Diagnosing and treating diseases


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This is the 3rd webinar in a 5-art series on Sheep & Goat Health.

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Diagnosing and treating diseases

  2. 2. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASES DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT Sometimes, we can’t identify the disease or causative organism; Sometimes, all we can do is treat symptoms. Sometimes, we never know.
  3. 3. THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS TO DIAGNOSE DISEASE PROBLEMS IN SMALL RUMINANTS. • Clinical signs (symptoms) • Physical exam • Case history • Response to treatment • Serology (blood testing) • Other tests • Necropsy (post-mortem)
  4. 4. MOST (BUT NOT ALL) DISEASES HAVE CLINICAL SIGNS (SYMPTOMS). KEEN OBSERVATION IS THE KEY. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Appetite Behavior Gait Recumbency Body condition Discharges (vaginal, nasal) Hair or wool loss Fecal consistency (dagginess) Color of mucous membranes Lesions Abscesses Swelling Pus Pain Breathing Sheep and goats are generally slow to show clinical signs.
  5. 5. MANY DISEASE CONDITIONS ARE DIAGNOSED ON THE BASIS OF CLINICAL SIGNS (SYMPTOMS). • Acidosis • Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) • Bloat • Polioencephalomalacia (polio) (thiamine deficiency) • Floppy kid syndrome • Grass tetany (Mg deficiency) • Hoof diseases • Listeriosis (circling disease) • Mastitis • Meningeal worm (deer, brain worm) • Milk fever (low blood Ca) • Pregnancy toxemia (low blood glucose) • Prolapses (rectal, uterine, vaginal) • Scrapie • Sore mouth • Tetanus • Urinary calculi (kidney stones) • White muscle disease
  6. 6. A PHYSICAL EXAM WILL IDENTIFY MANY DISEASE PROBLEMS IN SHEEP AND GOATS. • • • • • • • • • Body temperature FAMACHA© score (1-5) Body condition score (1-5) Fecal consistency, dagginess Heart rate Respiratory rate Rumen activity Breathing Close inspection of body for abscesses, swelling, pain, obstruction, s kin irritation, infection, etc. Normal is 102-103°F (101-104°F).
  7. 7. MANY DISEASES ARE DIAGNOSED AFTER A THOROUGH PHYSICAL EXAM IS CONDUCTED. • Arthritis • Hoof diseases • Bloat • Mastitis • Club lamb fungus (ringworm) • Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) • Dystocia (malpresentation) • Pink eye • Dystocia (ringwomb) • Pneumonia • Epididymitis • Skin diseases • External parasites • Sore mouth • Hernia • Urinary calculi (kidney stones)
  8. 8. CASE HISTORIES ARE USEFUL FOR DIAGNOSING DISEASE PROBLEMS. • Weight, age, and of animal • Other animals affected • Other deaths • Other symptoms • Nutritional management • Changes in feed and management • Vaccination history • Treatment history • Reproductive management
  9. 9. SOME DISEASES ARE CONFIRMED BASED ON THE RESPONSE TO TREATMENT. • Floppy kid syndrome (sodium bicarbonate) • Grass tetany (magnesium) • Milk fever (calcium) • Polioencephalomalacia (thiamine) • Pregnancy toxemia (glucose) Milk fever or pregnancy toxemia?
  10. 10. FECAL TESTS ARE AN IMPORTANT DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL RUMINANT PRODUCERS. GASTRO-INTESTINAL PARASITES OTHER DISEASE CONDITIONS • Simple fecal flotation • Infectious diarrhea (scours) • Fecal egg count (FEC) • Johne’s disease • Fecal oocyte count (FOC) • Fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) • DrenchRite® larval development assay • Fecal coproculture (larvae ID) • Leptin staining test
  11. 11. SEROLOGY (BLOOD TESTING) CAN BE USED TO DIAGNOSE OR CONFIRM MANY DISEASE PROBLEMS. • Anemia (Haemonchosis) (packed cell volume) • Johne’s disease • Bluetongue • Milk fever (low blood Ca) • Caseous lymphadentitis (CL) • Other: cancer, kidney infection/disease . . . • Caprine arthritic encephalitis (CAE) (antibodies against the virus) • Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) • Leptospirosis • Diarrhea (infectious) • Polioencephalomalacia (thiamine deficiency) • Epididymitis (B. ovis) • Pregnancy toxemia (low blood glucose) • Floppy kid syndrome (metabolic acidosis) • Toxicities and deficiencies • Grass tetany (Mg deficiency) • Toxoplasmosis (abortion)
  12. 12. MANY OTHER TESTS CAN BE CONDUCTED TO MAKE OR CONFIRM A DISEASE DIAGNOSIS. • Acidosis, indigestion Rumen pH • Pregnancy toxemia Urine - ketone bodies • Caseous lymphadentitis (CL) Pus - culture superficial abscess • Scrapie Rectal biopsy Third eyelid test • Club lamb fungus (ringworm) hair, skin samples • Epididymitis Semen - B. ovis • Listeriosis (circling disease) Cerebral spinal fluid • Mastitis - milk California Mastitis Test - SCCs Culture and antibiotic sensitivity • Skin diseases Skin scrapings • Toxicities and deficiencies Tissue culture: liver, kidney Feed, water, and soil analysis
  13. 13. SOME DISEASES CAN ONLY BE DIAGNOSED OR CONFIRMED BY NECROPSY (POST MORTEM EXAM). • Abortion (many kinds) • Listeriosis (circling disease) • Caseous lymphadenitis (CL) internal abscesses • Lungworms • Coccidiosis (nodules on small intestines) • Plant toxicities • Meningeal worm (deer, brain worm) • Diarrhea • Pneumonia • Enterotoxemia (Clostridia) • Polioencephalomalacia (pneumonia) • Rabies Many times, a necropsy is unable to determine the cause of death. • Scrapie (brain tissue) • Stomach worms
  14. 14. NECROPSIES • If a flock or herd experiences too many unexplained deaths, specimens should be submitted to a diagnostic laboratory. • Fresh specimens increase the probability of getting a diagnosis. • A complete clinical history should be provided with the specimen(s). • Ideally, you should work with your veterinarian when submitting samples to a state diagnostic lab. • Producers can learn to do simple on-farm necropsies, “digital” necropsies, and/or harvest tissues for testing
  15. 15. TREATING DISEASES • Anthelmintics • Antibiotics • Anti-inflammatories • Other injectable medications • Other medications and treatments • Home remedies • Homeopathic remedies
  16. 16. ANTHELMINTICS (DEWORMERS) Indications Trade name Drug Class Round worms Tape worms Lung worms Flukes Larvae Hypobiotic External Drug Resistance FDA approval Sheep Cydectin® Moxidectin ML  *   ✗ **  Ivomec® Ivermectin ML     nasal bots ****  Prohibit® Levamisole IMID   ? ? *  Rumatel ® Morantel IMID  SafeGuard ® Fenbendazole BZ  *  Valbazen ® Albendazole BZ    Zolvix® Monepantel AAD  Goats • • • • ?      ****   ****  0  flukes Not available yet All dewormers should be administered orally, using drench formulations. Goats should be given 1.5 to 2x the sheep dose. Fenbendazole and ivermectin are the drugs of choice for the meningeal worm. Drug resistance varies by geographic region and individual farm. You must test to figure it out for your farm.
  17. 17. ANTIBIOTICS Tradename Drug Indications Sheep Goats Aureomycin® Chlortetracycline Vibrionic abortion (Camplylobacter) OTC OTC Rx Di-methox, Albon® Sulfadimethoxine Streptococcus, staphylococcus, some e. coli and salmonella, and coccidia organisms OTC Rx Excenel® Ceftioflur Hydrochoride Broad spectrum antibiotic Rx Rx Gallimycin® Erythromycin Upper respiratory infections and lamb dysentery OTC OTC Rx LA-200® Oxy-200 Oxytetracycline General bacterial infections, pneumonia, diarrhea, footrot, uterine infections and pink eye OTC Rx OTC Rx Naxcel® Ceftiofur General bacterial infections including pneumonia Rx Rx Salmonella, e. coli, clostridium, and camplyobacter OTC OTC Pneumonia and upper respiratory infections Rx Rx General bacterial infections, pneumonia, and mastitis OTC OTC Rx Neomycin Nuflor® Florfenicol Penicillin G Procaine OTC Rx Spectam® Spectinomycin Scours and other infections OTC Rx OTC Rx Sulmet® Sulfamethazine General bacterial infections, pneumonia, diarrhea, and uterine infections OTC Rx OTC Rx Terramycin® Oxytetracycline Bacterial enteritis, bacterial pneumonia OTC OTC Rx Today® Cephapirin sodium Intramammary treatment for clinical and sub-clinical mastitis OTC Rx OTC Rx Tomorrow® Cephapirin Intramammary treatment of dry animal for mastitis OTC Rx OTC Rx Tylan® Tylosin Respiratory and general bacterial infections OTC Rx OTC Rx
  18. 18. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS Trade name Drug Indications Sheep Goats Aspirin Acetylsalicylic acid Where pain relief or fever reduction is needed (infection, muscle damage, arthritis, joint pain) OTC OTC Banamine® Flunixin meglumine Use for fever, mastitis, bacterial infection muscle damage, intestinal or stomach pain. Rx Rx Phenylbutazone Where pain relief or fever reduction is needed (infection, muscle damage, arthritis, joint pain) Rx Rx Steroid anti-inflammatory. Stronger than prednisone . Use when severe inflammation or pain. Rx Rx Bute Dexamethasone
  19. 19. OTHER INJECTABLE MEDICATIONS Tradename Drug Indications Bo-Se® Selenium and vitamin E Prevent retained placentas and treat muscle/tendon problems or white muscle disease due to selenium deficiency Rx Rx Cal-Dextro® Calcium Treat milk fever and grass tetany Rx Rx CMPK Calcium Treat milk fever and grass tetanus Rx or OTC Rx or OTC Allergic reactions Rx Rx Induce abortion or parturition Rx Rx Induce labor, contract uterus Rx Rx Treat thiamine deficiency (polioencephalomalacia Rx Rx Vitamin A-D-E Increase vitamin A, D, and E status of animals OTC OTC Vitamin B complex Stimulate appetite OTC Rx Epinephrine Lutalyse® PGF2A Oxytocin Thiamine HCL Vitamin B1 Sheep Goats
  20. 20. OTHER MEDICATIONS / TREATMENTS Drug Indications Sheep Goats Bimusal (Pepto Bismal) Non-infectious diarrhea OTC OTC Kaolin Pectin (Kaopectate) Non-infectious diarrhea OTC OTC Mineral oil Constipation and acidosis OTC OTC Nutri-drench Nutritional supplement OCT OCT Probios® Appetite stimulant OCT OCT Propylene glycol Liquid source of energy. Treat pregnancy toxemia, rumenitis OTC OTC Red Cell Nutritional supplement for horses OTC OTC Therabloat Treat bloat OTC OTC Zinc sulfate Treat foot rot and scald OTC OTC
  21. 21. COMMON HOME REMEDIES Drug Indications Antacid Neutralize acid in rumen, treat bloat Baking soda Neutralize acid in rumen Corn oil Homemade “nutri-drench” Gatorade Electrolytes Honey Source of energy Karo syrup Source of energy Homemade “nutri-drench” Molasses Source of energy Pedialyte Electrolytes Vegetable oil Treat bloat Yogurt Restore health bacteria to rumen. Treat non-infectious diarrhea Stimulate appetite Treat stress
  22. 22. EXTRA-LABEL DRUG USE • Few drugs are FDA-approved for use in sheep; even fewer for goats. • Sheep and goat producers depend on extra-label drug use to treat their animals. • Any use of a drug that is inconsistent with its label must meet the requirements of the extra-label drug use law (ELDU). 1. Different species Example: deworming a goat with Cydectin® 2. Different dosage Example: doubling SafeGuard® dosage for goats 3. Different route of administration Example: administering Penicillin to sheep subcutaneously (SQ)
  23. 23. EXTRA-LABEL DRUG USE • Only a licensed veterinarian may administer, prescribe, or dispense a drug extra-labelly. • Extra-label drug use (ELDU) law • A valid veterinarian-client patient relationship must exist. • The animal’s health must be threatened. • There is no approved drug that contains the same active ingredient in the required dosage form and concentration. • Substantially extended withdrawal period. • Extra-label drug use must not create a violative residue.