Behaviorism Menu• What?• Who?• How?• My Classroom
What is it?• The prediction and control of human behavior• Introspection and/or independent thinking play no essential part of its teaching methods• Learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning• Behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner• No consideration of internal mental states
What is it? • Conditioning • occurs through interaction with the environment. • Classic Conditioning - naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. • Then a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. • Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. • Operant Conditioning - a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior • An association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.Back to Menu
Who? – Ivan PavlovBest Known For:• Classic Conditioning – • While researching the digestive function of dogs, Pavlov noted they would salivate before food. • He presented a variety of stimuli before the presentation of food • Found that, after repeated association, a dog would salivate to the presence of a stimulus other than food.• Research on physiology and digestion.• 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology.
Who? – B.f. Skinner Best Known For: • Operant Conditioning – • "cumulative recorder," which showed rates of responding as a sloped line. • Found that behavior didn’t depend on the preceding • Behaviors were dependent upon what happens after the response. • Schedules of Reinforcement • Fixed-ratio schedules • Variable-ratio schedules • Fixed-interval schedules • Variable-interval schedulesBack to Menu
How?• A behaviorist classroom is structured and has prepared lesson plans each day.• The student sits in an assigned seat and listens to the lesson taught by the• Environmental stimuli can be produced to influence a behavior, • The teacher offering candy to those students who tell her three things they learned during her lesson. • This would encourage the students to be more aware of her lesson.
How? • Students learn without teaching in their natural environments • Teachers arrange special contingencies which: • expedite learning • hastening the appearance of behavior which would otherwise be acquired slowly • or making sure of the appearance of behavior which otherwise would never occur.Back to Menu
My Classroom• I believe that conditioning a student by rewarding them based on positive behaviors helps them repeat that behavior in the future.• Even if it’s something as simple as putting a sticker that the top of their papers
My Classroom • I don’t agree with the behaviorist theory in that it only allows for concrete, not abstract thinking. • Behaviorist theory doesn’t give the child the opportunity to seek out new explanations or observations. • In my classroom, the student will be encouraged to think outside of the box and isn’t looked at like a computer • Each student is different and independent thinking needs to be put into consideration when teachingBack to Menu