Mcom 341-2 History of Advertising


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Mcom 341-2 History of Advertising

  1. 1. Advertising in America: Past, Present & Future<br />1700’s to Tomorrow<br />
  2. 2. Advertising History in America<br />1700’s and the Pre-Industrial Age<br />American society was not yet driven by mass purchase and consumption. Literacy rates varied substantially by geographic region, gender and race.<br /><ul><li>1704: first American newspaper ad published in Boston Newsletter
  3. 3. 1729: Benjamin Franklin begins publication of Pennsylvania Gazette
  4. 4. Introduced addition of graphic elements, larger headlines and multiple fonts into advertising for more visual appeal
  5. 5. 1742: Benjamin Franklin’s General Magazine publishes the first American magazine ads</li></li></ul><li>Advertising History in America<br />A Page of Advertisements from Franklin's Philadelphia Gazette, 1735<br /><ul><li>Text only
  6. 6. Ads a conglomeration of products and offers aimed at the wealthy and literate </li></ul>Source: Advertising Society & Review, Volume 11, Issue 1, 2010<br />E-ISSN: 1534-7311 <br />DOI: 10.1353/asr.0.0046<br />
  7. 7. Advertising History in America<br />1800’s and the Industrial Age<br />Development of industrial machines led to mass production, and growth of transportation via railroad and steamship allowed mass distribution. Public schooling led to 90% literacy rate.<br />Manufacturer  Wholesaler  Retailer  Consumer<br /><ul><li>1839: Introduction of photography sparks creativity in ads
  8. 8. 1841: Volner B. Palmer becomes the first media buyer, contracting with newspapers at a discount and reselling space to advertisers
  9. 9. 1840’s: Magazines become first national mass medium
  10. 10. 1869: Francis Ayer forms the first ad agency to charge commission and function
  11. 11. 1877: J. Walter Thompson founds his agency
  12. 12. 1890’s: Slogans become commonplace and build brand familiarity
  13. 13. 1896: Free mail delivery to rural areas facilitates direct mail advertising and mail-order purchasing</li></li></ul><li>Advertising History in America<br />A Page of Advertisements from Bennett's New York Herald, 1835<br /><ul><li>Still text only, but typography had advanced
  14. 14. Few “brands”</li></ul>Source: Advertising Society & Review,, William O. Barr, Vol 11: Issue 1, 2010<br />
  15. 15. Advertising History in America<br />Sam’lLesure store ad from September 1841.<br /><ul><li>Store name not obvious
  16. 16. Soup with those boots?
  17. 17. Still text only</li></ul>Source:<br />
  18. 18. Advertising History in America<br />James Means ad (top), 1887.<br /><ul><li>Manufacturer prominent
  19. 19. Illustrations common by late 1800’s </li></ul>Source:<br />
  20. 20. Advertising History in America<br />Front of an advertising pamphlet from Charlotte doctor, c. 1897<br />Source: Duke Digital Collections,<br />
  21. 21. Advertising History in America<br />Photograph from an advertising pamphlet from Charlotte doctor, c. 1897<br />Source: Duke Digital Collections,<br />
  22. 22. Advertising History in America<br />1900’s and the Industrial Age<br />Manufacturers switch focus from production to selling, and easy access to goods shifts American emphasis to consumption.<br />1915: W. K. Kellogg spends over $1 million on advertising.<br />1920: KDKA Pittsburgh becomes the first radio station to broadcast in the U.S. <br />1922: The first radio ad runs on WEAF New York. The ad, for a new apartment complex in the city, generates thousands of $$$ in sales. Radio introduces the spoken word, music and jingles. <br />1923/4: “Eveready Hour” becomes the first radio entertainment program to be sponsored by an advertiser.<br />Lux radio commercial from<br />
  23. 23. Advertising History in America<br />Key Concepts of the 20th Century<br />Consumer packaged goods: Consumer luxury and convenience goods produced in mass quantities.<br />Product differentiation: The effort by manufacturers to portray their brands as different from, and better than, the competition.<br />Unique selling proposition (USP): Concept introduced by Rosser Reeves of the Ted Bates agency. The USP identifies the features that differentiate a company’s products from competitors, the “reason why” a person would buy it.<br />Market segmentation: unique groups of people addressed through specialized products.<br />Positioning: Associating a brand with a particular set of needs ranking high on consumers’ priority lists<br />Demarketing: Advertising efforts to slow the demand for a product<br />
  24. 24. Advertising History in America<br />Vanilla extract ad, 1900<br /><ul><li>She’s a housekeeper
  25. 25. Full-color ads more common in magazines</li></ul>Source:<br />
  26. 26. Advertising History in America<br />Baker’s Chocolate ad, 1900<br /><ul><li>Another housekeeper
  27. 27. Ad asks the consumer to look for the trademark on each package</li></ul>Source:<br />
  28. 28. Advertising History in America<br />Drawing of billboards lining the Hudson River in NYC, c. 1900<br /><ul><li>Advertising goes beyond print</li></ul>Source: Advertising & Society Review<br />Volume 11, Issue 1, 2010<br />E-ISSN: 1534-7311 <br />DOI: 10.1353/asr.0.0046<br />
  29. 29. Advertising History in America<br />Campbell’s Soup ad, 1925 (from McCall’s Magazine)<br /><ul><li>Clear message
  30. 30. Less text than previous decades
  31. 31. Big brands emerge</li></ul>Source:<br />
  32. 32. Advertising History in America<br />The Great Depression through post-WWII<br />The Great Depression forces manufacturers to differentiate from competition and build loyalty; branding efforts strengthen. Radio is the dominant medium by 1938, with tens of millions of units in homes.<br /><ul><li>1930: Advertising Age magazine is founded.
  33. 33. 1932: George Gallup joins Young & Rubicam, develops popular poll.
  34. 34. 1938: Radio surpasses magazines in advertising revenues.
  35. 35. 1939: First TV program airs, a college baseball game, via NBC.
  36. 36. 1947: JWT becomes the first agency with > $100 million billings.
  37. 37. 1960: Doyle Dane Bernbach introduces team concept to ad agencies: copywriter partnered with art director on VW campaign.</li></li></ul><li>Advertising History in America<br />Gerber Baby picture ad, 1930<br /><ul><li>Free baby picture!
  38. 38. Still advertising the baby food</li></ul>Source:<br />
  39. 39. Advertising History in America<br />Whitman’s Sampler ad, 1942<br /><ul><li>WWII becomes prominent in ads of the era
  40. 40. Convenience treat of the wealthy?</li></ul>Source:<br />
  41. 41. Advertising History in America<br />The Age of Radio, ~ 1935 – 1955<br />Lux Radio Theater<br /><br /><ul><li>Lux Toilet Soap was the sponsor/advertiser
  42. 42. The advertiser paid for production and broadcast of the shows</li></ul>Source: Free OTR Shows,<br />
  43. 43. Advertising History in America<br />Mid 1950’s to 1990: TV Reigns<br />And life is very, very good for ad agencies….<br />1963: “The Pepsi Generation” campaign kicks off the cola wars.<br />1967: Mary Wells becomes the first woman to head a major ad agency – Wells, Rich, Greene.<br />1971: Congress bans broadcast advertising for cigarettes.<br />1980: Ted Turner launches CNN.<br />1981: MTV goes live.<br />1982: The Gannett Co. debuts USA Today.<br />
  44. 44. Advertising History in America<br />1960’s Creative Revolution<br />Bill Bernbach1<br /><ul><li>Developed “image” for products – e.g. VW, Levy’s Jewish Rye
  45. 45. Believed copy should appeal to human nature, persuade
  46. 46. Emphasized creativity over formulaic advertising</li></ul>Interview video:<br />Famous campaigns:<br />1 “Creativity in Advertising,” Advertising & Society Review, 2007. E-ISSN 1154-7311<br />
  47. 47. Advertising History in America<br />1960’s Creative Revolution<br />David Ogilvy1<br /><ul><li>Proponent of market research to drive marketing, advertising
  48. 48. Featured product benefits through facts and long copy
  49. 49. Valued sales results. “If it doesn’t sell, it isn’t creative.” 2</li></ul> Mini documentary:<br /> American Express commercial with Muppets: <br /><br />1 “Creativity in Advertising,” Advertising & Society Review, 2007. E-ISSN 1154-7311<br />2, David Ogilvy quotes<br />
  50. 50. One of David Ogilvy’s famous ads: <br />Rolls Royce<br />Ogilvy used more copy than his peers<br />Source:<br />
  51. 51. One of David Ogilvy’s famous ads: <br />Schweppes<br />Source:<br />
  52. 52. Advertising History in America<br />1960’s Creative Revolution<br />Leo Burnett1<br /><ul><li>Developed brands and associated icons, such as Ronald McDonald, Tony the Tiger, Mr. Clean, Keebler Elves, Pillsbury Doughboy
  53. 53. Introduced the “Chicago school” of advertising, sentimental ads that appealed to Mid-Western values 2</li></ul>“When to Take My Name Off the Door” Speech:<br />Early Tony the Tiger (Frosted Flakes) commercial:<br /><br />Tony The Tiger commercial 1990: <br /><br />1 “Creativity in Advertising,” Advertising & Society Review, 2007. E-ISSN 1154-7311<br />2, The Advertising Century, 1999 & 2005<br />
  54. 54. Advertising History in America<br />Interesting TV commercials of the era…<br />Westinghouse LIVE commercial, 1950’s<br /><br />Pepsi Generation commercial, 1960’s<br /><br />Ads for televisions from the 1960’s<br /><br />Oscar Mayer bologna ial, 1970’s<br /><br />McDonald’s, 1970’s<br /><br />Wendy’s “Where’s the Beef” ad, 1980’s<br /><br />FedEx, 1980’s<br /><br />
  55. 55. Advertising History in America<br />1990’s to early 2000’s: Online revolution<br /><ul><li>1993: 5 million users get online, and the internet is a reality
  56. 56. 1994: AT&T runs the first banner ad online 3
  57. 57. 1997: Six Degrees, the first social network site allowing users to becomes “friends” with other users debuts. It shuts down by 2001 4
  58. 58. 1998: Google launches and revolutionizes search
  59. 59. 2001: Over 30 million domain names registered, mostly by companies (.com) 5
  60. 60. 2003: 10 years after introduction of the internet, number of global users stands at 700+ million 6</li></ul><br /><br />Internet Society,<br />Global Village Online<br />
  61. 61. Advertising History in America<br />Early 2000’s to 2010: Get social.<br /><ul><li>2003: LinkedIn, the first social site dedicated to business, goes live 4
  62. 62. 2003: MySpace introduced. By 2006, the world’s most popular social site 4
  63. 63. 2004: Facebook, a social site for Harvard students only, debuts 4</li></ul>4<br />
  64. 64. Advertising History in America<br />Early 2000’s to now: Digital dominance<br /><ul><li>2007: Flash™ takes online ads in a new direction 7</li></ul><br /><ul><li>2007: In November, Facebook introduces ads 8
  65. 65. 2009: Facebook overtakes Myspace as most used social medium
  66. 66. 2010: Facebook hits 500 million registered users, overtakes Google for most visited site (total page views)
  67. 67. 2010: Internet advertising revenues surpass newspaper revenues. 9</li></ul>7<br />8 press release<br />9 eMarketer,<br />
  68. 68. Advertising History in America<br />Today… <br />Advertising gets more targeted every day. Advertisers want to reach only the consumers who best fit their message, and they want to be able to measure results 24/7.<br />Source: FTC roundtable on privacy<br />
  69. 69. Advertising History in America<br />Today… <br />Advertisers try increasingly multi-media approaches to reach consumers, using traditional and new media. <br />Banner advertising with video:<br /><br />Social contest + TV:<br /><br />Billboard + mobile:<br />Magazine + video:<br />
  70. 70. Advertising History in America<br />Today… <br />Advertising is becoming a 2-way communication between companies and consumers. Rich media and social media allow more interaction between advertisers and users.<br />Uncle Ben’s Rich Media Ad <br /><br /><ul><li>User can view, print recipes</li></ul>Source: DoubleClick Ad Gallery<br />“Save Chuck” Social Media Campaign<br />
  71. 71. Advertising History in America<br />Today… <br />Consumers spend as much time with new media as traditional media, so advertising adapts.<br />Cell phone app with ad that expands when user interacts<br />SMS/text offers based on geographic location of user<br />Source: IAB Guide to Mobile,<br />
  72. 72. Advertising History in America<br />Today… <br />Want to watch video content online? Odds are, you’ll see one or more types of ads.<br /><br />Source: ©2002-2008 Plaino LLC. All rights reserved.  <br />
  73. 73. Advertising History in America<br />The Future … <br />Will ads be able to “see” us?<br />Will advertisers, agencies and media figure out how to target ads to individuals?<br />Where do you think advertising is going?<br />