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AWWA Telemetry Training Course. Oct 2014. Chicago IL, Moline IL

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Slides from the 4-Hour AWWA Training Course titled: "Telemetry: A Detailed Look". Course was presented in Chicago IL (15 Oct 2014) and Moline IL (16 Oct 2014). Topics Include: Latest Technologies, Components, System Tailoring, Security, and Troubleshooting.

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AWWA Telemetry Training Course. Oct 2014. Chicago IL, Moline IL

  1. 1. By Jim Mimlitz Navionics Research, Inc. Illinois Section American Water Works Association Training Course Chicago, Illinois: 15 October 2014 Moline, Illinois: 16 October 2014 Telemetry A Detailed Look At Telemetry ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  2. 2. Today’s Course… Telemetry Technology Break Telemetry Components Break Tailoring Your Telemetry System Break Telemetry Security Break Troubleshooting Your Telemetry System ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  3. 3. ISAWWA Training Part I Telemetry Technology © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  4. 4. Telemetry Technology… Big Picture… What is the Purpose of Telemetry? 1. Automatic Control of Water Treatment and Distribution Processes. 2. Data Collection and Historical Trending. 3. Alarm Notifications. 4. Automated / Semi-Automated Report Generation. 5. Remote Access To Data. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  5. 5. 1. Automatic Control of Water Treatment and Distribution Processes. • Tower Level Sensing • Pump, Well ON/OFF Control • Valve OPEN/CLOSE Control • Flow Monitoring • Pressure Monitoring • Water Quality Monitoring: Chlorine, Turbidity, pH • Chemical Pump Control ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  6. 6. 2. Data Collection and Historical Trending. • Water Consumption Reviews • Overnight Analysis – Leak Detection • Pump Flows Consistent With Past Performance? • Water Quality Checks – Chlorine, Turbidity, pH • Pressure Reviews – Too High Or Too Low? • Temperatures (Room, Cabinet) – Too High Or Too Low? • Utility Power Quality Trending • Treatment Chemical Tracking ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  7. 7. 3. Alarm Notifications. • Automatic Delivery: SMS, Email, Telephone • Tank Levels: Too High, Too Low • Pressures: Too High, Too Low • Chlorine Levels: Too High, Too Low • Turbidity Levels: Too High • pH Levels: Too High, Too Low • Temperatures: Too High, Too Low • Power: Outages, Brownouts, Generator Run • Flood Detection: Buildings, Underground Vaults • Safety Alarms: Chlorine Gas Detection • Physical Security: Entry & Motion Detection ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  8. 8. 4. Automated / Semi-Automated Report Generation. • Meter (Total Consumption) Readings • Water Quality: Chlorine, Turbidity, pH • Tank Levels • Pressure Readings ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  9. 9. Manual Data-Entry Eliminated. History Data Permanently Stored On Telemetry Server. Automatic Generation Of Regulatory Compliance Reports (EPA). ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  10. 10. 5. Remote Access To Data. • Alarms Delivered To Smart Phones • History Trends Available On Smart Phones, Laptops • Consultants Can Advise From A Distance ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  11. 11. Example SmartPhones: • Microsoft SmartPhone • Apple iPhone • Blackberry • Droid • Others… View Status, History, Alarms. Sample iPhone Graphics ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  12. 12. Telemetry Technology… Big Picture… What Are The Benefits Of Telemetry? • Transit-Time Is Substantially Reduced. Overtime Is Minimized. • With An Alarm System Integrated With Smart-Phones, The Detection Of Costly System Faults Is Accelerated. • Physical Security At Unmanned Facilities Is Enhanced. • Quality-Of-Life For The System Operators Is Improved. • System Documentation Is Automated and Centralized. Access Is De-Centralized. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  13. 13. Tank Level Pressure Pressure Filter Head Loss Pressure/Level Transducer Status (Working/Fault) Power (Monitor 3-Phase Voltages) Power Consumption Pump Feedback (ON/OFF/FAIL) Accumulated Pump Runtime Generator Status (Running/OFF/Low-Fuel) Accumulated Generator Runtime Meter Reading Flow Rate Valve Position: • Fully-Open • Fully-Closed • Open % Chlorine Residual Turbidity Chemical Scales Flood Entry (Physical Security) Temperature Communication Status Chlorine / Miox Generation Systems Filter Systems VFD Systems ISAWWA TrainingTelemetry Technology… What Does A Telemetry System Typically Monitor? © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  14. 14. Pump: • ON • OFF • VFD Speed Valve: • Open • Close • Variable Position (Throttle) Chemical Pump: • ON • OFF • Variable Speed (Flow-Proportional, Residual-Dependent) Filter System: • Backwash Automatic Failover Systems: • Pump Control • Low-Suction Cutout • Valve Control Generator (Load Shedding) Enclosure Heater (Outdoor Units) ISAWWA TrainingTelemetry Technology… What Does A Telemetry System Typically Control? © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  15. 15. ISAWWA Training Part II Telemetry Components © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  16. 16. Telemetry Components… ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  17. 17. Computers, RTUs, PLCs ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  18. 18. I/O Modules/Channels: Discrete Digital I/O (Inputs/Outputs) Discrete Analog I/O Grouped I/O – Ethernet Grouped I/O – Serial (RS-232 Point-To-Point, RS-485 Multi-Drop) Isolation ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  19. 19. Telemetry Radios • Licensed (VHF, UHF) • Non-Licensed (Spread-Spectrum) ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  20. 20. Modems Translation of Binary (1’s and 0’s) Into Signal Suitable For Transmission Over Radio, Fiber-Optic, Telephone Lines. • Radio • Fiber Optic • Telephone Line ISAWWA Training Radio Modem Fiber Optic Modem Telephone Modem © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  21. 21. Antennas • Radomed and Non-Radomed • Directional • Omni-Directional ISAWWA Training Directional Yagi, No Radome Omni-Directional, Radomed Directional Yagi, Radomed © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  22. 22. Power Supplies • Convert 120VAC Line Power Into Lower DC Voltages • For Electronics, Instrumentation, Computers, Radios. ISAWWA Training Switching Power Supply Technology (Electronic-Based) Linear Power Supply Technology (Transformer-Based)© 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  23. 23. Battery Backup • UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) • Computers Require Clean, Glitch-Free Power. Why? • Eliminate Race Conditions ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  24. 24. Generators • Automatic Transfer Switch?... Or Manual? • Fuel Options: Diesel, Natural Gas, LP Monitoring/Alarming: • ON/OFF Status • Fault Status • Accumulated Runtimes (Odometer) • Fuel Status • Automated Weekly Exercise ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  25. 25. Coaxial Cable • Selected By Radio Frequency Band • Higher-Frequencies  Thicker/Lower-Loss Cable Required • Connectors: Recommend Soldering Over Crimping (Longevity) ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  26. 26. Grounding Systems • Safety • All Major Components Grounded Prevents Ground Loops • Transient Voltage Surge Suppression Assistance ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  27. 27. Coaxial Lightning Arrestors • Arrests Surges Due To Direct Lightning Strike On Antenna and/or Coaxial Cable • Gas-Tube Technology • Installed On Building or Enclosure Bulkhead • Diverts Transient Energy To Ground ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  28. 28. Power Lightning Arrestors • Installed On Incoming Utility Power • 3-Phase or Single-Phase • Diverts Transient Energy To Ground • Typically Feature ‘Working’ LED ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  29. 29. Pressure Transducers • Non-Waterproof (In-Station) • Waterproof (Below-Grade Pit) • Submersible (Submerged In Tank) • Insulation, Oil-Seals, Heat Tape (Freeze Prevention) • Pressure Snubbers (Situational) • Differential (Filter Loss) • Temperature Compensation Technology For Consistent Accuracy • Generally Higher Cost ~ Better Accuracy ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  30. 30. Pressure Switches • ON/OFF With Pressure • Low-Pressure: Switch Turns ON • High-Pressure: Switch Turns OFF • Adjustable Pressure • Adjustable Differential (Deadband) • Useful As Backup Control To Telemetry ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  31. 31. Flow Meters • Totalization • Encoder Versus Pulse • Rate-of-Flow Measurement • Best Verification of Pump and Valve Operation • Feed Chemicals Proportional To Flow. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  32. 32. Dual-Telemetry Systems For Transmitting Metering Data To Seller’s And Buyer’s Telemetry Systems. Both Systems “See” Identical Data. Enhances Communication & Collaboration. Gateway Water Company / Raccoon Water Company Interconnect RTU’s Interconnect Master Meter ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  33. 33. Sensus 10” Propeller Meter With “ICE” Encoder-Type Register. Connected To EtherMeter™. • Standard AWWA-Type Turbo & Mag-Meters Combined With EtherMeters™. • MODBUS-Based. • Allows Absolute-Encoder-Based Totalizers (No Pulse-Counting Errors) • Plant & BPS Influent & Effluent Meters. • Master (Custody-Transfer) Meters In Distribution System. • Daily Production And Process Monitoring. • Satellite District Realtime Consumption Monitoring. Gateway Water Plant (Sandoval, IL) EtherMeter Flow Meter Gateway ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  34. 34. Sensus Badger Neptune Itron/Actaris Master Meter … And Others… ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  35. 35. Solar-Power Intensive Project Reduced Energy Costs For Water District Solar-Power Eliminates Electric Service Hookup Fee And Monthly Bills. Sensus Badger ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  36. 36. Reduced Physical & Carbon Footprints For Master Meters. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  37. 37. Monitoring Of Major Flows Assists Early Leak-Detection… ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  38. 38. Relays • Isolation • Logic Implementation ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  39. 39. Time-Delay Relays • Isolation • Logic Implementation • Time-Delay To Filter Out Transient Pressure Effects (eg Water Hammers) • Useful As Backup Control Component To Telemetry ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  40. 40. Temperature Sensors • Thermocouples • Thermistors • RTDs Monitor: • Building Temps • Cabinet Temps • Pump Temps, ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  41. 41. Motors and Pumps • ON/OFF Status • Fault Status • Accumulated Runtimes (Odometer) ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  42. 42. ACL (Across-The-Line) Starters • Simple • Relatively Inexpensive • ON/OFF Only ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  43. 43. Soft-Starters • Ramp Voltage During Startup/Shutdown • Cost: ACL < Soft Starter < VFD • Cannot Adjust Speed During Run ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  44. 44. VFD’s: Variable Frequency Drives • State-Of-The-Art. • Ramp Voltage and Frequency During Startup/Shutdown • Can Regulate Speed At Any Time During Run Cycle (Not Only During Start-Up and Shut-Down) • Reduces Water Hammer • Adjustable Parameters: • Discharge Pressure Limiting • Back Pressure Sustaining • Flow Limiting • Digital Interface – Horsepower, Voltage, Amps, Fault Info • Up-Front Cost: ACL < Soft Starter < VFD Future Payoff In Energy Savings ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  45. 45. 3 Variable-Frequency Drives Installed Within A Motor Control Center ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  46. 46. Motorized Fully-Open/Fully-Closed Valves • Butterfly (1/4 Turn Actuator) • Gate (Multi-Turn Actuator) Sample Applications: • Elevated Tank Altitude Valve • Ground Storage Tank Altitude Valve ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  47. 47. Solenoid Valves • Control Small-Pipe Flows (Pilot Tubes) • Often Used As Component In Diaphragm Valves ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  48. 48. Position-Controlled Valves • Telemetry Controls Valve Position • Motorized Butterfly – More robust remote control, power-dependent. • Diaphragm/Solenoid – power fault-tolerant, more difficult to remote control via telemetry) ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  49. 49. Digitally-Controlled, High Performance Electric Butterfly Valves ISAWWA Training Advantages: Easily Controlled Via Telemetry. Parameters Easily Modified By Operator: Back-Pressure Sustaining Setting Flow-Limiting Setting Open/Close Pressures/Levels Long Travel Time To Open/Close Possible. Disadvantages: Requires Power (Generator) © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  50. 50. Advantages: Power-Independent (Sometimes) Disadvantages: Requires Frequent Cleanings/Maintenance (Especially With Hard Water). Digital Control Is Expensive/Complex. Limited Travel Time To Open/Close. Diaphragm-Based Control Valve ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  51. 51. Hybrid Throttled Valves • OPEN/CLOSE Telemetry Control • Valve Either: (1) Fully-Closed or (2) Valve Partially-Open • No Throttling/Regulation Action ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  52. 52. Chemical Feeders • Liquid Chemical Pumps • Chlorine Gas Feeders • Chem Feed-Rate Feedback Possible Feed Rate: • Constant Flow • Flow-Proportional (Telemetry) • Flow/Demand-Proportional (Telemetry) ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  53. 53. Chemical Scales • Telemetry-Monitored Chemical Scales Provide Chemical Consumption Historical Data • Chlorine (Liquid, Gas), Ammonia, Fluoride ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  54. 54. Panel Heaters • Protection Against Freezing • Protection Against Condensation • Heat Tape For Sensing Lines • Light Bulb Heater Design Notes: • Telemetry Systems Electronic-Intensive (Computers, VFD’s, Interfaces, etc) • New Building Designs: AC and Heating • Ensure Adequate Ventilation ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  55. 55. Programmed Control Logic • Provides Rules Of Operation • Sequential Instruction List • Ladder Logic ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  56. 56. Control Panel Operator Input • Push Buttons • Selector Switches • Keypads ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  57. 57. Control Panel Operator Display • Pilot Lamps • LED/LCD Displays • Flat-Panel Graphical Displays ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  58. 58. Industrial PC-Compatible RTU Processor Biddleborn Booster Pump Station Washington County (IL) Water Company Metering Inputs Discrete Inputs & Outputs Analog Inputs & Outputs Industrial I/O Industrial Radio-Modem Battery Backup (UPS) NEMA-Rated Industrial Motor Control Center TVSS (Surge Suppression) Thin-Client UNIX Terminal Interface Regulated DC Power Supplies Operator Interface / Troubleshooting Port Manual Controls Automatic Failover Backup Control System Programmable Logic ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  59. 59. Desktop Computer/Server ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  60. 60. Software For Desktop Computer/Server • Data Collection • Graphical Presentation • History Trending • Alarm Delivery • Remote Access Server • Vendor Service Console (Updates, Upgrades,…) ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  61. 61. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  62. 62. Firewalls / Routers • Provides Security Buffer Between SCADA Computer and Internet ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  63. 63. Operators Engineer Telemetry Vendor and Technicians Field Personnel The Internet Desktop (Traditional) Telemetry Server Communication, Command & Control ISAWWA Training Firewall © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  64. 64. ISAWWA Training Part III Tailoring Your Telemetry System © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  65. 65. Tailoring Your Telemetry System… ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  66. 66. Expandable or Fixed-I/O? • Fixed I/O Less Expensive Up Front Not Easily Grown Less Logic Flexibility • Expandable I/O More Expensive Up Front More Easily Grown More Logic Flexibility ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  67. 67. Base Hardware • RTU • Computer • PLC ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  68. 68. Communication Infrastructure? • Radio • Fiber Optic • Telco Line • Cellular Considerations: • Up-Front Costs • Ongoing (Monthly) Costs • Reliability ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  69. 69. I/O Points List • What points do you want to monitor? • What equipment do you want to control? • I/O Count: 1st Major Cost Driver For Project ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  70. 70. • Control Logic Laws / Sequencing • The Automated Decision-Making Aspect Of The Telemetry System. • Any Expected Logical Variations Should Be Handled By A Generous Collection Of Operator Setpoints. • Complexity Of Control Logic: 2nd Major Cost Driver For Project ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  71. 71. Define Control Panel Interfaces • Pilot Lamps • Computer LCD Displays • Manual Selector Switches (eg. Hand-Off-Auto) • Push Buttons Strongly Recommended: • Any Station Should Be Able To Be Completely Operated Using Only Manual Controls (In Case Of Telemetry Fault). ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  72. 72. Define Desktop/Server Computer Interfaces • Realtime Display Windows • History Trending Windows • Setpoint Modification Windows • Alarm Modification Windows ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  73. 73. Failover Operations If The Telemetry System (Or A Component) Fails, How Does The System Operate? • Manual Selector Switches, Push-Buttons, Gauges • Semi-Automatic Operator Must Visit Station To Enable Backup Automatic Controls • Automatic Telemetry System Self-Detects Fault, And Automatically Transfers Into Backup Control Operation. Example – Tower Transducer Fault. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  74. 74. Protecting Against Power Transients & Loss • Grounding • Transient Voltage Surge Suppression • Not A Question Of “Should I Implement?”… But Rather “How Much Should I Implement?”. • Battery Backup (UPS) At All Sites. • Generators At Critical Sites: Plants, Wells, Intakes, Pumping Stations. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  75. 75. Documentation and Training • Component Documentation (Helps With Future Maintenance & Replacements) • Wiring Diagrams (Helps With Future Troubleshooting) • Logical Operation Description (Helps For Training Future New-Hire Operators) • Security Procedures • Training At Startup/Commissioning Follow-Up Training Also Recommended ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  76. 76. ISAWWA Training Part IV Telemetry Security © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  77. 77. Telemetry Security… ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  78. 78. Physical Security • If No Physical Security, Then Cyber-Security Cannot Be Implemented. Why? • Door & Padlock Keys • Combinations • Smart-Cards ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  79. 79. Remote & Local Access Security • Username/Strong-Password Credentialed Authentication • Software & Hardware Firewalls Prevent Undesirable Types Of Access • Water Utility Controls All User Access • Multiple Activity Logs Should Detail Operator Access Sessions • Various Permission-Levels For Operator Access • Minimize List Of Personnel Authorized For System Access • Security Procedures & Training Must Be Followed !!! ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  80. 80. Local Communication Infrastructure Security • Secure The RTU-RTU Communications That Take Place Via Radio, Telco, Cellular, Fiber-Optic • Authentication (No Man-In-The-Middle Attacks) • Encryption (If Transmitted Data Is Sensitive) ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  81. 81. Computer Security Procedures • Must Be Documented • Review & Re-Evaluate The Procedures Regularly • Security Procedures Should Evolve. Why? ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  82. 82. 1. DO NOT USE THE TELEMETRY COMPUTER FOR NON-TELEMETRY PURPOSES! 2. INSTALL SECURITY UPDATES FROM THE OPERATING SYSTEM VENDOR (EG MICROSOFT) FREQUENTLY AND REGULARLY. 3. DO NOT INSTALL 3RD PARTY SOFTWARE ON THE TELEMETRY COMPUTER. DO NOT ADD EXTRA HARDWARE TO THE COMPUTER. DO NOT PLUG USB MEMORY STICKS INTO THE COMPUTER. 4. NEVER REVEAL A USERNAME/PASSWORD PAIR TO ANOTHER PERSON. 5. IF A USERNAME/PASSWORD PAIR IS SUSPECTED TO HAVE BEEN COMPROMISED, OR IF AN EMPLOYEE WHO HAD ACCESS TO THE SYSTEM IS TERMINATED – THEN DELETE HIS/HER USERNAME/PASSWORD FROM THE SYSTEM IMMEDIATELY... AND UNTIL THIS ACTION IS TAKEN, DISCONNECT THE SCADA SYSTEM FROM THE INTERNET OR TELEPHONE LINE IMMEDIATELY. 6. DO NOT ADD EXTRA USER ACCOUNTS TO THE COMPUTER’S OPERATING SYSTEM. 7. ONLY PROVIDE TELEMETRY SYSTEM ACCESS TO PERSONNEL WHOSE JOB REQUIRES IT; AND ONLY PROVIDE THE MINIMUM FUNCTIONALITY THAT EACH PERSON REQUIRES. 8. REGULARLY REVIEW THE ACCESS & ACTIVITY LOGS. 9. IF UNCERTAIN, CALL YOUR TELEMETRY VENDOR OR CONSULTANT FOR A CONSULTATION. 10. IF SECURITY TELEMETRY SECURITY PROCEDURES ARE NOT BEING FOLLOWED, THEN DISCONNECT FROM THE INTERNET! Example Telemetry Security Procedures (Condensed): ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  83. 83. ISAWWA Training Part V Troubleshooting Your Telemetry System © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  84. 84. Troubleshooting A System… ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  85. 85. Step 1: Determining The Problem, & Who To Call Telemetry Contractor Electrician Power Utility ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  86. 86. In-Panel Troubleshooting/Analysis? Know Your Limitations. Qualified and Comfortable Working Within A Control Panel With A Volt-Meter? If Not, Do Not Risk Injury – Call In Support. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  87. 87. Eyeball View: Power In The Control Panel? Which Lights/LED’s ON? Which Lights/LED’s Blinking? Error Codes? ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  88. 88. Common Issues – A telemetry site (water tower, pumping station, plant) stopped communicating or working. RTU Equipment ON? Radio Equipment ON? UPS (Battery Backup) ON? Did failure occur during a storm? • RTU Electronics Lightning-Damaged? • Antenna and/or Coaxial Cable Wind-Damaged? ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  89. 89. Common Issues – Pressure Transducer Failed. Did failure occur during a storm? • Transducer Electronics Lightning-Damaged? Transducer Submerged In Below-Grade Pit? • Transducer Suffered From Water Ingress? Freezing Weather Conditions? • Transducer Over-Pressurized From Sensing Line Freeze-Up? • If Freeze-Up… Insufficient Insulation? Heat Tape Failure? Oil-Seal Failure? ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  90. 90. Common Issues – Pressure Transducer Failed. What Is Nature Of Fault? • Transmitting “Zero” Reading?... Or Reading Not Changing? Did failure occur during a storm? • Transducer Electronics Lightning-Damaged? Transducer Submerged In Below-Grade Pit? • Transducer Suffered From Water Ingress? Freezing Weather Conditions? • Transducer Over-Pressurized From Sensing Line Freeze-Up? • If Freeze-Up… Insufficient Insulation? Heat Tape Failure? Oil-Seal Failure? ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  91. 91. Common Issues – Variable Frequency Drive Failed. VFD Fault Code Displayed On LCD Display? • Record the Fault Code. VFD Manual Or Supplier Can Help Decipher. (eg Over-Voltage, Over-Current) Did failure occur during a storm? • VFD Electronics Lightning-Damaged? VFD Faults Can Often Be Reset • Depress Reset Button. Recurrent VFD Faults? • Underlying Problem Should Be Discovered And Addressed. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  92. 92. Common Issues – Communication Fault. Triangulate, If Possible, The Location Of The Problem. ISAWWA Training Main Telemetry Computer© 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  93. 93. Common Issues – Communication Fault. Triangulate, If Possible, The Location Of The Problem. ISAWWA Training Check Here First Main Telemetry Computer© 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  94. 94. Common Issues – RTU/Computer Fault. Usually No LEDs ON. Sometimes, LEDs ON – But Not Blinking. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  95. 95. Common Issues – Radio Fault. Power LED ON? • If NO, Possible Power Supply Failure (Not Radio Failure). • If NO, Possible Radio Internet Fuse Blown (Repair Possible). • If YES, Possible Electronic Circuit Failure. ‘RECEIVE’ LED Steady? • If YES, Interference From Within Or Wihout (Usually Within). ‘TRANSMIT’ LED Steady? • If YES, Transmitter Locked ON. Could be caused by faulty radio, modem, RTU/Computer. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  96. 96. Common Issues – Pump (or Valve) Short-Cycling ON/OFF Too Quickly. Setpoint Problem? • Water Tower ON/OFF Setpoints Too Close Together? • Or Pressure ON/OFF Setpoints Too Close Together? Pressure Transducer Problem? • Transducer Malfunctioning. • Electrical Noise Causing Readings To Jump High/Low. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  97. 97. Common Issues – Pump Speed Oscillating Up And Down Too Rapidly. Gain Setpoint Problem? • Gain Is Set Too High Explanation Of “Feedback Gain” • Automobile Cruise Control Example ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  98. 98. Common Issues – Throttling Valve Oscillating Open and Closed Too Rapidly. Gain Setpoint Problem? • Gain Is Set Too High ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  99. 99. Common Issues – Pump Speed Not Ramping Up and Down Quickly Enough. Telemetry Not Properly Maintaining Pressure (or Flow) Setting. Gain Setpoint Problem? • Gain Is Set Too Low ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  100. 100. Common Issues – Valve Position Not Adjusting Quickly Enough. Telemetry Not Properly Maintaining Pressure (or Flow) Setting. Gain Setpoint Problem? • Gain Is Set Too Low ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  101. 101. Common Issues – Battery Backup (UPS Fault). Does Not Keep RTU/Computer Up And Running During Power Outage? • If NO, Possible Internal Battery Failure (Replace Battery) • If NO, Possible UPS Unit Failure (Replace Entire Unit) NOTE! – Batteries Require Special Disposal/Recycling. How To Test For UPS Fault? • Simulate Outage By “Pulling The Plug”. ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  102. 102. Remote Access Help, Reduce Travel Expenses – Via Internet Or Telephone Modem Telemetry Vendor, Consultant, Engineer Share Historical Trending Charts Troubleshooting Advice Install Updates/Upgrades Modify Programming ISAWWA Training © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com
  103. 103. ISAWWA Training Conclusion Thank You. Jim Mimlitz Navionics Research Inc. © 1995-2014 COPYRIGHT NAVIONICS RESEARCH INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. RIRIwireless-telemetry.com

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