Harmony: A Wellspring of Diversity• Changes in the harmony change the listening experience.• You do not need to know what is happening technically to experience novelty and pleasure.• Do you remember in our study of music and the brain we spoke of expectation and violation? Compare your responses to these two versions of the same song.
Blackbird Traditional HarmonySarah McLaughlinSoundtrack: i am sam
Blackbird Jazz Performance Harmony Altered Expectation and violationThe variations between the two versions introducevariety, surprise, new anticipations and evokefreshness and tantalizing uncertainty.
Harmony: The Vertical Element Harmony is made up of groups of notes selected because they work well together to enrich the melody. Harmony consists of these groups of notes forming chords.
From Whence Come Chords?• Chords are derived from scales. • Scale defined: a series of adjacent notes in an ascending or descending pattern.• You are already very familiar with the most frequently heard scale. • Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La, Ti, Do • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (1) • The degrees of the scale are sung in Italian by tradition. Numbers can also be used.
Two Scales Are in Common Use• The major scale (and the chords characteristic of it) is the most common scale.• The other common choice is the minor scale and the chords that fit that pattern of notes. Music using the minor scale is sometimes described as more somber or darker in feeling.• See your textbook page on 27 for the pattern of common scales.
Intervals and Chords• When three or more pitches are sounded together, the result is a chord. • The word harmony may describe one chord • However, the term is also used to describe a system of relationships between the various chords in a piece of music.
Chords• Chords are created by “stacking up” notes that are the interval of a third apart. • There are other possible combinations, but these will do for now.• The most common chord is a three note chord called a triad.• In the relationship among the chords, some chords are more important than the others.
The Function of Harmony Triad: three-note chord, do-mi-sol or 1-3-5 The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter EditionThe Very Common Three-Note Chord Called a Triad
Tonality: The System of Relationships The system, or principle, ofrelationships among notes and/or chords is described by the term tonality.
Harmony: Tonality• In the relationship among the chords, some chords are more important than the others.• The harmony associated with scale degree 1 (Do) [the tonic] is the most important.• Other chords are interesting and important, but• In a sense, they revolve around the tonic: moving away from it, but being constantly drawn back into close relationship with it.
Chords, Harmony, and Tonality• The chord with the strongest affinity, or “pull” back to the tonic is the chord known as the dominant.• This chord has the strongest tendency by far to pull back to the tonic.
Principle of OrganizationTonality • Principle of organization for other notes. • Tonic, or key note (“Do” or scale degree 1) is the most important note in the scale. • It serves as a home base for other notes and chords.
Dissonance and Consonance• These are the technical terms in music describing tension(dissonance) and its resolution into consonance.• These terms are relative, not absolute.• However dissonance is generally heard and felt as unsettling, whereas consonance is described with terms such as stable, calm, fulfilling and related impressions.
Dissonance and Resolution• These terms are used in music pretty much as they are in common parlance.• Dissonance is normally something that we see seek to get away from.• Resolution of the tension-producing dissonance is much to be desired.
Dissonance Generally heard andfelt as unsettling.
Consonance Heard as stable, calm, fulﬁlling andother similar impressions.
The Pattern of the Major Scale Represented on the Keyboard: See pages 26 - 27
Progression• Progression is the movement from one chord to another.• From every tone in the scale a chord can be built.• Different chords, however have a stronger affinity with the home note (Do). The first degree of the scale is the strongest and most important chord.
Chord Relationships• “Do,” called the tonic can be thought of as the key chord of the composition. If a piece is labeled “Sonata in C Major,” the tonic will be the pitch C and its chord. • Other chords have a greater or lessor affinity to the tonic chord.• From the fourth degree of the scale is built a chord (IV) that has a notable affinity with the tonic.
The Dominant Chord• The second most important chord is the dominant (V), built on the fifth note of the scale.• The source of its importance is that, of all of the chords, it has the strongest affinity with the tonic.• That is, it pulls more strongly back to the tonic chord than any other chord.
Can I Hear These Relationships?• You are always hearing these relationships when you listen to music.• You may not be able (or even want to label them), the chords, but they are constantly in play as you listen to music.• Let’s take a common tune with simple harmonies to demonstrate how all this theory works in practice.
Chord Progressions in the“Battle Hymn of the Republic” Glory, glory! Hallelujah! Tonic (1) Glory, Glory! Halle- IV Ilujah! Glory, glory! Hallelujah! His I I truth is marching on. IV V I
Yikes! What Must I Know?• Once again, know the concepts. • Know what progression is • Know that the tonic is the most important chord and that the dominant is especially important because it “pulls” more strongly to the tonic than any other chord. • Note the information emphasized in StudySpace