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Integrated parasite management (IPM) in small ruminants


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Integrated parasite management (IPM) in small ruminants

  1. 1. Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) in Small Ruminants SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension SMALL RUMINANT PROGRAM
  2. 2. AMERICAN CONSORTIUM FOR SMALL RUMINANT PARASITE CONTROL (ACSRPC) – •Veterinarians •Parasitologists •Animal scientists •Extension specialists
  3. 3. Internal Parasites #1 health problem in sheep and goats in warm, moist climates Sheep and especially goats are the most susceptible livestock to internal parasites (because?) Close grazing, especially by sheep Graze close to fecal pellets Slow-to-develop immunity, esp. goats. Temporary loss of immunity at parturition Affected by one of deadliest parasites We can no longer rely on anthelmintic treatments alone to control parasites; a more integrated approach is necessary. Few anthelmintics are FDA-approved for sheep; even fewer for goats. Worms have developed resistance to all anthelmintics and anthelmintic classes. Can’t count on many new drugs. anthelmintic = dewormer = drench = anti-parasitic drug
  4. 4. Haemonchus contortus The Barber Pole Worm A blood-sucking parasite (roundworm) that pierces the mucosa of the abomasum (ruminant “stomach”) and causes blood plasma and protein loss to the sheep, goat, or camelid. I want your blood! 0.05 ml blood per day Female worm
  5. 5. Barber Pole Worm Symptoms Anemia: pale mucous membranes Submandibular edema (bottle jaw) NOT diarrhea (scours) Ill thrift  Sudden DEATH Difficult to control Short, direct life cycle Prolific egg producer Can go into “hypobiotic” (arrested) state during adverse environmental conditions (e.g. winter) Can survive on pasture for a long time. → Adaptable to environment Bottle jaw Pale mucous membranes Weight loss, unthrifty Rough hair coat
  6. 6. Other gastro-intestinal (round) worms from strongyle family Direct life cycles Burrow into the wall of the abomasum or intestines. → Usually secondary in importance. → Usually have an additive effect in mixed parasitic infections. Symptoms: scouring, weight loss, rough hair coat, ill thrift, poor appetite. *Trichostrongylus Teladorsagia (Ostertagia)
  7. 7. Fecal egg counts - Larvae ID 2009 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test
  8. 8. Tapeworms Moniezia spp. Indirect life cycle  Worms live in the small intestines.  Eggs pass out through feces (in segments)  The egg is eaten by a pasture mite.  The egg hatches.  The mite is eaten by the sheep or goat.  It is the only parasite we can see in the feces – that’s why we don’t like it! Light/moderate loads of tapeworms tend not to be a problem, but heavy infestations could cause an intestinal blockage or affect gut motility. Tapeworms are generally considered to be non-pathogenic. Treat with albendazole or praziquantel. → Deworming for tapeworms has not been shown to increase performance in lambs. Pasture mite
  9. 9. Lungworms Can have indirect or direct life cycle. Transmitted in feces. Difficult to see in fecal sample (larvae) – different procedure is needed. Severe infestations can result in coughing, fluid on lungs, pneumonia. Difficult to diagnose in live animal; diagnosis is usually via necropsy. Most drugs which kill stomach worms kill lung worms.
  10. 10. Liver flukes Fasciola hepatica Generally not considered to be a problem in Mid-Atlantic area. Gulf states and Pacific Northwest. Require open water and aquatic snails (wet conditions) as intermediate hosts. Can kill adult liver flukes with Albendazole (Valbazen®) or Ivomec® Plus (Plus=clorsulon).
  11. 11. Coccidia Eimeria spp. (host-specific) Normal inhabitant of ruminant’s GI system. More than 10 species affect sheep or goats. Not all are pathogenic or equally pathogenic. Single-cell protozoa that damage the lining of the small intestines, affecting absorption of nutrients. Causes diarrhea that may be smeared with blood and/or mucous. Signs of disease occur ~17 days after infection (ingestion of oocysts). Damage can be permanent!  Prevent with good sanitation and management. Fecal samples are of limited value in diagnosing coccidiosis.
  12. 12. Coccidia Eimeria spp. (host-specific) Can use additives in feed, mineral, or water to help prevent clinical disease in groups of animals: Lasalocid (Bovatec®)13 Monensin (Rumensin®)23 Decoquinate (Deccox®)12 Amprolium (Corid®) in water Sericea lespedeza may help to control coccidia. Treat (individual animals) with Amprolium or sulfa drugs (requires Rx). 1FDA-approved for sheep 2FDA-approved for goats 3TOXIC to EQUINES!
  13. 13. Meningeal worm (deer, brain worm) Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Parasite of the White Tail Deer Small ruminants are abnormal hosts for the parasites. sheep, goats, llama, alpaca, horse Parasite has indirect life cycle Terrestrial snails and slugs are needed as intermediate host Once ingested, larva travel from intestinal tract to spinal cord to brain, causing progressively worse symptoms . . . Lameness Gait abnormality Hind quarter weakness Paralysis DEATH Animals often maintain appetite Cannot easily diagnose in a living sheep/goat (necropsy or spinal fluid)
  14. 14. Treatment No proven treatment High doses of anthelmintics Ivermectin (Ivomec®) Fenbendazole (SafeGuard®) Steriods (anti-inflammatory drugs) Some recover on their own. Some do not respond to Tx. Cannot repair damaged tissue. Prevention Restrict access to certain areas of pasture, certain times of year. Control deer population Control snail/slug population Monthly deworming with ivermectin. LongRange™ Meningeal worm Fencing to exclude deer is not usually practical.
  15. 15. How do you know what kind of worms your sheep or goats have?
  16. 16. Parasite identification 1) Fecal flotation or egg count  Can differentiate between strongyle (stomach), tapeworm, and coccidia eggs.  Can’t differentiate between most strongyle (stomach) worm eggs. eggs (except Nematodirus)  Meningeal worm does not pass eggs  Do-it-yourself • Public lab • Diagnostic lab • Private lab • Veterinarian Eimeria spp. Moniezia spp.
  17. 17. Stomach worm identification 2) Fecal coproculture / larvae ID Differentiate between strongyle (stomach) worms (H. contortus, Teladorsagia, and trichostrongyles) • University of Georgia (Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab)  Can take test one step further to determine anthelmintic resistance -- larval development assay (LDA) or DrenchRite® test. 3) Lectin-staining test (new) Determine percent of Haemonchus contortus eggs in sample. • Oregon State University • University of Georgia
  18. 18. How do sheep and goats get infected with parasites? sheep/goats + grazing (pasture) = worm infection L3’s infective larvae ingested  L4’s and adults suck blood
  19. 19. Life Cycle of Stomach Worms Eggs require warmth (60°F) and humidity to hatch to first stage larvae. Worm problems vary by location, farm, year, and season.
  20. 20. S O NA J AM J DM JFJ When Are Larva On Pasture A Problem? Why & How Do Seasonal Increases Occur? Lambing Rise Spring Rise FEC Nov 1st ( If No Treatment)
  21. 21. JMF AM J A S O N D J Spring WinterFallSummer F Fecal Egg Counts (What happens in ewes and lambs) Lambing Weaning Ewes Lambs
  22. 22. Population Demographics of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Haemonchus contortis May-June July-September How long before high pasture infectivity? 3 weeks1 2 weeks1 When are the highest levels of pasture infectivity? 5-9 weeks 3-9 weeks How long until low levels of pasture infectivity? 3 months 3 months 1 Earlier if high temperatures coincided with rain. Patterns of Ostertagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Cooperia curticei were basically similar to H. contortis. Strongyloides papillosus larvae emerge within 2 weeks on pasture and survival is short. Nematodirus larvae took a lot longer to emerge on pasture than the other trichostrongylids. Utrecht University (Netherlands) 1999-2003 Research conclusion: Only a small number of farms can use evasive grazing as the only method of parasite control. For most farms, evasive grazing needs to be combined with other pasture control strategies.
  23. 23. Integrated Parasite Management (IPM) Goal is not to create parasite-free animals. It is normal for sheep and goats to have parasites. Goal is to prevent clinical disease and production losses.
  24. 24. Consider host resistance Most susceptible Weaned lambs and kids Orphan lambs and kids Yearlings High producing females Late -born lambs and kids Geriatric animals Goats Unadapted breeds Less susceptible Mature animals Males Dry ewes Pets Mature wethers Sheep
  25. 25. Parasite control begins with good management and common sense Good sanitation. Use of feeders which prevent wastage and contamination. Clean water, free from fecal matter and other debris. Avoid overstocking pens and pastures. Isolate and deworm new additions to the farm. The primary cause of internal parasitism is overstocking.
  26. 26. JMF AM J A S O N D Spring FallSummer Weaning J Winter Lambing Kidding Market by July 1 Winter lambing/kidding
  27. 27. JMF AM J A S O N D Spring FallSummer Weaning J Winter Lambing KiddingEarly marketing Fall lambing and kidding
  28. 28. Use of “clean or safe” pastures New pasture A pasture that has been renovated with tillage. A pasture that has not been grazed by sheep or goats for the past 6 to 12 months. A pasture that has been grazed by horses and/or cattle for the past 6 to 12 months. A pasture in which a hay or silage crop has been removed. A pasture that has been rotated with row crops. Pasture that has been burned Severely overgrazed pasture???? Cleaner, safer pastures are a more realistic goal for most producers.
  29. 29. Graze multiple species Sheep and goats share the same internal parasites, but they are different from the parasites that affect cattle and horses. Except barber pole worm in young calves. Producers who graze multiple species of livestock report fewer parasite problems. Cattle and horses “vacuum” sheep/goat pastures of infective worm larvae. There are other benefits to mixed species grazing, such as complimentary grazing habits.
  30. 30. Pasture Rest and Rotation Pasture rotation is a recommended strategy for controlling internal parasites because it allows the use of safe or safer pastures. BUT, intensive rotational grazing may not help to reduce parasitism unless rest periods are long enough. Due to increased stocking rates, management intensive grazing could increase internal parasite problems in sheep and goats. In a rotational grazing system, ideally, sheep/goats should not be returned to the same pasture for 2 to 3 months.
  31. 31. Alternative forages Livestock that browse have fewer parasite problems. Livestock grazing tall- growing forages will have less parasite problems. 80% of parasites live in the first 2 inches of the vegetation. Grazing tanniferous forages may reduce the effects of parasitism. No worm larvae up here
  32. 32. Chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, and Sericea Lespedeza have all been shown to reduce fecal egg counts and/or inhibit larval development. Birdsfoot Trefoil Forage Chicory Sericea Lespedeza
  33. 33. Sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (high tannin variety) Warm season legume that grows in acidic soils with low fertility and tolerates drought well. Fed as . . . Fresh forage Loose or ground hay Pelleted supplement (leaf meal) Goats readily eat. Sheep will eat. For control of barber pole worm May also control coccidiosisImages from
  34. 34. Nutritional Management Animals on a high plane of nutrition and in better body condition are better able to withstand worm burdens. Nutrition in early pregnancy (fat stores) can affect the immune response to internal parasites. Sheep receiving higher levels of protein prior to lambing have lower fecal egg counts. Supplementing grazing lambs with protein has been shown to reduce fecal egg counts. Nutritional supplementation is most likely to be beneficial when pregnant females and young animals are below optimal body condition at a time when pasture quality and/or quantity is limited.
  35. 35. “Zero” grazing bedded pens, dry lot with no green vegetation, slatted floors Sheep/goats raised in confinement or dry lot (zero grazing) tend to have fewer worm problems. Sheep/goats put in confinement or dry lot do not usually get re- infected with worms. Coccidiosis could still be a problem, if preventative measures are not taken. Good sanitation Proper feeders Coccidiostats 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Avg. Fecal egg counts (FEC, epg)
  36. 36. Genetics and worms Two important traits: resistance and resilience Resistance Ability of host to limit infection Quantified by fecal egg counts (FEC) FECs estimate number of worms in gut. Resilience Ability of host to withstand challenge and/or infection, and thus maintain health and productivity. Quantified by blood hematocrit or packed cell volume (PCV) FAMACHA© scores estimate PCV Parasite traits are moderately heritable - 20-40 percent
  37. 37. “Resistant” Breeds Some sheep and goat breeds are more resistant and resilient to worms. Sheep Natives Gulf Coast, Florida, Louisiana Hair sheep St. Croix Barbados Blackbelly Katahdin NOT Traditional wooled breeds Maybe Dorper (resilient?) Royal white Other Texel (?) Goats Indigenous Spanish Myotonic/Tennessee Fainting Kiko NOT Boer goats Dairy goats Angora goats Not sure Pygmy Savannah There is less data comparing parasite resistance in goat breeds.
  38. 38. “Resistant” animals There is as much difference within breeds as between breeds. The 80-20 rule (70:30) Approximately 20 percent of the flock sheds most (~80 percent) of the parasite eggs. Focusing deworming on susceptible animals will significantly reduce pasture contamination. Culling worm-susceptible animals will increase flock resistance and reduce pasture contamination. Only resistant males should be used for breeding!
  39. 39. Distribution of FECs in a herd 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 EPG, August 29, 2009
  40. 40. Heritability of FEC and PCV FEC (resistance) PCV (resilience) Ewes 0.31 0.15 Lambs 0.10 0.39 2004, Vanimisetti, Andrew, Zazac, Notter Selection for parasite resistance is possible and will not adversely affect growth of lambs and fertility of ewes.
  41. 41. Comparison of Genetic and Non-genetic Control Strategies Strategy Reduction in FEC’s Genetic Selection 69% Protein supplementation 35% Strategic deworming 28% Experimental vaccine 0% Australia, 2002 •Monitor sheep, run in the plots after the end of the experiment had lower FEC’s when run in the plots previously grazed by supplemented sheep (35%) or selected sheep (46%). •The largest and most persistent effect on FEC’s and worm contamination of pasture was achieved by genetic selection.
  42. 42. Drugs (anthelmintics) A valuable, limited resource that must be managed properly.
  43. 43. Three drug families Drugs kill parasites by starving them or paralyzing them. 1) Benzimidazoles Chemical name ends in '..dazole Fenbendazole, Albendazole, Oxybendazole 2) Nicotinics a) Imidazothiaoles Levamisole b) Tetrahydropyrimidines Morantel, Pyrantel 3) Macrolytic lactones a) Avermectins Ivermectin, Doramectin b) Milbemycins Moxidecin
  44. 44. Benzimidazoles “white drenches” 1. Fenbendazole SafeGuard®, Panacur® 2. Albendazole Valbazen® 3. Oxyfendazole Synantic ® First class of modern anthelmintics. Most broad spectrum: adult and L4 larvae hypobiotic larvae Tapeworms liver flukes Wide margin of safety → High level of resistance across industry.
  45. 45. Albendazole Valbazen® drench FDA-approved for sheep (7 day slaughter withdrawal). Labeled for control of liver flukes in non- lactating goats (7 day slaughter withdrawal) For control of … 1. Adult and 4th stage larvae of GI worms 2. Varying levels of activity against hypobiotic larvae. 3. Adult and larval forms of lungworms 4. Heads and segments of tapeworms 5. Adult liver flukes Safe, but use restricted during pregnancy (1st 30 days). Widespread resistance across industry. Fast animals to improve efficacy.
  46. 46. Fenbendazole SafeGuard®, Panacur® drench FDA-approved for goats (6 day slaughter withdrawal). Labeled dosage should be doubled (per Intervet). For control of adult GI worms and L4 larvae. Widespread resistance across industry. Fast animals to improve efficacy. Double dosage will kill heads and segments of tapeworms. One of the preferred drugs for treating meningeal worm.
  47. 47. Nicotinics Levamisole (clear drench) Tramisol ®, Levasole®, Prohibit® Morantel Rumatel®, Positive Pellet, Goat Care-2X Pyrantel Strongid®
  48. 48. Levamisole Prohibit®, Levasole®, Tramisol® drench or oblets FDA-approved for sheep (3 days slaughter withdrawal) For control of Adult and L4 larvae stages of GI worms Hypobiotic larvae (?) Adult and larvae forms of lungworm → Probably the most effective anthelmintic. Lowest margin of safety Treat based on accurate weights Administer orally. Goats – 1.5x sheep dose
  49. 49. Rumatel Morantel tartrate Medicated feed. Best to feed goats individually. FDA-approved for all classes of goats . For control of mature worms only. 30-day slaughter withdrawal. Not much is known about its efficacy or resistance.
  50. 50. Macrolides (Macrolytic lactones, ML’s) 1) Avermectins Ivermectin Ivomec®, Zimecterin®, Eprinex®, Promectin® Doramectin Dectomax® 2) Milbemycins Moxidectin Cydectin®, Quest® Newest Broad spectrum Adult and L4 larvae GI worms Hypobiotic larvae Adults and larvae stages of lungworm External parasites (biting) Wide margin of safety Persistent activity
  51. 51. Avermectins: Ivermectin Ivomec® drench Introduced in the 1980’s. Drug of choice for meningeal worm. For control of . . . Adult and L4 larvae GI worms Hypobiotic larvae Adult and larvae lungworms Larval stages of nosebot 11-day slaughter withdrawal High levels of resistance in industry. Fast animals to improve efficacy
  52. 52. Moxidectin Cydectin® drench Newest drug (1997). For control of mature and L4 larval stages of GI worms. 7-day slaughter withdrawal Similar to ivermectin, but disrupts different chemical neurotransmitter. May kill ivermectin-resistant worms. Due to similarity to Ivermectin, resistance will develop rapidly if it is overused.
  53. 53. Extra-label Drug Use Only Fenbendazole (SafeGuard®) and Morantel (Rumatel®) are FDA-approved for goats – and only at dosages listed on label. Albendazole (Valbazen®), Ivomec® drench, Cydectin drench, and Levamisole (drench and bolus) are FDA- approved for sheep. Use of a product that is different from its label constitutes extra-label drug use and requires a veterinary prescription and valid veterinarian-patient-client relationship.
  54. 54. Withdrawal for extra-label drugs Use longer withdrawals for extra-label drugs. Meat withdrawal for Cydectin® drench is 23 days when administered to goats at double the dosage as compared to 7 days for sheep. (source: Meat withdrawal is 120-130 days for Cydectin® 1% injectable when administered to goats as compared to 21 days for cattle. (source: Keep records of anthelmintic use.
  55. 55. The future of parasite control 1) New anthelmintics  Zolvix® 2) Natural “dewormers” • COWP • Others 3) Vaccination • “Paravac” consortium 4) Gene-marker assisted selection
  56. 56. Zolvix® (monepantel) New drug class Amino-acetonitrile derivative (ADD) Unique mode of action First new anthelmintic class in 25 years Kills worms that are resistant to other anthelmintics Currently only registered for use in New Zealand, Great Britain, and Uruguay. Testing is complete in US; waiting for company to release it. Will it be approved for goats? Overuse will cause worms to develop resistance to it just like the other drugs.
  57. 57. Natural “anthelmintics” Diatomaceous earth Pumpkin seed Garlic Papaya Tobacco Wormwood Others Natural “anthelmintics” have not been shown to be effective at treating parasitism, but perhaps their use will reduce the number of animals that require treatment.
  58. 58. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) Made from Copasure®, a copper bolus marketed for copper deficiency in cattle. Can repackage into doses suitable for sheep and goats. Also commercially available in 2 and 4 g doses. In research trials, the minimum dose that has demonstrated control is 0.5 g, but as much as 2-4 g may be necessary. Use FAMACHA© system to determine who gets a copper COWP bolus. For barber pole worm only.
  59. 59. Anthelmintic resistance How to measure Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) Conduct fecal egg count before deworming Fecal egg count 7-10 days after deworming Control group to confirm resistance/efficacy. DrenchRite® (Univ. of GA) Larval development assay (LDA) Drug resistance < 95 % egg reduction Severe Resistance < 60 % egg reduction ** Caused by overuse and misuse of drugs. **
  60. 60. Anthelmintic resistance SafeGuard® & Valbazen® Widespread resistance Levamisole Still Effective in many places Ivermectin Widespread resistance Moxidectin Mostly effective ** Caused by overuse and misuse of drugs. **
  61. 61. Slowing Down Drug Resistance DO NOT overuse drugs, especially Levamisole and Moxidectin. DO NOT introduce resistant-worms to your farm Isolate new animals and deworm them with anthelmintics from two different chemical classes. DO NOT underdose Weigh animals or dose for heaviest animals in group. DO NOT rotate dewormers after each treatment Rotate dewormers annually Rotate among drug families Use specific dewormers for specific situations. DO NOT treat everybody Leave some animals untreated
  62. 62. “Refugia” In refuge from the drug What is refugia? Worms not exposed to drug;therefore still susceptible to treatment. The goal Increase the population of susceptible worms. How? Selective treatment – leave some animals untreated. After deworming, do not move animals to a clean pasture. You do not have to deworm every animal.
  63. 63. Parents How We Select for Drug resistance Resistant Next Generation Resistant Drug Treatment
  64. 64. Maximize the effect of a single treatment Give proper dose; do not underdose. Dose orally. Deposit anthelmintic in esophagus (not mouth) to prevent drug from by-passing rumen. Fast animals to increase efficacy of some drugs. Use higher dose for goats than listed on label. Goats usually require 1.5-2X the sheep/cattle dose. Consult with veterinarian for proper dose for goats. Use drugs from two different chemical classes to get a synergistic effect.
  65. 65. Routes of administration Oral Drench/oblets Medicated Pellet Injectable Pour-On FDA-approved Most effective ? Shorter withdrawal Easier to administer Safer FDA-approved Easy to administer Sick animal won’t eat Accurate dosage??? Not FDA-approved Stays in system longer, accelerating drug resistance Longer withdrawal Potential for abscesses Less expensive Not FDA-approved Not formulated for sheep and goats Accelerates drug resistance. Oral Paste/Gel Not FDA-approved Hard to calibrate Hard to administer over tongue Most expensive Don’t have to buy as much Choose . . . 1- Sheep Products 2- Cattle Products 3- Horse Products
  66. 66. Periparturient egg rise Temporary loss of immunity to parasites at the time of parturition. Egg counts ↑ Often coincides with hypobiotic larvae resuming their life cycles in the spring. Dams are the primary source of infection to their offspring. Management options Deworm with an anthelmintic that is effective against hypobiotic larvae. Increase protein in late gestation ration to counter egg rise.
  67. 67. When should you deworm sheep and goats? When they need it Use fecal egg counts and FAMACHA© to help determine the need for deworming.
  68. 68. Fecal Egg Analysis Qualitative vs. Quantitative
  69. 69. Fecal Egg Counting Qualitative Analysis Shows presence or absence of eggs Identify egg types Shows general trends in egg numbers. Quantitative Analysis Shows specific number of eggs per gram of feces (epg) Uses known quantity of feces and flotation solution.
  70. 70. Fecal Egg Counting What you need Microscope (min. 100x) Flotation solution Mixing vial • Mixing vial and strainer for qualitative analysis • Calibrated mixing vial and syringe for quantitative analysis Slides • Regular slides and cover slips for qualitative analysis. • McMaster egg counting slide for quantitative analysis
  71. 71. What do fecal egg counts tell you? Potential pasture contamination. Fecal egg counts are not mathematically correlated to worm numbers or the severity of parasitic disease. Monitor and maintain low egg counts; deworm when appropriate to keep contamination of pasture low. Determine the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment by comparing paired samples from the same animals (treatment and control group). Compare parasite resistance among animals in the same contemporary group.
  72. 72. Paracount-EPG™ Fecal Analysis Kit Chalex Corporation (Advanced Equine Products) 5004 – 228th Ave. SE Issaquah, WA 98029 (425) 391-1169 $50-60 for kit $15 each for two slides $20 for green grid
  73. 73. FAMACHA© and Selective Deworming
  74. 74. FAMACHA© • System developed in South Africa in response to the emergence of severe anthelmintic resistance. • A system to assess Haemonchus contortis (barber pole worm) infection in sheep and goats and the need for deworming individual animals. • Named for its originator: Dr. Francois “Faffa” MAlan CHArt
  75. 75. FAMACHA© Clinical Category Eye Lid Color Packed Cell Volume Deworm? 1 Red > 28 No 2 Red-Pink 23-27 No 3 Pink 18-22 ? 4 Pink-White 13-17 Yes 5 White < 12 Yes Treatment Recommendations Deworm adults at scores 4 and 5* Treat lambs and kids at categories 3, 4, and 5 *South Africa recommends goats be treated at categories 3, 4, and 5
  76. 76. FAMACHA© • Reduces the number of treatments by determining which animals to treat vs. treating the whole flock. • Reduces rate at which worms become resistant to drugs by increasing “refugia” – worms that are still susceptible to drug treatment. • Identifies animals that need treatment most often and vice versa; thus offering the opportunity for genetic selection for parasite resistance. Resistance is 20-40 percent heritable. 20-30 percent of flock harbor most of worms and are responsible for most of the egg output.
  77. 77. Precautions • Only useful where Haemonchus contortis is the primary parasite species. • Cannot be used in a vacuum; other factors need to be considered when making treatment decisions. Ex:  Bottle jaw  Body condition  Fecal consistency  Evidence of scouring  Age and susceptibility of animal • There are other causes of pale or red eye lids. • Should be incorporated into an integrated parasite management (IPM) program that includes proper anthelmintic use, pasture rest and rotation, fecal egg counting, mixed species grazing, etc.)
  78. 78. Must know if anthelmintic is effective. FECRT DrenchRite® How often should you check animals? Depends on season and weather Always use card! Compare eye color to chart. Replace card after 12 months of use. Should only be used by properly trained individuals; improper use can lead to death of animals. Precautions
  79. 79. Using the FAMACHA© system to control internal parasites in grazing lambs 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 10-Jun 24-Jun 11-Jul 22-Jul 5-Aug 19-Aug 2-Sep 19-Sep 30-Sep 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Avg FAMACHA Score # Lambs Dewormed 26.2% 41.7% 16.7% 7.1% 4.8% 1.2% 1.2% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 % Lambs/ No. times treated 2005
  80. 80. Using the FAMACHA© system to control internal parasites in grazing goats 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 10-Jun 23-Jun 7-Jul 21-Jul 4-Aug 18-Aug 31-Aug 15-Sep 29-Sep 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Avg. FAMACHA© score # Goats Dewormed 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 9-Sep 22-Jun 6-Jul 20-Jul 3-Aug 17-Aug 29-Aug 12-Sep 26-Sep 0 10 20 30 40 50 Avg. FAMACHA© score # Goats Dewormed 2006 2007
  81. 81. Five Point Check© 5. ©
  82. 82. Back body condition (and coat condition) Tail soiling , dags (scours) Nose nasal discharge (nose bots) Jaw swelling, edema “bottle jaw” Eye anemia FAMACHA© score 1 3 2 4 5 FIVE POINT CHECK© (5.©) FOR TARGETED SELECTIVE TREATMENT OF INTERNAL PARASITES IN SMALL RUMINANTS G.F. BATH AND J.A. VAN WYK, FACULTY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA
  83. 83. Parasite control requires an integrated approach. Pasture Rest/Rotation Strategic deworming Fecal egg counts Mixed species grazing Alternative forages Good nutrition Zero grazing Genetic selection Manage anthelmintic resistance Browsing Resistant breed(s) Good management FAMACHA© and selective deworming Proper Anthelmintic UseClean(er) Pastures Manage grazing height Protein supplementation Test for anthelmintic resistance Early or out-of-season lambing/kidding
  84. 84. Questions?