meet a country’s sanitary and
psytosanitary requirements, food must
comply with the local laws and regulations to
gain market access.
These laws ensure the safety and suitability
of food for consumers.
In some countries food laws also govern food
quality and composition standards.
3. Factors on which it depends:
whether a country adopts international
norms developed by the Codex Alimentarius
Commission of the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations.
and the World Health Organization or a
country may also has its own suite of food
Each country regulates food differently and
has its own food regulatory framework.
4. The Indian Parliament has passed the Food Safety
and Standards Act, 2006 that overrides all other
food related laws such as
The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
The Fruit Products Order, 1955
The Meat Food Products Order, 1973
The Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947
The Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order,
The Solvent Extracted Oil, De oiled Meal, and
Edible Flour (Control) Order, 1967
The Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992
5. Definition of adulterant
any material which is or could be employed for the
purposes of adulteration
Definition of food
any article used as food or drink for human
consumption other than drugs and water and
Any article which ordinarily enters into or is used
in the composition or preparation of human food
Any flavouring matter or condiments and
Any other article which the Central Government
may having regard to its use, nature, substance
or quality, declare, by notification in the official
gazette as food for the purpose of this Act.
1. To protect the public from poisonous and
2. To prevent the sale of substandard foods
3. To protect the interests of the consumers
by eliminating fraudulent practices.
Guilt will be punished with imprisonment
for a term which shall not be less than six
months and upto 3 years and with fine upto
one thousand rupees
Fruit Products Order-1955, formed under
Section 3 of the Essential Commodities Act 1955, with an objective to manufacture fruit
& vegetable products maintaining sanitary
and hygienic conditions in the premises and
quality standards laid down in the Order.
It is mandatory for all manufacturers of fruit
and vegetable products including some non
fruit products like non fruit vinegar, syrup
and sweetened aerated water to obtain a
license under this Order
8. Following minimum requirements are laid down in
the Fruit Product Order for hygienic production
and quality standards:
(i) Location and surroundings of the factory
(ii) Sanitary and hygienic conditions of premises
(iii) Personnel hygiene
(iv) Portability of water
(v) Machinery & Equipment with installed
(vi) Quality control facility & Technical staff
(viii) Product Standards
(viii) Limits for preservatives & other additives
9. Meat & Meat Products are highly perishable in nature
and can transmit diseases from animals to humanbeings.
Processing of meat products is licensed under Meat
Food Products Order,(MFPO) 1973 which was hitherto
being implemented by Ministry of food Processing
The main objective is to regulate production and
sale of meat food products through licensing of
manufacturers, enforce sanitary and hygienic
conditions prescribed for production of wholesome
meat food products, exercise strict quality control at
all stages of production of meat food products, fish
products including chilled poultry etc.
manufacturers of meat food products
engaged in the business of manufacturing,
packing, repacking, relabeling meat food
products meant for sale are licensed but
excluding those manu063facturers who
manufactures such products for consumption
on the spot like a restaurant, hotel, boarding
house, snack bar, eating house or any other
The objective of the order is to maintain and increase the
supply of liquid milk of desired quality in the interest of
the general public and also for regulating the production,
processing and distribution of milk and milk products.
As per the provisions of this order, any person/dairy plant
handling more than 10,000 liters per day of milk or 500 MT
of milk solids per annum needs to be registered with the
Registering Authority appointed by the Central
In every case where the milk or milk product is packed by
the holder of a registration certificate in a tin, barrel,
carton or any other container, the registration number
shall either be exhibited prominently on the side label of
such container or be embossed, punched or printed
Ensure the easy availability of essential commodities to
consumers and to protect them from exploitation by
This Act empowers the Central Government to:
regulate production, supply, distribution, storage,
transport, etc.; and
control price of commodities which have been
declared under the Act, as essential are provided
for those who commit offences under the Act.
The Act was amended in 1986, empowering recognised
Consumer Associations to make a report in writing
of any facts constituting an offence under the Act.
13. It is a sort of restrictions on trade.
The Essential Commodities Act mandates that
commodities that have been identified as being
“essential commodities” can only be traded and
However, legally, Negotiable warehouse receipt
(NWR) is a negotiable instrument.
It is in the nature of an actionable claim
representing a right to a commodity. Trading in
NWR will not be covered by ECA, until physical
possession is sought. Only the last transaction
would have to comply with the provisions of the
Standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged
Commodities) Rules, 1977 are legislative measures
are designed to establish fair trade practices with
respect to packaged commodities.
The rules prescribe that the basic rights of consumers
regarding vital information about the nature of the
commodity, the name and address of the
manufacturer, the net quantity, date of manufacture,
and sale price are provided on the label.
requirements for food items covered under the PFA.
The Department of Consumer Affairs in the Ministry
of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution is
the regulatory authority and enforcement agency
15. According to this order, vegetable oil mean any
hydrogenate oils, or mixed with any other
substance for edible purpose.
This order was used primarily to regulate the
price, storage and movement of hydrogenated
oil by vanaspati industries
The order empowers the state level vegetable oil
product controller to:
1. Specify packaging and labeling requirement for
vegetable oil product
2. Specify the types of permit required for
transportation of vegetable oil products by
rail, road or water
Prescribe maximum and minimum level of
usage of vegetable oil in the manufacturing
of vegetable oil products.
Set maximum price that manufacturer
could charge and allot quotas for different
kind of transaction
manufacture, storage or sale of vegetable
availability of vegetable oils
control order was designed to regulate
oilseed solvent extraction and refining
industry to ensure consumer health and
Key features of order are
1. Licensing of all firms engaged in oilseed
solvent extraction or subcontracting of
oilseed processing with oilseed extraction
2. Regulation of the manufacture, storage and
sale of solvent extracted vegetable oils and
Specification of quality standard of solvent
extraction products and by products.
Monthly reporting to the Controller of
production, stock, sales, return and
government authority to search the plant
and seize stock if warranted.
19. This control order was designed in order to
ensure availability of safe and quality edible oils
in packed form at pre-determined prices to the
Salient features of this orders are:
1. Edible oils including edible mustard oil will be
allowed to be sold only in packed form from
15th December, 1998.
2. Packers will have to register themselves with a
3. The packer will have to have his own analytical
facilities or adequate arrangements for testing
the samples of edible oils to the satisfaction of
Only oils which conform to the standards of quality
as specified in the Prevention of Food Adulteration
Act, 1954 and Rules made there under will be
allowed to be packed.
Each container or pack will have to show all
relevant particulars so that the consumer is not
misled, so also the identity of the packer becomes
Edible oils shall be packed in conformity with the
Standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged
Commodities) Rules, 1977, and the Prevention of
Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules made there
The State Governments will have power to relax
any requirement of the packaging order for meeting
To consolidate the laws relating to food
To establish food safety and standards
authority of India for laying down science
based standards for food
To regulate the manufacture, storage,
distribution, sale & import of food products
To ensure availability of safe & whole food for
Food Safety and Standards Authority of
India (FSSAI) has been established under
Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which
consolidates various acts & orders that have
hitherto handled food related issues in
various Ministries and Departments.
FSSAI has been created for laying down
science based standards for articles of food
and to regulate their manufacture, storage,
distribution, sale and import to ensure
availability of safe and wholesome food for
23. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National
Standards Body of India, resolves to be the
leader in all matters concerning Standardization,
Certification and Quality.
Harmonious development of standardization,
marking and quality certification
To provide new thrust to standardization and
To evolve a national strategy for according
recognition to standards and integrating them
with growth and development of production and
24. Certification To Product
Hallmarking of Gold Jewellery.
Quality Management System
Environmental Management Systems
Occupational Health and Safety Management
Food Safety Management System
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
25. The Directorate of Marketing and Inspection
enforces the Agricultural Produce (Grading and
Marketing) Act, 1937. Under this Act Grade
standards are prescribed for agricultural and
is a Quality Certification Mark It
ensures quality and purity of a product.
It acts as a Third Party Guarantee to Quality
Quality standards for agricultural commodities
are framed based on their intrinsic quality.
Food safety factors are being incorporated in the
standards to complete in World Trade.