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WESTERN MARYLAND
PASTURE-BASED MEAT GOAT
PERFORMANCE TEST

SUSAN SCHOENIAN
Sheep &Goat Specialist
Western Maryland Researc...
Which buck is better?
Which buck’s offspring will be more likely to survive to weaning?
Which buck’s offspring will grow f...
Selection criteria for bucks (and
rams)
VISUAL APPRAISAL


Live evaluation






Body conformation
Live handling
Meas...
Central performance testing
“A central performance test is
where animals from different
herds are brought to one
central l...
Small ruminant performance
tests
RAMS

BUCKS











Kerr Center (OK)
North Dakota
Penn State
Texas A&M
Virgini...
Limitations to central performance
testing
GENETICS




Limited to traits that can
be measured in the
young male.
What i...
Western Maryland Pasture-based
Meat Goat Performance Test
Established
in 2006 to
evaluate the
performance
of weanling
male...
Maryland buck test
Most important goal is to identify bucks that are more resistant to internal
parasites.

RESISTANCE
Fec...
Eligibility
Male goats of any breed or breed cross, born between
December 15 (previous year) and March 20 (test year) and
...
12.5-acre pasture system
Six paddocks for rotational grazing
Cool season grasses

ORCHARDGRASS

MAXQ™ TALL FESCUE
Warm season grass
DWARF PEARL MILLET (ANNUAL)
Chicory
Herb with “anthelmintic-like” properties
Weeds

Plant

Protei
n

TDN

RFV

Mixed weeds

14.1%

65.8
%

111

Chicory

14.3%

Lambsquarte

23.2%

75.3
184
Relative f...
Silvopasture
WALNUT TREES + MIXED HARDWOODS
Extremes in forage conditions
CONSIDERABLE SEASONAL AND ANNUAL VARIATION IN FORAGE QUALITY AND
QUANTITY
June

July

August

September

Total

16.00
14.00
12.00

10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00

0.00

2006

2007

2008

2009

Monthly ...
In the event of severe drought
conditions

NUTRITIONAL TUBS

GRASS HAY
Upon arrival to test site
Data collected












Body weights
Body condition score (15)
Coat condition score (...
Every 14 days
Low-stress livestock handing – handling by horns


Five Point
Check©












Weigh
FAMACHA© scor...
Treatment and isolation pens
Goats are penned for multi-day treatments and observation.
Goats with abscesses or pink eye a...
Carcass evaluation
Since 2009, 19 bucks have been harvested and deboned to collect carcass
data
and characterize the carca...
New for 2011
Ten goats (half-sibs) are being pen-fed for carcass evaluation.
The carcasses of pasture-raised vs. grain (an...
Number of goats tested
Year
of test

Start
test

Finish
test

2006

31

31

2007

47

47

2008

57

57

2009

60

60

2010...
Growth performance
Live weight, lbs.
Year

ADG

85

2006

0.190

80

2007

0.253

2008

0.134

2009

0.206

70

2010

0.12...
Fecal egg counts
(eggs per gram of feces)
Determined by Delaware State University using the modified McMaster
procedure.

...
FAMACHA© eye anemia
scores
FAMACHA©
scores are
an estimate
of packed
cell volume
(PCV) and
are an
indication of
parasite
“...
Anthelmintic treatments
Percent goats requiring anthelmintic
treatment

FAMACHA©
scoring
70%

1 – no Tx
2 – no Tx
3–?
4 – ...
Fecal coproculture (larvae ID)
Other worm species in fecal samples: Trichostrongylus*, Oesophagostomum, Nematodiris, Eimer...
Test specifics


Nomination period
April 1- May 15



Testing fee
$20 nomination fee
$85 total cost



Delivery dates
F...
Gold, Silver, and Bronze
standards
Thank you for your attention.
Questions?

http://mdgoattest.blogspot.c
om
SMALL RUMINANT
PROGRAM

SUSAN SCHOENIAN
www.shee...
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Buck development

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Buck development

  1. 1. WESTERN MARYLAND PASTURE-BASED MEAT GOAT PERFORMANCE TEST SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep &Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center www.sheepandgoat.com – sschoen@umd.edu
  2. 2. Which buck is better? Which buck’s offspring will be more likely to survive to weaning? Which buck’s offspring will grow faster? Which buck’s offspring will be more resistant to worms? Which buck’s daughters will produce more lbs. of live kids?
  3. 3. Selection criteria for bucks (and rams) VISUAL APPRAISAL  Live evaluation     Body conformation Live handling Measurements Shows  “Expert” opinion PERFORMANCE RECORDS 1. 2. 3. On-farm performance testing Central performance testing Across-flock performance testing (EPDs)
  4. 4. Central performance testing “A central performance test is where animals from different herds are brought to one central location where performance is recorded. The rationale is that measured differences are more likely due to genetic differences, which will be passed onto offspring, rather than environmental differences which will not. The goal of a central performance test is to identify genetic differences among animals.” Dr. Dan Waldron Texas A&M University 2008 Top-performing buck (Kiko) John Smith, Virginia
  5. 5. Small ruminant performance tests RAMS BUCKS         Kerr Center (OK) North Dakota Penn State Texas A&M Virginia Tech Illinois (?) West Virginia University         Angelo State (TX) Fort Valley (GA) Kerr Center (OK) Langston University Nebraska (?) Penn State Texas A&M University of Maryland Western Illinois
  6. 6. Limitations to central performance testing GENETICS   Limited to traits that can be measured in the young male. What is the repeatability (accuracy) of the data? ENVIRONMENT   Different production environments. Nutrition may be a limiting factor.
  7. 7. Western Maryland Pasture-based Meat Goat Performance Test Established in 2006 to evaluate the performance of weanling male goats on a pasture-only diet with natural exposure to internal parasites. GRAZING FROM EARLY JUNE THROUGH LATE SEPTEMBER
  8. 8. Maryland buck test Most important goal is to identify bucks that are more resistant to internal parasites. RESISTANCE Fecal egg counts (FECs) H2 = 20 TO 50 PERCENT RESILIENCE Packed cell volume (FAMACHA©, Five Point Check©) H2 = 10 TO 20 PERCENT
  9. 9. Eligibility Male goats of any breed or breed cross, born between December 15 (previous year) and March 20 (test year) and weighing 35 to 70 lbs. at the start of the test. Up to 5 goats per consigner (any state).
  10. 10. 12.5-acre pasture system Six paddocks for rotational grazing
  11. 11. Cool season grasses ORCHARDGRASS MAXQ™ TALL FESCUE
  12. 12. Warm season grass DWARF PEARL MILLET (ANNUAL)
  13. 13. Chicory Herb with “anthelmintic-like” properties
  14. 14. Weeds Plant Protei n TDN RFV Mixed weeds 14.1% 65.8 % 111 Chicory 14.3% Lambsquarte 23.2% 75.3 184 Relative feed value of good alfalfa hay is 170 or higher. % 89.6 298
  15. 15. Silvopasture WALNUT TREES + MIXED HARDWOODS
  16. 16. Extremes in forage conditions CONSIDERABLE SEASONAL AND ANNUAL VARIATION IN FORAGE QUALITY AND QUANTITY
  17. 17. June July August September Total 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 2006 2007 2008 2009 Monthly and annual rainfall (in) June-September 2006-2010 Keedysville, Maryland 2010
  18. 18. In the event of severe drought conditions NUTRITIONAL TUBS GRASS HAY
  19. 19. Upon arrival to test site Data collected         Body weights Body condition score (15) Coat condition score (13) Dag score (0-5) FAMACHA© score (1-5) Individual fecal egg count Pooled fecal egg count Larvae ID Treatments administered    Stand in footbath Ear tag Deworm with anthelmintics from two different chemical classes. (usually moxidectin + levamisole)  5-day treatment for coccidia in water.
  20. 20. Every 14 days Low-stress livestock handing – handling by horns  Five Point Check©        Weigh FAMACHA© score Body condition score Coat condition score Dag score Health check: Treat as necessary Collect individual fecal sample Collect pooled fecal sample
  21. 21. Treatment and isolation pens Goats are penned for multi-day treatments and observation. Goats with abscesses or pink eye are isolated for testing and treatment, respectively.
  22. 22. Carcass evaluation Since 2009, 19 bucks have been harvested and deboned to collect carcass data and characterize the carcasses of pasture-reared goats.
  23. 23. New for 2011 Ten goats (half-sibs) are being pen-fed for carcass evaluation. The carcasses of pasture-raised vs. grain (and hay)-fed bucks will be compared.
  24. 24. Number of goats tested Year of test Start test Finish test 2006 31 31 2007 47 47 2008 57 57 2009 60 60 2010 72 68 2011 81 80(?) Five year consigners (L-R) Don Smith, Virginia; and Jeanne Dietz-Band, Maryland
  25. 25. Growth performance Live weight, lbs. Year ADG 85 2006 0.190 80 2007 0.253 2008 0.134 2009 0.206 70 2010 0.121 65 2011 0.103 60 75 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 55 2011 50 45 40 d (-14) d-0 June d-14 d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 d-96 September
  26. 26. Fecal egg counts (eggs per gram of feces) Determined by Delaware State University using the modified McMaster procedure. Fecal egg counts are a measure of parasite resistance (infection). Resistant animals shed fewer eggs onto the pasture. Average fecal egg count (all goats) 4,500 2007 4,000 2008 3,500 2009 2010 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 d (-14) June d-0 d-14 d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 d-96 September
  27. 27. FAMACHA© eye anemia scores FAMACHA© scores are an estimate of packed cell volume (PCV) and are an indication of parasite “resilience” and the need for deworming. Average bi-weekly FAMACHA© score 3.2 2006 3.0 2007 2.8 2008 2009 2.6 2010 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 d (-14) d-0 June d-14 d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 September d-96
  28. 28. Anthelmintic treatments Percent goats requiring anthelmintic treatment FAMACHA© scoring 70% 1 – no Tx 2 – no Tx 3–? 4 – Tx 5 – Tx 60% 50% 2006 40% 2007 2008 30% 2009 2010 20% 10% 0% d-0 d-14 June d-28 d-42 d-56 d-70 d-84 d-96 September
  29. 29. Fecal coproculture (larvae ID) Other worm species in fecal samples: Trichostrongylus*, Oesophagostomum, Nematodiris, Eimeria, and Moniezia The worm burden has been almost all barber pole worm, espec ially as the summer progresses. Percent Haemonchus contortus 100 95 90 85 2008 80 2009 d-70 d-84 2010 75 70 65 60 d-0 d-14 June d-28 d-42 d-56 d-98 d-112 September
  30. 30. Test specifics  Nomination period April 1- May 15  Testing fee $20 nomination fee $85 total cost  Delivery dates First weekend (Fri-Sat) in June  Sale, field day, and skillathon September 24 or October 1  Top bucks eligible for sale  Sell does via private treaty  Carcass evaluation 2008 Top-consignment Kendall & Dana Barnes, Kentucky http://mdgoattest.blogspot.
  31. 31. Gold, Silver, and Bronze standards
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention. Questions? http://mdgoattest.blogspot.c om SMALL RUMINANT PROGRAM SUSAN SCHOENIAN www.sheepandgoat.com sschoen@umd.edu

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