Ferry Landings at   Ocean Sites  Malcolm G. McLaren, PEMcLaren Engineering Group
Commuter     OptionsLong Branch, NJ to ManhattanCar – 54 miles 1.25 to 2 hrs        Tolls        ParkingTrain – 85-100 min...
Ferry Terminals in NY Harbor
Core Requirements – Ferry Operations
Harbor TypesNatural Harbors                    Manmade Harbors                          Port of Long Beach, CaliforniaNew ...
Assignment – Create a Harbor
Harbor Design Considerations•   Evaluate Site History•   Consider Extreme Wave Forces•   Determine Design Limits & Forces•...
History of Long Branch Piers
TIMELINE18201830                                    Long Branch Pier184018501860       1828   First pier constructed:1870 ...
TIMELINE18201830                                    Long Branch Pier184018501860       1828   First pier constructed:1870 ...
TIMELINE18201830                                Long Branch Pier184018501860       1875   Second pier constructed:1870    ...
TIMELINE18201830                                  Long Branch Pier184018501860       1879   Third pier constructed of tubu...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                                          ...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                                 Image: “J...
TIMELINE1820183018401850186018701880189019001910192019301940   “Bathing in the shade1950      beneath the pier”,1960      ...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                                Image: His...
TIMELINE18201830                                  Long Branch Pier1840185018601870   1881   Pier destroyed by winter storm...
TIMELINE18201830                                     Long Branch Pier184018501860       1881   Fourth pier constructed:   ...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                                          ...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                                       Ima...
TIMELINE18201830                              Long Branch Pier18401850186018701880   1889 Pier severely damaged by high ti...
TIMELINE18201830                                  Long Branch Pier1840185018601870       1912   Fifth pier constructed of ...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                    Image: www.HistoricLon...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                        Image: www.Histori...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                                 Image: ww...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                                   Image: ...
TIMELINE18201830                             Long Branch Pier184018501860       1944   Pier severely damaged by hurricane1...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                       Image: “Jersey Shor...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                 Image: Eddy and Gloria Br...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                 Image: Eddy and Gloria Br...
TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990                      Image: Bill and Seph...
TIMELINE1820       1987 Pier destroyed by fire18301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990        ...
TIMELINE18201830                                Long Branch Pier184018501860       2001   Pier remnant torn down18701880  ...
Local Conditions                      Prevailing Waves                       Prevailing Current         Prevailing Wind
Permitting by NJDEP and Army Corps                  •NJDEP                   • CAFRA (Coastal lands)                   • L...
Environmental Considerations•Impeding Natural Sediment Transport•Aquatic Biota    • Temporary or Permanent Loss of Bottom ...
Operating Vessels                               Monohull Fast FerryCatamaran Fast Ferry
Fast Ferry•   Construction Type      Welded Aluminum Catamaran•   Length                 141 Feet•   Beam                 ...
Waves in the Open Ocean       19 Miles Offshore
Operating Days per year                               Wave Frequency Analysis                                             ...
HV3(Vessel 3: 141 ft Length x 34 ft Beam)HV2(Vessel 2: 125 ft Length x 40 ft Beam)HV1(Vessel 1: 78 ft Length x 28 ft Beam)
Design parameters – Pier and              Breakwater•Setting the Height of the Structure    • Design Wave Height    • Desi...
Breakwater Options•Integrated Breakwater    • Wave screens    • Caisson walls•Detached Breakwater   • Rubblemound structur...
Integrated Breakwater -      Piles & Wall
Integrated Breakwater -  Cellular Cofferdams
Integrated Breakwater -       Caissons
Pier Elevation•Design Wave Height•Design Flood Level / Storm Surge•Considerations for Sea Level Rise•Accessibility to the ...
Design Wave on Breakwater•Design Wave Height   • 20-yr WIS (Wave      Indormation Study)      hindcast wave data   • Extre...
Transmitted Wave to Harbor   Wave energy balancing act: reflection, absorption and transmission     TOP OF PIER     +26.0’...
Transmitted Wave to Harbor      Effects of Wave Diffraction                            •Need Large, Calm Area             ...
Breakwater Considerations• Withstand large forces• Allow flow to avoid sedimentation• Support Pedestrians and Buildings
ADA Compliance• Exempt from 30’ max. run• Max. 1V:12H slope between Mean High Water and  Mean Low Water• Runs over 80’ exe...
Floating Landing – Design                      Parameters• Acceleration (SNAME & ITTC 1999)Description                    ...
Passenger Transfer   Gantry Bridge
Passenger Transfer  Floating Landing
Long Branch Pier Schemes                                               Alternative B - ShapedAlternative A - Conventional ...
The New Long Branch Pier
Core Requirements – Ferry Operations
“Applied Ingenuity”              Since 1977         ENGINEERING DIVISIONSStructural • Site/Civil, Geotechnical and Survey ...
Ferry Landings at Ocean Sites
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Ferry Landings at Ocean Sites

  1. 1. Ferry Landings at Ocean Sites Malcolm G. McLaren, PEMcLaren Engineering Group
  2. 2. Commuter OptionsLong Branch, NJ to ManhattanCar – 54 miles 1.25 to 2 hrs Tolls ParkingTrain – 85-100 minutes Fare - $30 rtBus – 85-100 min to PA 125 min. to Wall St Fare - $32 rtFerry – 25 NM, 65 min.
  3. 3. Ferry Terminals in NY Harbor
  4. 4. Core Requirements – Ferry Operations
  5. 5. Harbor TypesNatural Harbors Manmade Harbors Port of Long Beach, CaliforniaNew York Harbor
  6. 6. Assignment – Create a Harbor
  7. 7. Harbor Design Considerations• Evaluate Site History• Consider Extreme Wave Forces• Determine Design Limits & Forces• Design must meet permit requirements of State & USACOE• Environmentally sensitive design• Passenger Safety• On vessel• Transfer to vessel• ADA Compliance• Economics
  8. 8. History of Long Branch Piers
  9. 9. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier184018501860 1828 First pier constructed:1870 Bath House Pier18801890 Uses: Transportation1900 1830 Steamboat service to New York started19101920193019401950196019701980199020002010
  10. 10. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier184018501860 1828 First pier constructed:1870 Bath House Pier18801890 Uses: Transportation1900 1830 Steamboat service to New York started19101920 1854 Pier destroyed by nor’easter after 24 years of1930 service19401950196019701980199020002010
  11. 11. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier184018501860 1875 Second pier constructed:1870 East End Excursion Pavilion18801890 Uses: Docking1900 1875 Destroyed by storm after only one week19101920193019401950196019701980199020002010
  12. 12. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier184018501860 1879 Third pier constructed of tubular steel:1870 Ocean Pier18801890 Uses: Pier: Docking, Restaurant, Promenade1900 Underneath Pier: 600 Bath-houses19101920193019401950196019701980199020002010
  13. 13. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 “The Great Iron and Tubular Pier at Long Branch” 1879
  14. 14. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: “Jersey Shore” by Emil Salvini, Authors Collection20002010 The Plymouth Rock about to dock at the Ocean Pier 1879
  15. 15. TIMELINE1820183018401850186018701880189019001910192019301940 “Bathing in the shade1950 beneath the pier”,1960 Ocean Pier 1879197019801990 Image: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 23,187920002010
  16. 16. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: HistoricLongBranch.com20002010 The Steamer City of Richmond launched 1880
  17. 17. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier1840185018601870 1881 Pier destroyed by winter storm after two years1880 of service1890190019101920193019401950196019701980199020002010
  18. 18. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier184018501860 1881 Fourth pier constructed: Ocean Pier / Iron Pier18701880 Entrance through a pavilion at the foot of South1890 Broadway1900 Uses: Pier Entrance - Bar, Drugstore, Express Office,1910 Film Theater1920 Pier - Docking, Restaurant, Promenade,1930 Orchestra Stand, Fishing, Benches & Rocking1940 Chairs1950196019701980199020002010
  19. 19. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 “Iron Pier and Surf Bathing, Long Branch” 1890
  20. 20. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 “Bathing Scene at Long Branch, NJ” 1906
  21. 21. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier18401850186018701880 1889 Pier severely damaged by high tides; repaired1890 with wooden piling19001910 1893 Pier cut in two by tugboat; outer portion rebuilt19201930 1908 Remains of pier torn down19401950196019701980199020002010
  22. 22. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier1840185018601870 1912 Fifth pier constructed of concrete:1880 Amusement Pier / Fishing Pier18901900 Uses: Dance hall, Theater, Amusement Rides,1910 Restaurants, Bars, Haunted Mansion, Concession1920 Stands, Gift Shop, Games of Chance & Skill,1930 Fishing (no docking)19401950196019701980199020002010
  23. 23. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 Long Branch Pier 1921
  24. 24. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 Long Branch Pier ca. 1924
  25. 25. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 “Bathing scene from Boardwalk” 1924
  26. 26. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 Pier Scene Showing 40’ Tall Airplane Swing Ride ca. 1924
  27. 27. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier184018501860 1944 Pier severely damaged by hurricane187018801890190019101920193019401950196019701980199020002010
  28. 28. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: “Jersey Shore” by Emil Salvini, Author’s Collection20002010 Carousel Wrecked by Hurricane, 1944
  29. 29. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: Eddy and Gloria Bruno via www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 Long Branch Fishing Pier, ca. 1958
  30. 30. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: Eddy and Gloria Bruno via www.HistoricLongBranch.org20002010 Long Branch Fishing Pier, ca. 1958
  31. 31. TIMELINE182018301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: Bill and Seph Cherkasky via DarkInThePark.com20002010 Kid’s World, Long Branch Pier 1985
  32. 32. TIMELINE1820 1987 Pier destroyed by fire18301840185018601870188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 Image: Press File Photo via APP.com20002010 Fire, Long Branch Pier 1987
  33. 33. TIMELINE18201830 Long Branch Pier184018501860 2001 Pier remnant torn down18701880 2005 Pier Village opened1890190019101920193019401950196019701980199020002010
  34. 34. Local Conditions Prevailing Waves Prevailing Current Prevailing Wind
  35. 35. Permitting by NJDEP and Army Corps •NJDEP • CAFRA (Coastal lands) • Land Use (Waterfront Dev.) • Tidelands (Land ownership) •USACE • Section 10 (Nav. Waterways) • Section 404 (Water Quality)
  36. 36. Environmental Considerations•Impeding Natural Sediment Transport•Aquatic Biota • Temporary or Permanent Loss of Bottom Habitat • Threatened & Endangered Species • Opportunity for New Aquaculture•Stormwater Runoff•NEPA Compliance (Air, Noise, Traffic, Historic Resources)•Re-Suspension of Contaminants and Turbidity•Shading Effects•Fish Abundance, Reproduction and Migration
  37. 37. Operating Vessels Monohull Fast FerryCatamaran Fast Ferry
  38. 38. Fast Ferry• Construction Type Welded Aluminum Catamaran• Length 141 Feet• Beam 34 Feet• Speed 30 Knots• Engine Type Diesel• Horsepower 4800• Propulsion Propeller• Capacity 399 Enclosed Seats• Maximum Service Wave 8 Feet
  39. 39. Waves in the Open Ocean 19 Miles Offshore
  40. 40. Operating Days per year Wave Frequency Analysis 8 ft 8 7 6Wave Height 5 4 3 2 1 Ser s1 e i 0 61 182 245 292 325 341 350 Days per Year Wave Height Not Exceeded
  41. 41. HV3(Vessel 3: 141 ft Length x 34 ft Beam)HV2(Vessel 2: 125 ft Length x 40 ft Beam)HV1(Vessel 1: 78 ft Length x 28 ft Beam)
  42. 42. Design parameters – Pier and Breakwater•Setting the Height of the Structure • Design Wave Height • Design Flood Level / Storm Surge • Considerations for Sea Level Rise • Accessibility to the Ferry • Upland Viewsheds•Picking the Structure Type • Integrated Wave Attenuation • High Wave/Water Loading • Detached Wave Attenuation • Sediment Transport Disruption
  43. 43. Breakwater Options•Integrated Breakwater • Wave screens • Caisson walls•Detached Breakwater • Rubblemound structure • Pile/Crib system
  44. 44. Integrated Breakwater - Piles & Wall
  45. 45. Integrated Breakwater - Cellular Cofferdams
  46. 46. Integrated Breakwater - Caissons
  47. 47. Pier Elevation•Design Wave Height•Design Flood Level / Storm Surge•Considerations for Sea Level Rise•Accessibility to the Ferry•Upland ViewshedsTOP OF PIER +26.0’ 24.3’ WAVE CREST 12.3’ MSL + 100 YEAR STORM SURGE 3.0’ MHWS + SEA LEVEL RISE -0.3’ MSL -32.5’ BOTTOM OF WAVE SCREEN -34.5’ SEAFLOOR
  48. 48. Design Wave on Breakwater•Design Wave Height • 20-yr WIS (Wave Indormation Study) hindcast wave data • Extreme Value Analysis (EVA)•Wave Forces • Non-breaking wave 24’ wave ≈ 50kips/ft
  49. 49. Transmitted Wave to Harbor Wave energy balancing act: reflection, absorption and transmission TOP OF PIER +26.0’ 12.0’ TOP OF WAVE SCREEN 3.0’2 FT. WAVE MHWSTRANSMITTED 7.0’ WAVE CREST -0.3’ MSL -32.5’ BOTTOM OF WAVE SCREEN -34.5’ SEAFLOOR
  50. 50. Transmitted Wave to Harbor Effects of Wave Diffraction •Need Large, Calm Area Inside Breakwater for Ferry Maneuvers •Entrance & Exit Wave Conditions to Avoid Broadside Waves on Ferry
  51. 51. Breakwater Considerations• Withstand large forces• Allow flow to avoid sedimentation• Support Pedestrians and Buildings
  52. 52. ADA Compliance• Exempt from 30’ max. run• Max. 1V:12H slope between Mean High Water and Mean Low Water• Runs over 80’ exempt from 1V:12H slope
  53. 53. Floating Landing – Design Parameters• Acceleration (SNAME & ITTC 1999)Description Max.g Max.g-rateComfort standing person:•99% will keep balance without a need of holding 0.07 g 0.03 g/sComfort seated person:•Typical bus stop and up/down gear shifts 0.20 g 0.20 g/sSafety standing person:•Elderly person will keep balance when holding 0.08 g 0.20 g/s•Mean person will keep balance when holding 0.15 g 0.20 g/s•Mean person max. load keeping balance when 0.25 g 1.00 g/sholdingSafety seated person (no or 2-point seat-belt):•Nervous person will start holding (X and Y load) 0.15 g 0.80 g/s•Persons will fall out of seat (no seat belt) 0.45 g 3.00 g/sSafety seated person (3-point seat-belt):•Low tolerance for injury (car industry) 40 g (Z) 10 g (X&Y)
  54. 54. Passenger Transfer Gantry Bridge
  55. 55. Passenger Transfer Floating Landing
  56. 56. Long Branch Pier Schemes Alternative B - ShapedAlternative A - Conventional Alternative C – Pod and Pathway
  57. 57. The New Long Branch Pier
  58. 58. Core Requirements – Ferry Operations
  59. 59. “Applied Ingenuity” Since 1977 ENGINEERING DIVISIONSStructural • Site/Civil, Geotechnical and Survey Bridge, Highway and Rail • Forensics Marine • Waterborne Transportation Entertainment 2012

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