrongyles) • University of Georgia (Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab)  Can take test one step further to determine anthelmintic resistance -- larval development assay (LDA) or DrenchRite® test. 3) Lectin-staining test (new) Determine percent of Haemonchus contortus eggs in sample. • Oregon State University • University of Georgia
  • 18. How do sheep and goats get infected with parasites? sheep/goats + grazing (pasture) = worm infection L3’s infective larvae ingested  L4’s and adults suck blood
  • 19. Life Cycle of Stomach Worms Eggs require warmth (60°F) and humidity to hatch to first stage larvae. Worm problems vary by location, farm, year, and season.
  • 20. S O NA J AM J DM JFJ When Are Larva On Pasture A Problem? Why & How Do Seasonal Increases Occur? Lambing Rise Spring Rise FEC Nov 1st ( If No Treatment)
  • 21. JMF AM J A S O N D J Spring WinterFallSummer F Fecal Egg Counts (What happens in ewes and lambs) Lambing Weaning Ewes Lambs
  • 22. Population Demographics of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Haemonchus contortis May-June July-September How long before high pasture infectivity? 3 weeks1 2 weeks1 When are the highest levels of pasture infectivity? 5-9 weeks 3-9 weeks How long until low levels of pasture infectivity? 3 months 3 months 1 Earlier if high temperatures coincided with rain. Patterns of Ostertagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Cooperia curticei were basically similar to H. contortis. Strongyloides papillosus larvae emerge within 2 weeks on pasture and survival is short. Nematodirus larvae took a lot longer to emerge on pasture than the other trichostrongylids. Utrecht University (Netherlands) 1999-2003 Research conclusion: Only a small number of farms can use evasive grazing as the only method of parasite control. For most farms, evasive grazing needs to be combined with other pasture control strategies.
  • 23. Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) Goal is not to create parasite-free animals. It is normal for sheep and goats to have parasites. Goal is to prevent clinical disease and production losses.
  • 24. Consider host resistance Most susceptible Weaned lambs and kids Orphan lambs and kids Yearlings High producing females Late -born lambs and kids Geriatric animals Goats Unadapted breeds Less susceptible Mature animals Males Dry ewes Pets Mature wethers Sheep
  • 25. Parasite control begins with good management and common sense Good sanitation. Use of feeders which prevent wastage and contamination. Clean water, free from fecal matter and other debris. Avoid overstocking pens and pastures. Isolate and deworm new additions to the farm. The primary cause of internal parasitism is overstocking.
  • 26. JMF AM J A S O N D Spring FallSummer Weaning J Winter Lambing Kidding Market by July 1 Winter lambing/kidding
  • 27. JMF AM J A S O N D Spring FallSummer Weaning J Winter Lambing KiddingEarly marketing Fall lambing and kidding
  • 28. Use of “clean or safe” pastures New pasture A pasture that has been renovated with tillage. A pasture that has not been grazed by sheep or goats for the past 6 to 12 months. A pasture that has been grazed by horses and/or cattle for the past 6 to 12 months. A pasture in which a hay or silage crop has been removed. A pasture that has been rotated with row crops. Pasture that has been burned Severely overgrazed pasture???? Cleaner, safer pastures are a more realistic goal for most producers.
  • 29. Graze multiple species Sheep and goats share the same internal parasites, but they are different from the parasites that affect cattle and horses. Except barber pole worm in young calves. Producers who graze multiple species of livestock report fewer parasite problems. Cattle and horses “vacuum” sheep/goat pastures of infective worm larvae. There are other benefits to mixed species grazing, such as complimentary grazing habits.
  • 30. Pasture Rest and Rotation Pasture rotation is a recommended strategy for controlling internal parasites because it allows the use of safe or safer pastures. BUT, intensive rotational grazing may not help to reduce parasitism unless rest periods are long enough. Due to increased stocking rates, management intensive grazing could increase internal parasite problems in sheep and goats. In a rotational grazing system, ideally, sheep/goats should not be returned to the same pasture for 2 to 3 months.
  • 31. Alternative forages Livestock that browse have fewer parasite problems. Livestock grazing tall- growing forages will have less parasite problems. 80% of parasites live in the first 2 inches of the vegetation. Grazing tanniferous forages may reduce the effects of parasitism. No worm larvae up here
  • 32. Chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, and Sericea Lespedeza have all been shown to reduce fecal egg counts and/or inhibit larval development. Birdsfoot Trefoil Forage Chicory Sericea Lespedeza
  • 33. Sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (high tannin variety) Warm season legume that grows in acidic soils with low fertility and tolerates drought well. Fed as . . . Fresh forage Loose or ground hay Pelleted supplement (leaf meal) Goats readily eat. Sheep will eat. For control of barber pole worm May also control coccidiosisImages from acsrpc.org
  • 34. Nutritional Management Animals on a high plane of nutrition and in better body condition are better able to withstand worm burdens. Nutrition in early pregnancy (fat stores) can affect the immune response to internal parasites. Sheep receiving higher levels of protein prior to lambing have lower fecal egg counts. Supplementing grazing lambs with protein has been shown to reduce fecal egg counts. Nutritional supplementation is most likely to be beneficial when pregnant females and young animals are below optimal body condition at a time when pasture quality and/or quantity is limited.
  • 35. “Zero” grazing bedded pens, dry lot with no green vegetation, slatted floors Sheep/goats raised in confinement or dry lot (zero grazing) tend to have fewer worm problems. Sheep/goats put in confinement or dry lot do not usually get re- infected with worms. Coccidiosis could still be a problem, if preventative measures are not taken. Good sanitation Proper feeders Coccidiostats 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Avg. Fecal egg counts (FEC, epg)
  • 36. Genetics and worms Two important traits: resistance and resilience Resistance Ability of host to limit infection Quantified by fecal egg counts (FEC) FECs estimate number of worms in gut. Resilience Ability of host to withstand challenge and/or infection, and thus maintain health and productivity. Quantified by blood hematocrit or packed cell volume (PCV) FAMACHA© scores estimate PCV Parasite traits are moderately heritable - 20-40 percent
  • 37. “Resistant” Breeds Some sheep and goat breeds are more resistant and resilient to worms. Sheep Natives Gulf Coast, Florida, Louisiana Hair sheep St. Croix Barbados Blackbelly Katahdin NOT Traditional wooled breeds Maybe Dorper (resilient?) Royal white Other Texel (?) Goats Indigenous Spanish Myotonic/Tennessee Fainting Kiko NOT Boer goats Dairy goats Angora goats Not sure Pygmy Savannah There is less data comparing parasite resistance in goat breeds.
  • 38. “Resistant” animals There is as much difference within breeds as between breeds. The 80-20 rule (70:30) Approximately 20 percent of the flock sheds most (~80 percent) of the parasite eggs. Focusing deworming on susceptible animals will significantly reduce pasture contamination. Culling worm-susceptible animals will increase flock resistance and reduce pasture contamination. Only resistant males should be used for breeding!
  • 39. Distribution of FECs in a herd 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 EPG, August 29, 2009
  • 40. Heritability of FEC and PCV FEC (resistance) PCV (resilience) Ewes 0.31 0.15 Lambs 0.10 0.39 2004, Vanimisetti, Andrew, Zazac, Notter Selection for parasite resistance is possible and will not adversely affect growth of lambs and fertility of ewes.
  • 41. Comparison of Genetic and Non-genetic Control Strategies Strategy Reduction in FEC’s Genetic Selection 69% Protein supplementation 35% Strategic deworming 28% Experimental vaccine 0% Australia, 2002 •Monitor sheep, run in the plots after the end of the experiment had lower FEC’s when run in the plots previously grazed by supplemented sheep (35%) or selected sheep (46%). •The largest and most persistent effect on FEC’s and worm contamination of pasture was achieved by genetic selection.
  • 42. Drugs (anthelmintics) A valuable, limited resource that must be managed properly.
  • 43. Three drug families Drugs kill parasites by starving them or paralyzing them. 1) Benzimidazoles Chemical name ends in '..dazole Fenbendazole, Albendazole, Oxybendazole 2) Nicotinics a) Imidazothiaoles Levamisole b) Tetrahydropyrimidines Morantel, Pyrantel 3) Macrolytic lactones a) Avermectins Ivermectin, Doramectin b) Milbemycins Moxidecin
  • 44. Benzimidazoles “white drenches” 1. Fenbendazole SafeGuard®, Panacur® 2. Albendazole Valbazen® 3. Oxyfendazole Synantic ® First class of modern anthelmintics. Most broad spectrum: adult and L4 larvae hypobiotic larvae Tapeworms liver flukes Wide margin of safety → High level of resistance across industry.
  • 45. Albendazole Valbazen® drench FDA-approved for sheep (7 day slaughter withdrawal). Labeled for control of liver flukes in non- lactating goats (7 day slaughter withdrawal) For control of … 1. Adult and 4th stage larvae of GI worms 2. Varying levels of activity against hypobiotic larvae. 3. Adult and larval forms of lungworms 4. Heads and segments of tapeworms 5. Adult liver flukes Safe, but use restricted during pregnancy (1st 30 days). Widespread resistance across industry. Fast animals to improve efficacy.
  • 46. Fenbendazole SafeGuard®, Panacur® drench FDA-approved for goats (6 day slaughter withdrawal). Labeled dosage should be doubled (per Intervet). For control of adult GI worms and L4 larvae. Widespread resistance across industry. Fast animals to improve efficacy. Double dosage will kill heads and segments of tapeworms. One of the preferred drugs for treating meningeal worm.
  • 47. Nicotinics Levamisole (clear drench) Tramisol ®, Levasole®, Prohibit® Morantel Rumatel®, Positive Pellet, Goat Care-2X Pyrantel Strongid®
  • 48. Levamisole Prohibit®, Levasole®, Tramisol® drench or oblets FDA-approved for sheep (3 days slaughter withdrawal) For control of Adult and L4 larvae stages of GI worms Hypobiotic larvae (?) Adult and larvae forms of lungworm → Probably the most effective anthelmintic. Lowest margin of safety Treat based on accurate weights Administer orally. Goats – 1.5x sheep dose
  • 49. Rumatel Morantel tartrate Medicated feed. Best to feed goats individually. FDA-approved for all classes of goats . For control of mature worms only. 30-day slaughter withdrawal. Not much is known about its efficacy or resistance.
  • 50. Macrolides (Macrolytic lactones, ML’s) 1) Avermectins Ivermectin Ivomec®, Zimecterin®, Eprinex®, Promectin® Doramectin Dectomax® 2) Milbemycins Moxidectin Cydectin®, Quest® Newest Broad spectrum Adult and L4 larvae GI worms Hypobiotic larvae Adults and larvae stages of lungworm External parasites (biting) Wide margin of safety Persistent activity
  • 51. Avermectins: Ivermectin Ivomec® drench Introduced in the 1980’s. Drug of choice for meningeal worm. For control of . . . Adult and L4 larvae GI worms Hypobiotic larvae Adult and larvae lungworms Larval stages of nosebot 11-day slaughter withdrawal High levels of resistance in industry. Fast animals to improve efficacy
  • 52. Moxidectin Cydectin® drench Newest drug (1997). For control of mature and L4 larval stages of GI worms. 7-day slaughter withdrawal Similar to ivermectin, but disrupts different chemical neurotransmitter. May kill ivermectin-resistant worms. Due to similarity to Ivermectin, resistance will develop rapidly if it is overused.
  • 53. Extra-label Drug Use Only Fenbendazole (SafeGuard®) and Morantel (Rumatel®) are FDA-approved for goats – and only at dosages listed on label. Albendazole (Valbazen®), Ivomec® drench, Cydectin drench, and Levamisole (drench and bolus) are FDA- approved for sheep. Use of a product that is different from its label constitutes extra-label drug use and requires a veterinary prescription and valid veterinarian-patient-client relationship.
  • 54. Withdrawal for extra-label drugs Use longer withdrawals for extra-label drugs. Meat withdrawal for Cydectin® drench is 23 days when administered to goats at double the dosage as compared to 7 days for sheep. (source: farad.org) Meat withdrawal is 120-130 days for Cydectin® 1% injectable when administered to goats as compared to 21 days for cattle. (source: farad.org) Keep records of anthelmintic use.
  • 55. The future of parasite control 1) New anthelmintics  Zolvix® 2) Natural “dewormers” • COWP • Others 3) Vaccination • “Paravac” consortium 4) Gene-marker assisted selection
  • 56. Zolvix® (monepantel) New drug class Amino-acetonitrile derivative (ADD) Unique mode of action First new anthelmintic class in 25 years Kills worms that are resistant to other anthelmintics Currently only registered for use in New Zealand, Great Britain, and Uruguay. Testing is complete in US; waiting for company to release it. Will it be approved for goats? Overuse will cause worms to develop resistance to it just like the other drugs.
  • 57. Natural “anthelmintics” Diatomaceous earth Pumpkin seed Garlic Papaya Tobacco Wormwood Others Natural “anthelmintics” have not been shown to be effective at treating parasitism, but perhaps their use will reduce the number of animals that require treatment.
  • 58. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) Made from Copasure®, a copper bolus marketed for copper deficiency in cattle. Can repackage into doses suitable for sheep and goats. Also commercially available in 2 and 4 g doses. In research trials, the minimum dose that has demonstrated control is 0.5 g, but as much as 2-4 g may be necessary. Use FAMACHA© system to determine who gets a copper COWP bolus. For barber pole worm only.
  • 59. Anthelmintic resistance How to measure Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) Conduct fecal egg count before deworming Fecal egg count 7-10 days after deworming Control group to confirm resistance/efficacy. DrenchRite® (Univ. of GA) Larval development assay (LDA) Drug resistance < 95 % egg reduction Severe Resistance < 60 % egg reduction ** Caused by overuse and misuse of drugs. **
  • 60. Anthelmintic resistance SafeGuard® & Valbazen® Widespread resistance Levamisole Still Effective in many places Ivermectin Widespread resistance Moxidectin Mostly effective ** Caused by overuse and misuse of drugs. **
  • 61. Slowing Down Drug Resistance DO NOT overuse drugs, especially Levamisole and Moxidectin. DO NOT introduce resistant-worms to your farm Isolate new animals and deworm them with anthelmintics from two different chemical classes. DO NOT underdose Weigh animals or dose for heaviest animals in group. DO NOT rotate dewormers after each treatment Rotate dewormers annually Rotate among drug families Use specific dewormers for specific situations. DO NOT treat everybody Leave some animals untreated
  • 62. “Refugia” In refuge from the drug What is refugia? Worms not exposed to drug;therefore still susceptible to treatment. The goal Increase the population of susceptible worms. How? Selective treatment – leave some animals untreated. After deworming, do not move animals to a clean pasture. You do not have to deworm every animal.
  • 63. Parents How We Select for Drug resistance Resistant Next Generation Resistant Drug Treatment
  • 64. Maximize the effect of a single treatment Give proper dose; do not underdose. Dose orally. Deposit anthelmintic in esophagus (not mouth) to prevent drug from by-passing rumen. Fast animals to increase efficacy of some drugs. Use higher dose for goats than listed on label. Goats usually require 1.5-2X the sheep/cattle dose. Consult with veterinarian for proper dose for goats. Use drugs from two different chemical classes to get a synergistic effect.
  • 65. Routes of administration Oral Drench/oblets Medicated Pellet Injectable Pour-On FDA-approved Most effective ? Shorter withdrawal Easier to administer Safer FDA-approved Easy to administer Sick animal won’t eat Accurate dosage??? Not FDA-approved Stays in system longer, accelerating drug resistance Longer withdrawal Potential for abscesses Less expensive Not FDA-approved Not formulated for sheep and goats Accelerates drug resistance. Oral Paste/Gel Not FDA-approved Hard to calibrate Hard to administer over tongue Most expensive Don’t have to buy as much Choose . . . 1- Sheep Products 2- Cattle Products 3- Horse Products
  • 66. Periparturient egg rise Temporary loss of immunity to parasites at the time of parturition. Egg counts ↑ Often coincides with hypobiotic larvae resuming their life cycles in the spring. Dams are the primary source of infection to their offspring. Management options Deworm with an anthelmintic that is effective against hypobiotic larvae. Increase protein in late gestation ration to counter egg rise.
  • 67. When should you deworm sheep and goats? When they need it Use fecal egg counts and FAMACHA© to help determine the need for deworming.
  • 68. Fecal Egg Analysis Qualitative vs. Quantitative
  • 69. Fecal Egg Counting Qualitative Analysis Shows presence or absence of eggs Identify egg types Shows general trends in egg numbers. Quantitative Analysis Shows specific number of eggs per gram of feces (epg) Uses known quantity of feces and flotation solution.
  • 70. Fecal Egg Counting What you need Microscope (min. 100x) Flotation solution Mixing vial • Mixing vial and strainer for qualitative analysis • Calibrated mixing vial and syringe for quantitative analysis Slides • Regular slides and cover slips for qualitative analysis. • McMaster egg counting slide for quantitative analysis
  • 71. What do fecal egg counts tell you? Potential pasture contamination. Fecal egg counts are not mathematically correlated to worm numbers or the severity of parasitic disease. Monitor and maintain low egg counts; deworm when appropriate to keep contamination of pasture low. Determine the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment by comparing paired samples from the same animals (treatment and control group). Compare parasite resistance among animals in the same contemporary group.
  • 72. Paracount-EPG™ Fecal Analysis Kit Chalex Corporation (Advanced Equine Products) 5004 – 228th Ave. SE Issaquah, WA 98029 (425) 391-1169 chalexcorp@att.net http://vetslides.com $50-60 for kit $15 each for two slides $20 for green grid
  • 74. FAMACHA© • System developed in South Africa in response to the emergence of severe anthelmintic resistance. • A system to assess Haemonchus contortis (barber pole worm) infection in sheep and goats and the need for deworming individual animals. • Named for its originator: Dr. Francois “Faffa” MAlan CHArt
  • 75. FAMACHA© Clinical Category Eye Lid Color Packed Cell Volume Deworm? 1 Red > 28 No 2 Red-Pink 23-27 No 3 Pink 18-22 ? 4 Pink-White 13-17 Yes 5 White < 12 Yes Treatment Recommendations Deworm adults at scores 4 and 5* Treat lambs and kids at categories 3, 4, and 5 *South Africa recommends goats be treated at categories 3, 4, and 5
  • 76. FAMACHA© • Reduces the number of treatments by determining which animals to treat vs. treating the whole flock. • Reduces rate at which worms become resistant to drugs by increasing “refugia” – worms that are still susceptible to drug treatment. • Identifies animals that need treatment most often and vice versa; thus offering the opportunity for genetic selection for parasite resistance. Resistance is 20-40 percent heritable. 20-30 percent of flock harbor most of worms and are responsible for most of the egg output.
  • 77. Precautions • Only useful where Haemonchus contortis is the primary parasite species. • Cannot be used in a vacuum; other factors need to be considered when making treatment decisions. Ex:  Bottle jaw  Body condition  Fecal consistency  Evidence of scouring  Age and susceptibility of animal • There are other causes of pale or red eye lids. • Should be incorporated into an integrated parasite management (IPM) program that includes proper anthelmintic use, pasture rest and rotation, fecal egg counting, mixed species grazing, etc.)
  • 78. Must know if anthelmintic is effective. FECRT DrenchRite® How often should you check animals? Depends on season and weather Always use card! Compare eye color to chart. Replace card after 12 months of use. Should only be used by properly trained individuals; improper use can lead to death of animals. Precautions
  • 79. Using the FAMACHA© system to control internal parasites in grazing lambs 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 10-Jun 24-Jun 11-Jul 22-Jul 5-Aug 19-Aug 2-Sep 19-Sep 30-Sep 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Avg FAMACHA Score # Lambs Dewormed 26.2% 41.7% 16.7% 7.1% 4.8% 1.2% 1.2% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 % Lambs/ No. times treated 2005
  • 80. Using the FAMACHA© system to control internal parasites in grazing goats 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 10-Jun 23-Jun 7-Jul 21-Jul 4-Aug 18-Aug 31-Aug 15-Sep 29-Sep 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Avg. FAMACHA© score # Goats Dewormed 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 9-Sep 22-Jun 6-Jul 20-Jul 3-Aug 17-Aug 29-Aug 12-Sep 26-Sep 0 10 20 30 40 50 Avg. FAMACHA© score # Goats Dewormed 2006 2007
  • 82. Back body condition (and coat condition) Tail soiling , dags (scours) Nose nasal discharge (nose bots) Jaw swelling, edema “bottle jaw” Eye anemia FAMACHA© score 1 3 2 4 5 FIVE POINT CHECK© (5.©) FOR TARGETED SELECTIVE TREATMENT OF INTERNAL PARASITES IN SMALL RUMINANTS G.F. BATH AND J.A. VAN WYK, FACULTY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA
  • 83.
  • 84. Parasite control requires an integrated approach. Pasture Rest/Rotation Strategic deworming Fecal egg counts Mixed species grazing Alternative forages Good nutrition Zero grazing Genetic selection Manage anthelmintic resistance Browsing Resistant breed(s) Good management FAMACHA© and selective deworming Proper Anthelmintic UseClean(er) Pastures Manage grazing height Protein supplementation Test for anthelmintic resistance Early or out-of-season lambing/kidding