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Grazing Away Parasites

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Presentation by Dr. Niki Whitley from Fort Valley State University. Part of 2020 Weekly Worm Webinar Series.

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Grazing Away Parasites

  1. 1. Grazing Away Parasites Dr. Niki Whitley Fort Valley State University Cooperative Extension whitleyn@fvsu.edu 478-391-4840 (cell) Some slides/pictures courtesy of Maryland Cooperative Extension, Susan Schoenian
  2. 2. Internal parasites • Internal parasites (mostly “gut” worms) are the primary health problem in goats/sheep • Goats and sheep are the most susceptible farm livestock to worms. • Worms are rapidly becoming resistant (‘immune’) to dewormers. • We need to use every method we can to control worms not just dewormers alone Photo by Susan Schoenian
  3. 3. Barberpole worm (Haemonchus contortus) Although there are other worms that can cause problems, the barberpole worm sucks blood and can kill sheep and goats very quickly. These worms cause anemia (blood loss) that can be seen as very pale eyelids (and bottle jaw – swelling/edema under the jaw from loss of blood proteins). Barberpole worms do not normally cause scours/diarrhea. May cause weight loss. Female worm Barberpole worms in a goat stomach Pale eyelids in a sheep caused by a barberpole worm infection
  4. 4. Other small ruminant worms •Trichostryonglus spp (Hair worm, others) •Nemtodirus (Thin-necked int. worm •Oesophagostomum (Nodular worm) •Trichuris (Whip worm) •Ostertagia/Teledorsagia (Brown stomach worm) •Bunostomum (hookworms, diff species than dogs) •Tape worms (only ones can “see” in feces) •White drenches* Stomach and intestinal – scours, weight loss, poor doers Others: liver fluke (Valbazen®, Ivomec Plus®) Gulf Coast area of U.S.; www.merckvetmanual.com/ Deer worm – Meningeal worm *Some resistance has been found in tapeworms to white drenches (“-dazoles”); praziquantel has been used successfully (found in some horse dewormers); work with vet Photos by Susan Schoenian http://blogs.cornell.edu/smallruminantparasites/chemical-treatment-protocols/ For liver fluke/deer worm – control snails/slugs or fence sheep/goats out of wet areas
  5. 5. Coccidia Other drugs: EPM treatments for horses (working with vet; Merck Vet Manual); diclazuril or ponazuril; not available in U.S. - toltrazuril •Coccidia are different for each species (goats vs sheep vs chickens, etc.); Eimeria spp. •Causes diarrhea, weight loss, poor doers •Damage lining SI; can be permanent. •Treat with amprolium (Corid®) or sulfa drugs; no treatments labeled for sheep/goats, work with vet for extra-label use •Prevent with coccidiostats (rumensin, decoquinate, lasalocid); check label for danger to horses/donkeys
  6. 6. Sustainable Integrated Parasite Management • Understand parasites • Manage animals for their problem level • Create clean or safe pastures • Consider multi-species grazing • Use pasture rest and rotation • Consider alternative forages • Understand the role of nutrition • Could use zero grazing • Manage refugia (worms that will die when treated) • Use genetic selection • Use multiple measures of worm infection to decide which to deworm Photo by Susan Schoenian
  7. 7. Barberpole worm life cycle  Adult worms lay eggs and the eggs exit the animal in feces.  Eggs hatch and grow inside manure to the infective stage larvae (L3; in 3-5 days) which comes out of the manure and can migrate up grass in dew drops/water.  Goats/sheep eat the grass with the L3 on it; in the stomach, the L3 mature (L4, which can go dormant) and then to adults – both L4 and adults suck blood).  L3 (on ground) and L4 (in animal) can hang around for up to 6 months (i.e. in winter; year?); 2-3 months more typical
  8. 8. Who gets worms easiest?* Most likely to get worms (more susceptible) • Just weaned up to yearlings • Orphans/bottle babies • Late-born (in worm season) • High-producing females (milkers/nursing multiples) • Just before/after giving birth • Thin animals • Geriatric animals • Stressed/sick animals • Some breeds/not adapted Less likely to get worms (more resistant) • Mature (adults) • Dry (not milking), open or early pregnant • Pets (“babied”/well fed) • Ones with good body condition scores (BCS) • Some breeds or adapted/selected animals *Manage animals/pastures based on susceptibility
  9. 9. Basic Management • Clean areas, especially where eat; use feeders if supplementing on pasture • Clean water • Avoid overgrazing • Do not graze below 4-6 inches/ balance for nutrition • Time birthing to minimize parasite infections Photo by Susan Schoenian
  10. 10. Pasture or forage management • Rotate pastures; every 1-3 days (MIG) • Rest 2 months (or more) before bringing sheep or goats back to the pasture, in most cases during hot parasite season, 2-3 months is plenty of time www.wormx.info (photo left) Photo above by Niki Whitley More info at: www.wormx.info/bmps
  11. 11. Pasture or forage management • If cannot wait 2 months, manage forage height greater than 4-6” • Up to 80% of the larvae (worms) are in the first 2-3” of forage, but they can migrate up 4-6” inches • Balance for nutrition (as forages mature, quality goes down) Photos by Susan Schoenian
  12. 12. Pasture or forage management •Develop some clean pastures: • New pastures • Rotated with crops/tilled • Dormant “burned” pastures • Cut for hay (biomass removed/area dries) Photo by Susan Schoenian Photo:http://nwdistrict.ifas.ufl.edu/phag/2015/01/23/winte r-burns-benefit-bermudagrass-hay-fields/
  13. 13. Pasture or forage management • Multi-species/mixed grazing can also help “clean” pastures • Do not have to be together (if so, sheep feed/mineral), can rotate pastures among species • Also takes advantage of differing grazing behaviors Bottom photo by Susan Schoenian
  14. 14. Approximate Diet Selection of Grazing Animals when Given Choice Type of Diet Animal Species Grasses Broadleaf Weeds & Legumes Browse (shrubs/trees) Cattle 65-75 20-30 5-10 Horses 70-80 15-25 0-5 Sheep 45-55 30-40 10-20 Goats 20-30 10-30 40-60 White-tailed deer 10-30 30-50 30-50 Pastures for Goats and Sheep, Greg Brann, NRCS-TN (info from Southern Forages book) Pasture or forage management
  15. 15. Graphical Description of Diet Choice Selectivity Graphics by Dennis Hancock Pre-hensile lips goats/sheep make selective grazing/browsing easy! Pasture or forage management
  16. 16. Stocking Rates on 2-2 ½ Acres (based on animal units - AU) Pasture Type Cows Sheep Goats Cows + Goats Excellent Pasture 1 5-6 6-8 1 + 1-2 Brushy Pasture 0.75 6-7 9-11 0.75 + 2-4 Silvopasture 0.5-0.75 4-6 6-8 0.5 + 2-4 *Brush Eradication 9-15 0.5 + 6-8 *Sheep can also be used for brush clearing though it may take longer than for goats. Slide by Dennis Hancock, modified Pasture or forage management For parasite management, could start with stocking rates of 3-5 adult sheep or goats per acre
  17. 17. Pasture or forage management • Allow access to browse (like woods/cutover areas); could even plant some? Photo Credit: Angela Boudro, Oregon St. Univ. from Dennis Hancock, UGA
  18. 18. Photo Credit: Angela Boudro, Oregon St. Univ.; from Dennis Hancock, UGA Pasture or forage management 8 days later….
  19. 19. Some browse very nutritious Photo credit: D. Ditsch and B. Sears, UKCES from Dennis Hancock, UGA Kudzu: 55-60% TDN (energy); 12-18% CP (protein) Pasture or forage management
  20. 20. Pasture or forage management • Will need to rotate, or could have erosion and/or lose the available forage • Leave at least (no less than) 20% of leaf on individual plants to survive? May need more! Photo credit: D. Ditsch and B. Sears, UKCES; from Dennis Hancock, UGA
  21. 21. Pasture or forage management • Forages with high tannin (like sericea lespedeza) have been shown to lower worm egg counts (and coccidia oocyst counts) in feces of goats and sheep Photo by Susan Schoenian www.wormx.info; Joan Burke More info at: www.wormx.info/bmps
  22. 22. Pasture or forage management • Birdsfoot (and Big) trefoil and chicory have some tannin Birdsfoot trefoil; photo Ken Turner, wormx.info Chicory; photos by Susan Schoenian
  23. 23. Pasture or forage management • No one silver bullet • Not even sericea lespedeza • Long-term feeding as primary source, lower ADG vs Bermuda; lower (not deficient) Mo, other minerals • Idea for use: 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after weaning to help control parasites/coccidiaPhoto by Joan Burke; wormx.info
  24. 24. Nutritional management • Animals fed well and in better body condition are better able to handle or resist worms; this is especially important in late pregnancy (help lower issues with PPER?) • Forage/pasture alone cannot always meet energy requirements (see note in yellow box below) TDN (energy) Adapted from a presentation by An Pieschel, TN State Univ; data from Dr. Luginbuhl, NCSU. Sheep have similar requirement trends; breed matters – some young fast-growing kids/lambs may require 79-90% TDN!
  25. 25. Nutritional management • Higher protein has been shown to reduce problems with worms; up to 30% above requirements • Some browse/brushy plants with high protein: mimosa, locust (black/honey), mulberry, privet, kudzu, green briar, trumpet creeper • Pastures (with legumes for weanlings/lactating females?) only in vegetative state MAY meet protein requirements (see note below in yellow box) •Supplemental feeding on pasture helps them fight worms Adapted from a presentation by An Pieschel, TN State Univ; data from Dr. Luginbuhl, NCSU. Protein Sheep have similar requirement trends; breed matters – some young fast-growing kids/lambs may require 19-25% protein!
  26. 26. Body condition scoring Spine Transverse processes Muscle Fat 1 Individually clearly felt, sharp, obvious Fingers easily pass underneath Very little No 2 Form a smooth line with deep undulations Smooth round edges Concave Very thin 3 Only slightly detectable undulations Well covered have to push firmly to get fingers underneath Not concave Not convex Moderate 4 Only detectable with firm pressure Cannot be felt at all Maximally developed Convex Thick 5 Not detectable Very thick Score: 1 2 3 4 5 Videos available online for goats at Langston University; for sheep at Purdue University (search body condition scoring and choose videos for more) For dairy goats, use ADGA information for body condition scoring (online) Goats score 0.5 score higher than sheep with same fat cover Try to keep between 2-4, depending on production status!
  27. 27. Pasture or forage management • Use of annuals can help with parasite management through: • Creation of ‘new’ (clean) pastures • Providing supplemental nutrition • Warm season examples: chicory, millet, sorghum, sunnhemp, cowpeas • Cool season: small grains (oats, rye, barley, wheat), ryegrass, clovers; rape, turnips, forage peas, radish; some mixes for deer may be good for goats (and sheep) SunnHemp; photo by Susan Schoenian
  28. 28. • Zero grazing or hybrid systems • In before dew; out when dried off • Or never graze, bring fresh forage to them (cut and carry); or bring hay/feed • If in barns/shelter or dry lots with no access to grazing, few/no worm problems (as long as don’t eat off the ground); can be economically feasible • Coccidia could be a problem if feeders, waterers, housing not kept clean Pasture or forage management Bottom photo by Susan Schoenian
  29. 29. • Plant multiple plant species for pastures/browse • Some have tried grasses mixed with forbs (i.e. dandelion, chickweed, birdsfoot trefoil, plantain); talk to local county Extension agent for ideas • Manage refugia on pastures by managing number of animals dewormed (targeted selective treatment; TST) • Manage pastures for high quality forages • Soil testing/fertilizing • Mow/Trim as needed for forage quality • Weed control (?) – for those weeds with little/no nutritional value and toxic plants Pasture or forage management
  30. 30. Pasture or forage management • Can conduct fecal egg counts to indicate potential parasite burdens on pastures (can learn to do yourself) • Duddington flagrans (Bioworma®/Livamol® with Bioworma® – fungus with potential to reduce pasture burdens • Traps larvae in poop (and digests it) so it cannot infect animals • Feed daily (more research needed); may target groups with most problems Photos: Susan Schoenian
  31. 31. Reducing pasture contamination – Bioworma® cost (minus shipping) Animal Livamol with Bioworma® per animal Bioworma ® per animal 50 lb lamb/kid $0.30/d; $9/mon $0.10/d; $3/mon 100 lb ewe/doe $0.60; $18/mon $0.20/d; $6/mon Pasture or forage management Bioworma/Livamol ready to feed: ($89.50/15 lb or 240 oz; $0.373/oz); 0.8 oz/d/50 lb; 1.6 oz/d/100 lb Bioworma (must mix): ($495/15 lb or 240 oz; $2.063/oz); 0.05 oz/d/50 lb; 0.1 oz/d/100 lb More info in the BIOWORMA webinar available at: www.wormx.info/webinar-videos
  32. 32. Pasture or forage management • Again, no ‘silver bullet’ • Use an integrated approach to include pasture/forage and animal management, genetic selection, and deworming management, etc. Photo: Molly Klein; wormx.info Fact sheets on pasture management, nutritional management and sericea lespedeza, among others available at: https://www.wormx.info/bmps

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