PYROTECHNICS

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JUST GO THROUGH IT TO GET AN IDEA ABOUT PYRO TECHNICS...!!!

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PYROTECHNICS

  1. 1. Pyrotechnics<br />Group - 4<br />Batch - ll<br />
  2. 2. Pyrotechnics is the science of materials capable of under going self contained and self sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas , smoke and sound.<br />What does Pyrotechnics include?<br />What are the chemicals used in Pyrotechnics?<br />How Pyrotechnics can be classified?<br />
  3. 3. Important technical terms used in pyrotechnics:<br /><ul><li>Binders
  4. 4. Black powder
  5. 5. Compositions
  6. 6. Stars
  7. 7. Shells
  8. 8. Whistle mix
  9. 9. Lamp black
  10. 10. Flash powder</li></li></ul><li>PRECIPITATE METHOD FOR PREPERATION OF BLACK POWDER<br />Potassium nitrate is dissolved in hot water .<br />Charcoal and sulfur are added and mixed well.<br /> The solution is poured into an amount of cold alcohol.<br />KNO precipitates into small crystals ; so it can <br /> burn much faster.<br />3<br />
  11. 11. The role of periodic table in pyrotechnics:<br /><ul><li>referred for elemental weights to determine the</li></ul> amounts of each chemical needed.<br /><ul><li> with out periodic table balancing and predicting </li></ul> reactions would be much more difficult.<br />Alkaline and Alkaline earth elements used in pyrotechnics:<br /><ul><li> potassium used to produce purple coloured flame.
  12. 12. magnesium is used in flash powders to produce bright lights.
  13. 13. metallic form of magnesium is more reactive fuel than Aluminium.
  14. 14. strontium compounds are used to produce red lights.
  15. 15. Magnalium which contains 49% Mg is more reactive than Al&Mg and doesn’t have troubles with water.</li></li></ul><li>NASA ‘s method for Al usage as fuel :<br /><ul><li> It involves : vaporizing aluminum</li></ul> condensing it on to the<br /> container wall<br /> sub micron size particles <br /> are obtained<br /><ul><li> this results in significant fuel savings.
  16. 16. this method is too expensive.</li></li></ul><li>NON METALS USED IN PYROTECHNICS<br />Carbon is an important fuel in pyrotechnics; it is used in the form of charcoal or lampblack.<br />Nitrogen is is used in the form of nitrates. <br />Phosphorus forms a very sensitive and powerful explosive mixture when mixed with chlorates<br />Oxygen is used in the form of polyatomic molecules those release oxygen at higher temperature.<br />Sulfur is mostly used as a fuel. Only in Zn – Sulfur rockets it is used as an oxidizer.<br />Chlorine combines with metals in the flame envelope to enhance colour. It is used in the form of Cl donors like PVC.<br />
  17. 17. Transition metals:<br /><ul><li>Iron :
  18. 18. used to produce bright orange sparks.
  19. 19. must be coated with linseed oil.
  20. 20. finely divided iron is used as a slow fuse.
  21. 21. copper:
  22. 22. copper acetoarsenite used for green sparks.
  23. 23. copper(ll) chloride produces blue when excited.
  24. 24. zinc:
  25. 25. powdered Zn is used to produce spreader stars.
  26. 26. used in rockets with sulfur.
  27. 27. Zn produce bluish or green colour when burnt.</li></li></ul><li>Hydro carbons involved:<br /><ul><li> Hexamine cyclo hexane - fuel.
  28. 28. Mainly used as solvents .
  29. 29. Ex: acetone dissolves nitrocellulose.
  30. 30. methyl ethyl ketone dissolves parlon.
  31. 31. Gasoline - used for making a simple fire ball .
  32. 32. how to ignite?</li></ul> put the fuel in a mortar tube<br /> fill black powder in bottom portion<br />introduce flame in black powder<br />
  33. 33. Controlling rates of reactions:<br /><ul><li>by using excess of fuel or oxidizer
  34. 34. by adding carbonates
  35. 35. by using NaCl
  36. 36. by catalysts (especially in ROCKET FUELS)
  37. 37. by changing the % of reactants
  38. 38. by using appropriate solvents
  39. 39. Vigorous nature of oxidizers:</li></ul>nitrates < perchlorates < chlorates<br />
  40. 40. Pyrotechnics in space applications<br />Pyrotechnic low shock operation nut<br />Exhaust volves<br />Thermite mixture+<br />Low explosive <br />Chamber containing <br />Compressed air<br />piston<br />Nut <br />
  41. 41. 1. Initiation <br />2. Thermite combustion, heat conduction <br />3.temp. rise<br />4.Displacement of the piston; opening of threaded segments; bolt release<br />
  42. 42. Hazardous homemade pyrotechnic flash pot<br />
  43. 43. SAFETY<br /><ul><li> Proximate pyrotechnics is an area of expertise that requires additional training.
  44. 44. Consumer pyrotechnics are devices readily available for public without special licensing and training.
  45. 45. These items are relatively low hazardous, but should be stored, handled and used appropriately.</li></li></ul><li>Bibliography:<br />1.wikipedia.org<br />2. Pyrotechnic fireworks and chemicals;<br /> www.skylighter.com <br />3. Practical pyrotechnics by WouterVisser<br />4. Pyrotechnics in industry by Richard T. Barbour<br />
  46. 46. THANK YOU<br />

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