Income opportunities with sheep and goats

8,457 views

Published on

Published in: Education
1 Comment
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
8,457
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
384
Comments
1
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Income opportunities with sheep and goats

  1. 1. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com Introduction Sheep and goat enterprises What you need to raise sheep/goats Breed resources Getting started Economics S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 1
  2. 2. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Monogastric ◦ Simple stomach ◦ Pigs and poultry (and people) Ruminant ◦ Cud-chewing ◦ 4 compartment stomach. - Cows, sheep, and goats ◦ Pseudo-ruminant (3 compartment stomach) - Alpacas and llamas Hind-gut fermenter ◦ Fermentation occurs in the caecum and/or large intestine ◦ Horses and rabbits Sheep Goats Cervids (deer) Camelids (alpacas and llamas) S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 2
  3. 3. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Economic ◦ Profit ◦ Tax advantages Lifestyle – quality of life Self-sufficiency produce own food, fiber Landscape management Less acreage required Less investment Quick return on investment Ease of handling Multi-purpose Reproductive efficiency Grazing behavior Niche demand for products Complement other farm enterprises S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 3
  4. 4. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Small industries Lack of infrastructure Lack of mainstream demand for products. Fencing requirements. Labor requirements. Predator risk. Similar production practices and inputs. Same diseases. Similar niche and ethnic demand for products. Similar constraints to production: the 3 P’s. ◦ Prices ◦ Predators ◦ Parasites S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 4
  5. 5. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Grazer Browser Prefer forbs Prefer shrubs Graze close to ground Top-down grazer Grow faster Grow slow Produce better milk Produce more milk More genetic diversity Less genetic diversity Strong flocking instinct Curious and and group mentality independent (aloof) New and growing Traditional enterprise industry SHEEP - ovine GOATS - caprine Meat Dairy Fiber Landscape management Agritourism S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 5
  6. 6. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Most popular sheep and goat enterprise. Primary income is from the sale of live animals for meat and/or the sale of fresh, frozen, or processed meat products. There is a demand for many different kinds and sizes of market lambs and goats. Primarily an ethnic demand. A marketing infrastructure is already in place for meat animals. Primary income is from the sale of milk, cheese, and/or other dairy products. In most states, operation must be certified grade A or B to sell dairy products for human consumption. Usually requires own product development and marketing. More investment required, but greater income potential. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 6
  7. 7. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Fiber sales comprise a significant portion of the income from the enterprise. Wool (many kinds) Mohair (Angora goats) Cashmere Alpaca Prices in commodity market (wool pool) don’t usually cover costs of production and marketing. Must direct market to make a profit. Land improvement on your own farm or property. Fee-based grazing “Turn-key” operation Animals Transportation Fencing Care ◦ Perhaps, greatest economic potential ! ? S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 7
  8. 8. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Sell stock for trophy hunting or operate your own hunting reserve. Usually hair sheep rams. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 8
  9. 9. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Feed Fencing Housing and shelter Feeders Watering system Labor Usually pasture and browse Hay Grain Alternative feedstuffs S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 9
  10. 10. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Purpose 1) To keep livestock contained 2) To keep predators out 3) To control grazing and manage livestock Three kinds of fencing 1) Perimeter or boundary 2) Interior or cross 3) Heavy use areas Possible cost share from NRCS (EQIP program) for rotational grazing. Multi-strand, high- tensile, electric. Woven wire with extra barbed and electric offset wires. Barbed wire Adapt existing fences. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 10
  11. 11. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Permanent Semi-permanent Temporary, electric ◦ Smooth wire ◦ Polywire, tape, or rope ◦ Electric netting For Outdoor lots Holding areas Working corrals Materials Net wire Metal gates Solid panels Livestock panels High-tensile, non- electric S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 11
  12. 12. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Purpose ◦ Animal management ◦ Isolation area ◦ Feed storage ◦ Equipment storage ◦ Human comfort Needs vary by ◦ Climate ◦ Production system Timing of lambing and kidding ◦ Availability of natural shelter. ◦ Personal preference S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 12
  13. 13. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Maybe not, but if they have access to it, they will usually use it. They “appreciate” protection from bad weather. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 13
  14. 14. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Ample feed storage protects your investment in feed and allows you to make bulk purchases. Annual hay requirements ◦ ¼ to ⅓ ton per animal Hay storage ◦ 180 to 240 ft3 per ton Uncovered hay deteriorates rapidly in quality. Hand / manual watering ◦ Buckets ◦ Troughs ◦ Tanks ◦ Tubs Automatic waterers ◦ Possible cost share from NRCS (EQIP program) for pasture watering systems. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 14
  15. 15. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Daily care of animals Twice daily milking Annual shearing Pasture management Lambing and kidding Parasite control Hoof trimming 1) Purpose meat, milk, or wool 2) Use sire or dam 3) Wool or coat type fine, medium, long, carpet, or hair (shedding) 4) Other tail, prolificacy, minor, rare, heritage S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 15
  16. 16. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Grow wool with the smallest fiber diameter. Their wool is the most valuable in the commodity wool market. They are best adapted to hot, dry climates. They are hardy and long- lived, gregarious, and less seasonal in their breeding habits. 50 percent of the world’s sheep population are fine wool based. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 16
  17. 17. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Romney Grow wool that has the largest fiber diameter, staple length, and yield. Their wool is popular among hand spinners and wool craftsmen. Lincoln Best-adapted to high rainfall areas with abundant forage. Grow wool that is intermediate in fiber diameter and staple length. Excel in meat production (growth and carcass). Mostly of British origin. Most popular breeds: Suffolk, Dorset, Hampshire, and Southdown. Comprise 15 percent of the world’s sheep population. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 17
  18. 18. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Crosses between fine and medium wool. Whiteface sheep raised for meat, but have better quality wool than East Friesian the medium meat-type wool breeds. Columbia Finnsheep A few specialty breeds Polypay 1. East Friesian – dairy 2. Finnsheep – prolific 3. Polypay – 4 way cross Hair coats or hair/wool mix. Katahdin Do not require shearing or tail docking. Possess some unique characteristics: ◦ Caribbean-type Resistant to parasites (worms) ◦ Romanov - very prolific 10 percent of the world’s sheep population. Romanov Growing in popularity in the U.S. and other western countries. Katahdin and Dorper most popular and suitable for meat production. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 18
  19. 19. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Vary in the type and quantify Blueface of wool they produce. Leicester Vary in characteristics. Possess some unique characteristics ◦ Double-coated ◦ Carpet wool ◦ Four horns ◦ Rat tails ◦ Solid black color ◦ Persian lamb skin Many are heritage breeds. Karakul Classify according to purpose . . . ◦ Dairy ◦ Meat ◦ Fiber ◦ Miniature (small) S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 19
  20. 20. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Boer Kiko Boer Kiko Myotonic Tennessee fainting goat Myotonic Spanish Spanish (brush) Not really a breed; a type Pygmy Savannah Pygmy Savannah ADGA recognized Saanen ◦ Swiss Saanen Alpine Toggenburg Oberhasli Alpine ◦ (Anglo) Nubian ◦ La Mancha ◦ Nigerian Dwarf Other Toggenburg ◦ Sable Oberhasli (colored Saanens) ◦ Golden Guernsey ◦ Mini dairy goats Nubian La Mancha S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 20
  21. 21. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 3000 2750 2500 2250 2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 Source: Breed averages, ADGA, 2008 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Source: Breed averages, ADGA, 2008 S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 21
  22. 22. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Angora Angora Cashmere More of a fiber type than a breed Cashmere Pygora Pygma x Angora Cashgora Cashmere x Angora Pygora Cashgora Pygmy (meat) Nigerian Dwarf (dairy) Kinder Pygmy x Nubian Pygmy Mini Silky Myotonic x Nigerian Dwarf ? Nigerian Dwarf Mini dairy goats Nigerian Dwarf x standard dairy S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 22
  23. 23. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 There is a great deal of variation among sheep breeds; less among goat breeds, especially meat. There are no “perfect” breeds. All breeds have strengths and weaknesses. Saanen There is usually as much difference within a breed as between breeds. Mating animals from Boer x Kiko x Alpine different breeds or breed types. Maximizes performance and profitability. ◦ Hybrid vigor Crossbred offspring are superior to their purebred parents. ◦ Breed complementarity Balances strengths and weaknesses of breeds. Use breeds in their appropriate roles S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 23
  24. 24. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Southdown If you want to show purebred breeding stock. If you want to sell purebred and/or registered breeding stock. To produce a specific type of fiber. To produce a consistent type and quality of fiber. To preserve a rare or heritage breed. Get pastures and facilities ready before buying your first sheep or goats. Start small and gradually increase size of herd. Start with healthy animals. ◦ Ewe lambs/doelings vs. mature females. Spend more money on ram and buck. ◦ e.g. 5x the value of a market lamb S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 24
  25. 25. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Reputable breeders Dispersal sales Performance and production sales Consignment sales Local salebarn Free Web-based directories www.sheepgoatmarketing.info Breed associations http://www.sheepandgoat.com/goatbreedassoc.html http://www.sheepandgoat.com/sheepbreedassoc.html Maryland Sheep Breeders Association http://www.mdsheepbreeders.org MPWV Meat Goat Producers Association http://www.meatgoat.biz Maryland Dairy Goat Association http://www.marylanddairygoat.org Frederick County Sheep Breeders Association http://www.fredericksheepbreeders.com West Virginia Market Bulletin http://www.wvagriculture.org/market_bulletin/market_bulletin.html Virginia sheep and goat clearinghouse lists http://www.vdacs.virginia.gov/livestock/ Lancaster Farming http://lancasterfarming.com S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 25
  26. 26. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Business planning Enterprise budgeting File a schedule F Record keeping Make decisions based on science and economics. Control costs Production efficiency Smart marketing S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 26
  27. 27. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Know your costs! Feed least-cost rations. ◦ Shop around for feed ingredients. ◦ Balance your own rations. ◦ Maximize forage resource. Do you own vet work. Cull non-productive and problematic animals. Feed balanced rations. Aim for a 200% (or more) lamb/kid crop. Select for lbs. of quality lamb or goat weaned. Cull animals that fail to raise a lamb or kid. Manage to breed ewe lambs and doe kids to lamb or kid by the time they are 12 to 15 months of age. Use performance tested rams and bucks. S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 27
  28. 28. Income opportunities with sheep and goats 3/25/2010 Aim for the highest “net” price, not necessarily the highest price. Evaluate direct marketing as a means to increase profitability. Consider marketing alliances with other like-minded producers and/or entities. Choose one or two target markets. Don’t let higher market prices compensate for poor production efficiency. Thank you for your attention. Any questions? S. Schoenian - Univ. of MD Ext. 28

×