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  1. 1. Families & Crisis Miss Kenny CRISIS
  2. 2. Define ‘crisis’ and describe how people react. JOURNAL
  3. 3. 1) Crises—experiences or events that cause people to make major changes in their lives 2) Stressors—life events that change or have the potential to produce change in the family 3) Pileup Effect—stress from each event continues to build 4) Alienated—alone, without hope, or cut off from others 5) Adaptation—changes that are practical and appropriate VOCABULARY
  4. 4. 6) Attitude—learned behaviors that people develop as they interact with their environment 7) Mental Health—describes the overall condition of your attitude 8) Stress—your body’s response to the events of your life 9) Normative Stressors—everyday events that cause stress 10)Anxiety—uneasy feeling people experience when they believe something terrible will happen. VOCABULARY
  5. 5. 11) Depression—overwhelming attitude of sadness, discouragement, and hopelessness 12) Crisis Events—these events are changes in your life that require major changes in your behavior 13) Internal Stress—stress that comes from inside the family from normal growth and development issues or from unresolved conflicts that continue 14) External Stress—stress that is caused by factors outside the family VOCABULARY
  6. 6. 15)Coping Behavior—is planned behavior that helps the family 16)Chronic Illness—a medical problem that cannot be cured 17)Disability—describes an impairment that interferes with certain abilities 18)Resource—assists in coping with a crisis—can be friends, family, community, support groups, or spiritual VOCABULARY
  8. 8.  An experience or event that causes people to make major changes in their lives  A crucial time, decisive moment, or turning point  A crisis is a situation so critical, it overwhelms usual coping methods What are some examples of crises? A CRISIS IS…
  9. 9.  A stressor is different from a crisis  A stressor is…  A life event that changes or has the potential to produce change in the family and causes stress What are some examples of stressors? Where does the difference between stressors and crises lie? STRESSORS
  10. 10.  One’s perception of a crisis is influenced by your past experiences  What may be a major crisis in one family may not be perceived as a crisis in another What are some experiences that can affect how you handle crisis? What are some examples of events that could be crises in one family, but not another? PERCEPTION OF A CRISIS
  11. 11.  Suddenly  Security  Unpredictable  Questions  Self-Confidence  Values SIX CHARACTERISTICS
  12. 12.  Comes without warning  We are often unable to be prepared for what’s about to come Give some examples of crises that come suddenly. SUDDENLY
  13. 13.  A crisis threatens our security and well-being  Physical  Psychological  Emotional  Economical  Social  Causes us to panic because we may lose something very precious—something that has given structure, meaning, and purpose in life How does a loss of security make you feel? SECURITY
  14. 14.  We simply do not know how crises are going to turn out.  We may believe we can handle crises that come our way, but until we experience it, we can’t know for sure.  Crises can be  Short-term  Long-term  Last a lifetime In general, do you like to know what to expect? UNPREDICTABLE
  15. 15.  A crisis presents major problem-solving questions  These arise because there are not clear-cut solutions  Time heals best in a crisis  This is the time to consult with friends, loved ones, family members, and others who can help What are some questions that may present themselves in a crisis? QUESTIONS
  16. 16.  Crises erode self-confidence  They remind us that life is fragile and unpredictable; we are not invincible  This can leave us unsettled and anxious  In the end, we may be left feeling apprehensive about life How does dealing with something difficult and tough, where the end result may be negative, make you feel? SELF-CONFIDENCE
  17. 17.  Crises help us redefine our values  Most of the time, people can look back at crises and admit that good came out of it  Sometimes new values can be better, but not necessarily VALUES
  19. 19.  Lifespan Crises—due to age  Elderly people are more likely to experience a friend’s death  Older adults and teens are more likely to commit suicide  Situational Crises—must be in the situation to experience a certain crisis  You must be married to experience divorce  You cannot be in a car accident if you are not around or in a car Do you think people tend to experience more lifespan or situational crises? CATEGORIES OF CRISES
  20. 20.  What does a crisis mean to you?  Loss  Threat  Challenge What factors might affect whether a crisis is a loss, threat or challenge? Will they always be the same for everyone? TYPES OF CRISES
  21. 21.  Loss of something or someone  You can also lose something intangible, such as your self-esteem or lifelong dream. Phoenix Factor Example: Bill and Helen’s daughter’s death LOSS
  22. 22.  The established order, or “normalness” in our lives is threatened Phoenix Factor Example: Being denied a promotion was a threat to Bob’s dream. THREAT
  23. 23.  An event for which you are unprepared for  This may be something you’re unable to do at this time Phoenix Factor Example: Sally was not ready to take the responsibilities of being a manager at the bank. CHALLENGE
  24. 24.  I can’t cope: Failure to have normal coping methods. (If you can’t handle the problem by talking, counseling, etc.)  I’m going crazy: The crisis unleashes new emotions, upsets normal routine, produces physical symptoms or illness. Causes problems in relationships; you feel like you’re going crazy. A lot of crying. How would you support a friend or family member who reacts to a crisis in each of these ways? REACTIONS TO A CRISIS
  25. 25.  I’m falling apart: Horrible feeling that you’re losing control of your life. Defenses are down. (A friend may help!)  Will it ever end?: It doesn’t last forever, you will get over it! How would you support a friend or family member who reacts to a crisis in each of these ways? REACTIONS TO A CRISIS
  26. 26.  Debility: can’t get over the bitterness, anger, and hurt. Can’t work or have relationships, your mental ability slips away.  Death: action of desperate and hurting person who is not working through a crisis  Growing Through a Crisis: growth in coping skills, more mature attitudes about life, improved interpersonal relationships, self-awareness, and greater independence. You are more sensitive of other people and develop strong ties with loved ones. THREE POSSIBLE OUTCOMES
  28. 28. Definition: Initial reaction to a crisis Description: Puts most victims in a daze; hits hard and unexpectedly. Reaction: Anxious, not oneself, has trouble making decisions 1. OUTCRY/SHOCK (BOMBSHELL)
  29. 29. Definition: Don’t react or act as if nothing happened Description: Deny the reality of what is happening; put aside your reaction to help others Reaction: Helps other (natural disaster), keeps self busy with routine 2. DENIAL
  30. 30. Definition: Overburdened with thoughts about what happened Description: Crisis take over your mind; disorganized; life won’t be the same Reaction: Can’t sleep, eat, or concentrate; friction with friends and family 3. HIT ROCK BOTTOM (INTRUSIVENESS)
  31. 31. Definition: Rediscover the meaning in life Description: Dealing with thoughts and feelings associated with getting through the crisis Reaction: Move past the crisis, look to the future 4. WORKING THROUGH THE CRISIS
  32. 32. Definition: Refers to the time when crisis is woven into the fabric of life Description: Accept the fact of a major loss, won’t forget but will move on Reaction: Learn to live with it, grateful for comfort, celebrate anything that brings hope. 5. COMPLETION
  33. 33.  What did you find an article on?  How was the event a crisis?  On what level did the crisis take place (personal, community, state-wide, national, international, worldwide, etc.)? How did you determine this?  How did/do people react to the crisis? ARTICLE SEARCH
  34. 34. Stressful Events & Coping THE PILEUP EFFECT
  35. 35.  Sometimes crises result when several changes occur at the same time, or one after another  Each even is too small to cause significant change resulting in crisis  Yet, the stress from each event builds, ending in a crisis How do you feel when you experience change? Do you feel differently when you experience several changes versus one? THE PILEUP EFFECT
  36. 36.  Starting a new job/business  Family goes on welfare  Family member makes a major purchase  Spouse spends more time away from home  Conflicts between husband and wife increase  Arguments between parents and children increase  Conflicts between siblings increase STRESSFUL EVENTS
  37. 37.  Death of a parent, spouse, or child  Divorce in the family  Violence or abuse in the home  Spouse/parent has an affair  Family member gets arrested or sent to jail  Family member becomes disabled or suffers from chronic illness  Family member becomes dependent on drugs or alcohol  Unmarried family member becomes pregnant  Family moves to a new city  Family member loses a job EXTREMELY STRESSFUL EVENTS
  38. 38.  Why do you think it’s important to know the difference?  How is the amount of stress felt for an event impacted?  How do we deal with these types of events? STRESSFUL/EXTREMELY STRESSFUL EVENTS
  39. 39.  Four factors:  The event  Number of stressors experienced at the same time  How the event is identified and interpreted  Resources available to manage the stressful event What are some examples or resources used to manage stressful events? How do people differ in identifying and interpreting crisis? WHEN DO STRESSORS LEAD TO CRISIS?
  40. 40.  We use coping behaviors to deal with stress  Everyone has coping behaviors How do you handle stress? Is your way of managing stress healthy or unhealthy? Can your method of coping cause additional stress? COPING
  41. 41.  Identify the sources of stress  To find your true sources, look at your attitude, habits, and excuses…  Do you say stress is temporary, even though you can’t remember the last time you had a break?  Do you define stress as a simple part of your life?  Do you blame your stress on others? Stress Journal—can help track stress and find patterns  What caused your stress?  How do you feel, physically & emotionally?  How did you act in response?  What did you do to feel better? THE FIRST STEP…
  42. 42.  Smoking  Drinking too much  Overeating/Under-Eating  Zoning out in front of the TV or computer  Withdrawing from friends, family, and activities  Using pills or drugs to relax  Sleeping too much  Procrastinating  Filling up every minute of every day to avoid the problem  Taking out your stress on others HOW DO YOU COPE?  Many people use unhealthy coping behaviors, causing more stress
  43. 43.  Change the situation  Avoid the stressor  Alter the stressor  Change your reaction  Adapt to the stressor  Accept the stressor FOUR A’S
  44. 44.  Say “no”—have limits and stick to them  Avoid people who cause you stress  If something in your environment causes you stress, change it  Avoid hot-button topics  Trim your “to-do” list  Focus on what needs to be done, not what should be done What are other ways you work to avoid stress? AVOID UNNECESSARY STRESS
  45. 45.  Express your feelings, don’t bottle them up  Be open to compromise  Be assertive  Manage your time better ALTER THE SITUATION
  46. 46.  Reframe problems  Look at the big picture  Adjust your standards  Focus on the positive  Adjust your attitude—get rid of the following words: always, never, should, must. They often lead to self-defeating thoughts ADAPT TO THE STRESSOR
  47. 47.  You can’t control the uncontrollable, so don’t try to  Look for the upside  Share your feelings  Learn to forgive ACCEPT THE THINGS YOU CANNOT CHANGE
  48. 48.  Go for a walk  Spend time outside  Call a friend  Sweat it out—exercise!  Keep a journal  Take a bath  Light candles  Enjoy a warm drink  Play with a pet  Work in your garden  Get a massage  Read a book  Listen to music  Watch a funny show or movie  Connect with others  Do something you enjoy every day  Keep your sense of humor MAKE TIME FOR FUN & RELAXATION
  49. 49.  Your physical health will improve your metal health and help you become more resilient to stress  Exercise regularly  Eat a balanced, healthy diet  Reduce caffeine and sugar  Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs  Get enough sleep ADOPT A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE
  50. 50.  Helps you reduce stress in that moment  Feel calmer and more at ease  Get more in sync with life  Experience a quick boost of clarity QUICK COHERENCE TECHNIQUE
  51. 51. 1) Heart Focus  Focus your attention to the area around your heart, the area in the center of your chest 2) Heart Breathing  Breathe normally and feel as if your breath is coming in and out through your heart area 3) Heart Feeling  As you maintain your heart focus and heart breathing, activate a positive feeling QUICK COHERENCE TECHNIQUE
  53. 53.  An individual’s crisis can be a crisis for the family  Ex: Alzheimer’s  Every member in the family affects another member  When a member is unable to function, the whole family can be negatively affected. Why do you think one person can affect so many others? HOW CRISES AFFECT THE FAMILY
  54. 54.  Family is functioning smoothly = balanced  Each member carries out his or her roles  Family works together to meet the needs of each member  Family able to fulfill its function in each member’s life  In a crisis, one or more changes disrupt balance  Individual family members are unable to fulfill their functions  Suddenly, family is not functioning smoothly as a unit  Family needs time, resources, and support as it works to adjust to the changes and restore balance FAMILY SYSTEM BECOME UNBALANCED
  55. 55.  Most crises situations, some type of loss has taken place:  May involve a family member  Skills or abilities  Job  Income  Home  Loss hinders the family’s ability to fulfill its normal functions--at least for a period of time Why do you think loss tends to affect families more than other crises? A LOSS AFFECTS FAMILY FUNCTIONS
  56. 56.  Family function of reproducing and socializing children is hindered by  Illness  Divorce  Hospitalization  Loss of a family member  Job loss or a natural disaster could hinder the family’s ability to meet physical needs LOSS AFFECTS FAMILY FUNCTIONS
  57. 57.  Family function of assigning roles may slowed by any crisis that prevents members from carrying out their roles  Family’s ability to carry out the function of providing close relationships and intimacy may be hindered by  Death  Divorce  Move away from relatives What are some other family functions that might be affected? LOSS AFFECTS FAMILY FUNCTIONS
  58. 58.  When family members experience loss, even though small, they go through a grieving process  When they are able to identify and accept their feeling, they will be able to handle then and go on with their lives What are the steps in the grieving process? THE GRIEVING PROCESS
  59. 59.  When loss occurs, family members pass through certain emotional stages:  Denial—Is this really happening to me?  Anger—Why is this happening to me?!  Guilt—What did I do to deserve this?  Blame/Bargaining/Depression  To try and get rid of these feelings, they may blame others for the problem  They may try to bargain to make themselves feel better  They may feel sorry for themselves and become depressed  Acceptance Do you think that these steps moving in a linear, timely order? THE GRIEVING PROCESS
  60. 60.  These feeling are NORMAL responses in the grieving process  It is important that family members move on and accept the reality of the loss  “This happened to our family and we are sad, but we can and will move on.” ACCEPTANCE
  61. 61.  Acceptance is needed so family members can take action and adjust to the changes brought about by the loss  They need to work together so the function of the family can be carried out  Roles may need to be adjusted  Financial resources or help from others may be needed ACCEPTING A LOSS
  62. 62.  If the family does not adjust, unhealthy patterns may develop  Feelings of anger, blame, and guilt will continue  Members may feel depressed, stop eating, withdraw from others, or fail to show up at work  They may abuse alcohol or other drugs to cover up their feelings  They may lash out and abuse other family members What are some other unhealthy ways people adjust? UNHEALTHY ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS
  63. 63.  When family doesn’t function normally, the physical and mental health of members may suffer  Parents may ignore their parental responsibilities- as result children may be neglected, malnourished, or abused  Children’s emotional development will suffer if they do not experience love and acceptance  Children may feel ALIENATED- alone, without hope, or cut off from other who care  This feeling is listed as a major factor in teen suicide UNHEALTHY ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS
  64. 64.  Responding to crises with unhealthy behavior patterns may hinder the growth and development of family members and cause serious long-term results  Developing skills for preventing a family crisis is important for all family members What kind of skills can prevent a family crisis? UNHEALTHY ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS
  65. 65. RESOURCES
  66. 66.  Resources in our life help us cope with our crisis.  Resources included are a person’s family, friends & relatives.  People also use community resources available to them. WHY DO WE NEED RESOURCES?
  67. 67.  Definition: Help with emotional well-being and offer support when we are having a hard time.  Crisis situations threatens security. Crises help/force us to make decisions.  Helps us to accept things we can’t change. MENTAL RESOURCES
  68. 68.  Helps us to make a situation tolerable.  Examples: Counselors, teachers, ministers, priest ..ect.  Knowledge and religious belief. MENTAL RESOURCES
  69. 69.  The bodies ability to demonstrate enormous strength.  Examples: People who are able to pick up a car in an accident.  The body produces adrenaline. The heart will beat faster and the body can increase energy. PHYSICAL HEALTH RESOURCES
  70. 70.  Crisis creates a need for money & finances.  Family needs to have adequate income, savings and insurance.  Easily accessible savings. FINANCIAL RESOURCES
  71. 71.  Family Vows promise to support in good times and bad. Crisis should never become more important than the family Love & care for each other. Family members may change roles.  Example: Children may need to become a parent Allow children to share and be part of the crisis. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
  72. 72.  Friends  Offer emotional support  Typically short term, due to obligation to own family. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
  73. 73.  coping.htm  Developed from PowerPoints created by Kate Pittack and Jessica Meyers REFERENCES