So starting with &#x201C;Open&#x201D;. I like this definition from wikipedia\n
OK. Linked. Again Wikipedia provides a good definition. The point is that data are more relevant and useful if they are associated and explicitly linked with other data, especially when they are linked in a way that computers can readily interpret.\n\n
Useful. I don&#x2019;t define useful, because it depends on your perspective.\n\n
So if we think of interoperability of the actual data not just the metadata, there are two general approaches: A geospatial or map-based approach and a semantic approach that relies on common, well-defined concepts and relationships. Semantic work is really still in its infancy. There has been some work in specific domains and IPY has an agreement on basic terms, but major challenges remain. There has been progress in the geospatial realm.\n\n
No data = no science = no knowledge\n
An overview of Antarctic biodiversity networks
GBIF Science Symposium 2011An overview of Antarctic Biodiversity NetworksBruno DanisProject ManagerAntarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)October 5, 2011
Layout• Background• Our vision• Achievements and products• Uptake of GBIF tools• The Future: Technological and Cultural challenges
Antarctic Treaty (our inspiration) « In order to promote international cooperation in scientiﬁc investigation in Antarctica, […], the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable: […]Scientiﬁc observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available. » 50+ years ago...
Speciﬁcs about Antarc7ca• Antarc7c Treaty system (no government): the con7nent is devoted to peace and science (but doesn’t appear on maps)• SCAR ‐ the Scien7ﬁc CommiCee on Antarc7c Research• Rather sophis7cated logis7cs makes it expensive• Biodiversity – Highly adapted – Mostly marine – Extreme(ly stable) environment – Extremely sensi7ve 5
SCAR‐MarBIN & ANTABIF• www.scarmarbin.be: marine biodiversity informa7on network• www.biodiversity.aq: biodiversity informa7on facility• Core funding: BELSPO.be (un7l June 2012)• Interna7onal Polar Year 2007/08• Census of Antarc7c Marine Life• Ocean Biogeographic Informa7on System• Global Biodiversity Informa7on Facility
General philosophy• Build an electronic ecosystem• Oﬀer free and open access to data and technology• Expose all the (biodiversity) data and metadata, in mul7ple contexts• Remain community‐driven, and collabora7ve• Adopt strong standardiza7on• Work for science, conserva7on, management 7
Community projects (the carrots) • Antarc7c Field Guides • Gap analysis • Biogeography Atlas of the Southern Ocean 20
Antarc7c Field Guides afg.biodiversity.aq• (nice‐looking) Iden7ﬁca7on aid• Publica7on/sharing plajorm for customized Field Guides• Best available pictures• Expert Descrip7ons• Many contributors, building the content• Dynamically built from various sources (incl. RAMS and GBIF) 21
Gap analysis share.biodiversity.aq• Quick gap analysis on full dataset• A small group of enthusiasts• Cleaned full SCAR‐MarBIN dataset• Produce visual products• Produce a scien7ﬁc paper• How ignorant are we? 28
Yet another little problem De Broyer C & Danis B, DSRII 2011
Yet another little problem2,8 isopod species described per year De Broyer C & Danis B, DSRII 2011
Yet another little problem2,8 isopod species described per year600+ discovered during ANDEEP expeditions De Broyer C & Danis B, DSRII 2011
Yet another little problem2,8 isopod species described per year600+ discovered during ANDEEP expeditions214 years to describe them! De Broyer C & Danis B, DSRII 2011
Biodiversity Atlas of the SO atlas.biodiversity.aq• Re‐do of a “classic”: Hedgepeth 1969• BASO: Paper and digital versions• Predic7ve maps (93 env. parameters injected...)• Build an interac7ve plajorm• Crossdisciplinary capacity building• Fill in gaps• 60 contributors from 36 ins7tu7ons in 16 countries 35
More GBIF resources taken up • Data transforma7on tools • GBIF community site • Collabora7on and Capacity building documents • Communica7on channels • Webservices • Standards 43
impact of GBIF on SCAR [IPT]• Communi7es have the possibility to push their data to GBIF• BeCer impression of control over the data• Data Paper concept• Fast publica7on of new data• Instances in diﬀerent ins7tu7ons• (makes my life easy) 44
impact of GBIF on SCAR [NPT]• (many) Communi7es• Poten7al to deploy many Antarc7c biodiversity portals• SCAR Ac7on groups (thema7c)• Polar ins7tutes, Na7onal Antarc7c Data Centers• Research plajorms (vessels, bases,...)• Overarching projects• Training• (will) make my life easy 45
impact of SCAR on GBIF • (Mini‐GBIF)=>case study• Interna7onal, interdisciplinary• Antarc7c Treaty = 50 years of collabora7on• SCADM (data managers): Data policy and Standards• APECS (young scien7sts) • A community in the star7ng‐blocks, happy to experiment 46
(near) Future• Many IPTs• Many NPTs • Enhanced data ﬂow• The community feels responsibility to share data• Op7miza7on of Biodiversity research eﬀorts/resources• Enhanced interoperability• Integra7ve, connected science• Factual, adapta7ve conserva7on and management• => everyone’s happy 47
The Polar Informa7on Commons www.polarcommons.org• Climate change Magniﬁca7on• => Emergency solu7on• Setup of a commons – IT cloud + GCMD – Set of norms(!)• All polar data (IPY)• Simple procedure to upload data: – badge dataset(s) (describe, choose a CC Licence) – throw your data in the Cloud – done 49
Radical openness:Data are discoverable, open, linked, useful, and safe 51
DiscoverableData should be accessible soon azer collec7on (online wherever possible) in a discovery portal such as the Global Change Master Directory.
OpenOpen Data is a philosophy and prac7ce requiring that certain data are freely available to everyone, without restric7ons from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.—WikipediaAnything else hampers science (and we don’t have 9me).
LinkedThe term Linked Data is used to describe a method of exposing, sharing, and connec7ng data [using] the Web.—WikipediaWeb2.0 philosophy
UsefulData from diﬀerent projects, disciplines, and data centers should be easily understood and used in conjunc7on with each other in standard tools and analysis frameworksData should be well described so to be useful for a broad audience.
InteroperableMetadata and data should be readily interchangeable between diﬀerent polar data systems to enable data discovery across mul7ple portals.So we stop reinven+ng the wheel all the 9me...
SafeSafe from hackers, from obsolescence, from undocumented change, from loss, and from the ravages of 7me.