Access controls


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All you wanted to know about Access Control Systems and its componants.

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Access controls

  1. 1. Access ControlsCapt SB Tyagi, COAS CC*, FISM, CSC, CSP 1
  2. 2. Access Control Measure•Challenges for Security professionals –•Change in security concept world over after WTC, USA incident on 11 Sept. 2001.•Escalation in suicide attacks by terrorists –•Dimension of Security drastically changed in India after attack on Indian Parliament on 13 Dec. 2001. 2
  3. 3. Why Access Control?•Security professional now pay more emphasis onintelligence gathering and proactive and preventiveSecurity management.•The potential cost to business when security isbreached can weigh heavily on a company’s safety,reputation, viability and ultimate profitability.•Staff’s well being, product integrity, secretprocesses, collateral and intellectual property is all atgreat risk.•Access Control provides the ability to control,monitor and restrict the movement of people, assetsor vehicles in, out and around a building or site anddetect, delay and / refuse access to unauthorized. 3
  4. 4. Today’s bustling, exciting business needs the ability to:•To know who is in the premise.•Know where people are•Restrict access to certain areas wheresensitive business activities are going on•Access Control provides "owners" with theability to protect their people, assets andintellectual property. 4
  5. 5. Delay Element placement♦ Delay should follow detection♦ Maximized at the target for cost effectiveness♦ In depth with multiple barriers layers demanding adversarys different skills, better planning and variety of tolls to defeat it♦ Activated dispensable close to target 5
  6. 6. Product OptionsWith continuing developments in technology thevariety of products for Access Control hasimproved to meet the specific needs of the market.The flexibility of offerings means there should be aproduct to meet most requirements.Access Control Systems can function as standalone or on-line systems connected to an operatorstation.Products range from –•Token Based Systems•Digital Key pads•Biometrics Readers•Audio/Video Entry Systems 6
  7. 7. Access Control System: IntegrationIncreasing complexity of security requirements andthe improvement in flexible technology solutionsled to the integration of Access Control productswith other security systems.Access Control Systems now offer interfaces to:-•     Alarm Management•     CCTV System•     Video Badging•     Time and Attendance•     Building Management System•     Guard Tours Management• Intruder Alarm System 7
  9. 9. Token Based Systems•The fastest growing area, token-based systems, combines securityand convenience to offer solutions for applications includingbuilding or site security, asset tracking, patient protection andvehicle identification. Based on existing international standards,available token technologies include•Proximity, Hands-free, Magnetic Stripe, Wiegand, Biometrics, SmartCard•Cards and Readers: -Some Access Control Systems supports all reader technologies tomeet the widest variety of application needs.Multiple technologies can be used on the same system and even onthe same door, providing maximum design flexibilitySingle card can be used for multiple functionality including accesscontrol, time & attendance, cash-less vending and video/photo ID 9
  10. 10. Types of Cards & Readers•        Magnetic Stripe•        Proximity•        Wiegand•        Hands Free•        Smart Card•        Watermark Magnetics•        Barcode 10
  11. 11. Watermark Magnetics™ is a form of magnetic stripetechnology that uses a unique manufacturingprocess to incorporate an indelible “Watermark”number into the data stripe. 11
  12. 12. Proximity Cards:Technology uses a tuned RF circuit to emit a uniqueidentification over relatively short ranges. The cardrequires no contact with the reader for the data to beread 12
  13. 13. Benefits:•Uses passive cards (no battery) for long lifetime•Non-contact readability for convenient & easy use.•Small unobtrusive readers.•Maintenance frees.•Cards can be supplied in credit card size withintegral magnetic stripe for multi-functionapplications.Applications: •Medium/High security. •Where convenience of use is a high priority. •Where multi-function cards are desirable. 13
  16. 16. All cards / fobs are individuallyadded / deleted by code entryat the keypad   FAIL SAFE /FAIL SECURE RELAY OPERATION 16
  18. 18. Digital KeypadsIn this case, the"token" is simply anumeric code enteredinto a keypad on ornear the door. Codescan usually be set todifferent lengths andmost keypads havethe capacity for morethan one code. 18
  19. 19. Cryptag RF-ID CardsCryptag RF-ID card technology uses radio frequency (RF)circuits encoded with unique data which are embedded into aplastic card which can transmit identification data to a cardreader when within the reader’s RF range. The card does notrequire insertion into or physical contact with a reader in orderfor data to be obtained. 19
  20. 20. Benefits:•         Almost impossible to duplicate cards due to RF circuitry and microchips embedded.•         Non-contact readability provides easy use.•         “On-the-fly” identification is available where the proximity card is interrogated without the cardholder having to stop or “show” the card to a reader.•         Low maintenance reader due to non-contact of cards.•         Slot-less reader and concealed installationmakes vandalism less likely.    20
  21. 21. Benefits:•Equipment such as portable computers can be“tagged” as a deterrent to theft.•Variety of reader ranges and area coverageavailable.•Encrypted communications eliminatesinterference with other electronic and RF basedsystems.•Passive tags available that do not requirebatteries thus reducing on-going costs.Applications:•       High security hands-free applications.•       Ideal for non-interventional tracking of people, vehicles and assets. Especially suitable for disabled, elderly and 21
  22. 22. Wiegand CardsWiegand Technology uses short lengths of specialalloy wire with unique magnetic propertiesembedded into the card. The number of wirelengths and their location within the data stripdetermine the identification of the card. Applications: High Security. 22
  23. 23. Benefits:•         Data strips are embedded within the cardand cannot be seen on the card surface.•         Almost impossible to duplicate cards asattempts to expose the embedded codes willmove their precise location thereby making thecard unusable.•         Readers can be used indoors and outdoors. Specials finish readers available. 23
  24. 24. What is Biometrics?•Based on scientific fact that fewbody parts of every human beinghave distinct features unique anddifferent than others.•Finger prints, shapes of iris, retina,body odor etc. are few suchattributes which are used foridentification purpose.•Biometric characteristic or abiometric trait, is a measurablephysiological or behavioral trait of aliving person that can be used todetermine or verify the identity 24
  25. 25. What is Biometrics?•Physiological biometrics (also known as staticbiometrics): Biometrics based on data derived fromthe measurement of a part of a persons anatomy.Examples include fingerprints and iris patterns, aswell as facial features, hand geometry and retinalblood vessel patterns.•Behavioral biometrics (dynamic biometrics): basedon data derived from measurements of an actionperformed by a person and, distinctively,incorporating time as a metric — i.e., the measuredaction has a beginning, middle and end. Examplesinclude voice (speaker verification) and signature. 25
  26. 26. Types of Biometrics• Fingerprint Biometrics• Hand Geometry Biometrics• Retina Recognition• Face Recognition• Palm / vain pattern• Voice Recognition Finger Print Biometrics 26
  27. 27. How it works?There is an optical device that uses digitalholography to 3-D scan a finger and compare itagainst a previously enrolled template. Templatesare stored as an ASCII file against as ID number.This system comprises of a reader, a processorand a power supply. To enroll a person takes 25seconds approximately. A person carries outverification by entering PIN (personal identificationnumber) or swiping their card and placing theirfinger on the reader platen. 27
  28. 28. Standalone Fingerprint Module•Verification means that the system is used to verifythe identity of the person seeking access. This isthe most secure access control mode available. •Identification means that the system is being used to identify the person without requiring provision of any other source of identification - except himself. •Identification System can be configured to be non-invasive and user-friendly. 28
  29. 29. What are the benefits? • For Users: •Convenience - (in Identification mode) no card key to keep track of or access code to remember• For Administrators:•Peace of mind - secured areas are protected frominadvertent lapses in security and from knowledgethat you are no longer reliant on token-basedsecurity alone. 29
  30. 30. What are the benefits? •Affordability- in many cases, enhance security without replacing existing security devices.• Compliance – If you simply don’t want someonebeing where they shouldn’t be, system can beconfigured to actively look for individuals, identifythem, & notify administrator if person approachessecured area. 30
  31. 31. Benefits:•Fully featured biometrics fingerprint reader.•Multiple finger enrolment.•Very low false acceptance rate of less than 0.0001•Fast verification.•Requires a 3 dimensional finger - thus copies or images provide no risk or threat to security.Applications:•        Very high security•        Access control to buildings, car parks, isolated and remote facilities.•        ATM, vault and safe control.•        Identity verification of visitors to secure installations.• Prisons and military establishments. 31
  32. 32. Suitability of System Magnetic Proximity Wiegand Cryptag StripeSecurity Medium High High HighCost Low Medium Medium HighVandal Resistance Medium Medium Medium HighMulti-Functional Yes Yes Yes NoEnd User Encoding Yes No No NoVideo ID Option Yes Yes Yes YesKeypad Option Yes Yes Yes Yes9-Key-Fob Option No Yes Yes YesHands Free No No No YesCar Tagging No Yes No YesAsset Tagging No No No YesEnvironmental High High High V. HighTolerance 32
  33. 33. Suitability of System SmartCard WatermarkMag Stripe Fingerprint BarcodeSecurity High Very High Very High LowCost High Medium High MediumVandal Resistance Medium Medium Low LowMulti-Functional Yes Yes No YesEnd User No No No YesEncodingVideo ID Option Yes Yes No YesKeypad Option Yes Yes Yes YesKey-Fob Option Yes No No NoHands Free No No No NoCar Tagging No No No NoAsset Tagging No No No NoEnvironmental High Medium Low MediumTolerance 33
  34. 34. Capt S B Tyagi 34