DIGITAL STOP WATCH - K. Sai MalleswarReferances;1. www.diy-electronic-projects.com
CONTENTS1. Aim2. Components3. Circuit description (proposed) i. Pulse generator ii. Counter iii. Display unit iv. Modifications* v. Schematic of proposed circuit vi. Schematic of modified circuit 4. Details of ICs [ from Datasheets] 5. Applications of the circuit 6. Project details i. Experiences of the project work
1. AIM Aim: To make a digital stop watch circuit that can count from 0 to 99 seconds, which can also be used for different applications like photo counter, person counter, count down timer, alarm clock etc. with small modifications. 2. COMPONENTS USED 1. ICs: i. CD4060BM – 14 stage ripple carry binary counter - 1 ii. CD4040BM – 12 stage ripple carry binary counter - 1 iii. NE555 – Timer - 1 iv. MC14518B - BCD counter -1 v. MC14511B - BCD to seven segment display drivers - 2 2. Other components: i. 1 kilo ohm resistors – 16, 10 kilo ohm resistors - 2, 1 mega ohm resistor - 1, 330 ohm resistor -1,220 ohm resistor -1 ii. 100 kilo ohm potentiometer-1 iii. On/off switches- 2 iv. 4.2 megahertz crystal-1 v. 1N4007 diodes– 2 vi. 22pf capacitors – 2, 10uf capacitor-1, 0.01uf capacitor-1 vii. Common anode 7 segment displays - 2viii. +5V DC power supply ix. Bread board - 1
3. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The circuit can be mainly divided into three parts. One is generator which produces the pulse of the desired frequency. The other parts are the counter that does the actual counting of the seconds and the display unit. i. PULSE GENERATOR: The generator of the circuit comprises of the integrated circuits CD4040CM and CD4060CM. We use a crystal which oscillates at a frequency of 4,194,304 Hz. It is obvious that this frequency is completely useless, as it is too big to be used as it is to our circuit. What we should is divide this frequency, in a way that in its final form, the pulse will have a frequency of 1Hz, which is the desirable frequency. Initially we use the integrated CD4060, which divides the imported frequency in its input, by forces of 2. As we can see on the integrated circuit the outputs are marked as Q4, Q5,…,Qn. By importing a pulse in the CLK input of the 4060, with a frequency f Hz, we take out of output Qn, a signal which has a frequency equal to f/2n. So, by exporting the signal out of Q14, knowing that the imported signal has a frequency of 4,194,304 Hz, we take a signal, which has a frequency of 256Hz. By importing this signal, to 4040 and by exporting the signal through Q8 we have finally taken an inverted signal, at the frequency of 1Hz. The fact that the signal is inverted, doesn‘t affect the proper function of our circuit. This inversion just causes the circuit to be triggered with a logical 0. By putting a LED on the same output, we have a visual of the counting, as in each positive pulse the diode polarizes positively, and a current passes through it.ii. COUNTER: The signal of 1Hz, which we have taken from the generator, is imported to a BCD counter MC14518. This integrated circuit adds a logical 1 at each pulse, on its output. The MC14518 is virtually divided into two segments. One counts the units of the seconds, while the other the decades. The generators pulse is imported to the part which counts the units. This is very logical, as we want in each second the number of the display to be raised by 1.
On the other hand, we want the first display to raise by 1, every 10 seconds. This is why, we ground the CLK input, and we use the signal of Q3 to the CKE input. By using this means, we make sure that the first display will be triggered, only when we have a decreasing signal on Q3; that is, only when the signal drops from logical 1 to logical 0.The first display increments every 10 seconds, which means that after 9 on the second display (1001 on the output of the BCD counter) the first display must be set to zero, while the first must be set to +1. That is that from 1001 to 0000, and we have a descending pulse, as the last digit descends from logical 1 to logical 0 and triggers the BCD counter of the decades. When the decades display becomes 9 then the circuit goes to the next state, which is zero, and the counting begins once more.iii. DISPLAY UNIT: The integrated circuits MC14511 are BCD to 7 segment drivers. As its name clearly state, their sole purpose is to translate the BCD information of MC14518, to a code understandable by the 7 segment displays. The inputs LE, BL‘ and LT‘ are used to test the LEDs of the display and pulse-modulate the brightness of the display. In this case we these inputs to logical 0, as we don‘t need them. The LE input (Latch Enable) is used to keep the number of the displays while the pulse still runs. It is a HOLD function similar to the one of the modern stopwatches. In addition, at any given moment we can restart the counting, by pressing the reset switch. By this means we set the RST input of the MC14518 to logical 1, which resets the counting to 0000.iv. MODIFICATIONS: The circuit which we described above for the 1Hz pulse generation using crystal of resonant frequency 4.2 MHz is accurate than any other pulse generators. But the crystal was not obtained. So we designed different 1 Hz pulse generating circuits. Finally the circuit using NE555 could satisfy the requirements of the project. The circuit has been tuned exactly tuned to 1Hz by changing the potentiometer‘s resistance. The comparison has been made by blinking an led with 1Hz clock pulse on digital trainer kit and blinking another led with the pulse produced from the circuit designed using NE555. The 1Hz pulse generated has been given as clock input to the second BCD counter of MC14511.
4. Details of ICs used1. MC14518B: The MC14518B dual BCD counter and the MC14520B dual binary counter are constructed with MOS P–channel and N–channel enhancement mode devices in a single monolithic structure. Each consists of two identical, independent, internally synchronous 4–stage counters. The counter stages are type D flip–flops, with interchangeable Clock and Enable lines for incrementing on either the positive– going or negative–going transition as required when cascading multiple stages. Each counter can be cleared by applying a high level on the Reset line. In addition, the MC14518B will count out of all undefined states within two clock periods. These complimentary MOS up counters find primary use in multi–stage synchronous or ripple counting applications requiring low power dissipation and/or high noise immunity. • Diode Protection on All Inputs • Supply Voltage Range = 3.0Vdc to 18Vdc • Internally Synchronous for High Internal and External Speeds • Logic Edge–Clocked Design — Incremented on Positive Transition Of Clock or Negative Transition on Enable • Capable of Driving Two Low–power TTL Loads or One Low–power Schottky TTL Load over the Rated Temperature RangePin diagram:
2. MC14511B: The MC14511B BCD–to–seven segment latch/decoder/driver is constructed with complementary MOS (CMOS) enhancement mode devices and NPN bipolar output drivers in a single monolithic structure. The circuit provides the functions of a 4–bit storage latch, an 8421 BCD–to–seven segment decoder, and an output drive capability. Lamp test (LT), blanking (BI), and latch enable (LE) inputs are used to test the display, to turn–off or pulse modulate the brightness of the display, and to store a BCD code, respectively. It can be used with seven–segment light–emitting diodes (LED), incandescent, fluorescent, gas discharge, or liquid crystal readouts either directly or indirectly. Applications include instrument (e.g., counter, DVM, etc.) display driver, computer/calculator display driver, cockpit display driver, and various clock, watch, and timer uses. • Low Logic Circuit Power Dissipation • High–Current Sourcing Outputs (Up to 25 mA) • Latch Storage of Code • Blanking Input • Lamp Test Provision • Lamp Intensity Modulation Capability • Time Share (Multiplexing) Facility • Supply Voltage Range = 3.0 V to 18 V Pin diagram:
3. CD4040BM and CD4060BM: These are 12 staged and 14 staged ripple carry binary counters respectively. TheCounters are advanced one count on the negative transition of each clock pulse.The counters are set to zero state by a logical ‗1‘ at the reset input independent ofclock. Pin diagrams: CD4040BM: CD4060BM:
4. NE555:The NE555 IC has three operating modes: 1. Mono stable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc. 2. Astable - free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc. 3. Bi-stable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce free latched switches, etc. Pin diagram:
5. Applications of the circuitThe main purpose of the circuit is to use it as a stop watch that can be used inorganizing athletics, quizzes etc. With small modifications, the circuit can be usedfor many counting purposes.The flip-flops in the counter MC14518 are edge triggered. So if we give a singlepulse, the count increments by 1. So if we replace 1Hz pulse generator circuit witha photo sensor, the count increments by 1 only when a pulse is received. So thecircuit can be used as photo counter. It can be kept inside a table‘s desk. Wheneverthe desk is opened, the count increments by 1.So a person can find how manytimes the table has been opened in his absence and reset the counter.The circuit can also be used as person counter with the help of two IR sensors.One is to manage the count of the persons. Other is to find, whether the person isentering the room or leaving. When a person enters or leaves the room, he will cutthe light ray produce by IR leds. So the count increments by 1, when a personenters the room and decrements by 1, when a person leaves the room. It can bereset, whenever it is required.If we replace up counter with down counter, it can be used as countdown timer oralarm clock by attaching a buzzer for sounding.If the 1Hz pulse generator circuit is replaced with a Pressure sensor, the circuit canbe used for counting the number of persons walked through a way. This can madeuseful for practical purposes by increasing the no. of counters and seven segmentdisplays, thus increasing the maximum possible count.
6. PROJECT DETAILSi. Experiences of the project work: 1. We searched for the crystal of 4.2 MHz in many electronic shops, since it is the most accurate pulse generator. We could not find it. 2. So, we started designing different 1Hz pulse generator circuits. We could learn troubleshooting the circuits while implementing each on the bread board and testing for the accuracy of the output. 3. We could understand the basic circuit used in manufacturing stopwatches, counters, digital clocks etc. 4. We could learn using Seven Segment displays and using their driver ICs for displaying digital data. 5. We made the schematic of the 1Hz Pulse generator using ―PSPICE‖ software. 6. We could learn Soldiering electronic circuits on the General Purpose PCB by making a proper floor plan of the circuit.CONCLUSION:The project of making ―DIGITAL STOP WATCH‖, which can count from 0 to 99seconds and has Hold and Reset capabilities has been completed. The circuit hasbeen implemented on bread board and soldiered on General Purpose PCB.