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Keynote Address
     15th International Conference on Conceptual Structures
     Sheffield, July 2007 / www.iccs.info




                                       Hypermedia Discourse:
                  Contesting Networks of Ideas & Arguments


                                                          Simon Buckingham Shum


                                 Knowledge Media Institute & Computing Research Centre
                                                The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK

                                                              www.kmi.open.ac.uk/people/sbs
                                                                               sbs@acm.org




                                                                                              1
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Acknowledgements


        Compendium Project:               Scholarly Ontologies Project:
        Al Selvin (Verizon/Open U.)       Victoria Uren
        Maarten Sierhuis (NASA)           Gangmin Li
        Jeff Conklin (CogNexus Inst.)     Clara Mancini
        Michelle Bachler (Open U.)        Neil Benn
                                          Bertrand Sereno
                                          John Domingue
                                          Enrico Motta




                     Funding gratefully
                        acknowledged:



                                                                          2
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Ideas…



                          Foundations for
                          Civilization…


                          Weapons of Mass
                          Destruction…




                                            3
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Ideas… (aren’t everything)




                                 So what’s
                                he got that
                                 I haven’t
                                    got?




                                              4
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Significance?…




                          =?
                               5
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Significance?…




                          =?
                               6
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Significance?…




                                       =?
  http://flickr.com/photos/pewari/354960548
  http://flickr.com/photos/voetmann/274550156
© http://flickr.com/photos/notorious_indian/540058288   7
  Simon Buckingham Shum
Significance?…



     context


                          =?
                               8
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Significance?…

                           =?
                             =?
                          =?

                          =?
                          =? =?
                           =?
                                  9
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Significance?…




                          =
                              10
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Significance?…




                          =
                              11
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Our context (1)


      “I want to talk about the challenge of our generation. […] Our
        challenge, our generation’s unique challenge, is learning to
        live peacefully and sustainably in an extraordinarily crowded
        world.

      “The way of solving problems requires one fundamental
       change, a big one, and that is learning that the challenges of
       our generation are not us versus them, they are not us
       versus Islam, us versus the terrorists, us versus Iran, they
       are us, all of us together on this planet against a set of
       shared and increasingly urgent problems.”

                                                   Jerey Sachs: 2007 Reith Lectures
                                             http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2007




                                                                                        12
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Doug Engelbart (cont/d)


    Engelbart (1963): A Conceptual Framework for the
     Augmentation of Man’s Intellect

    A concept structure (...) is something that can be
     designed or modified, and a basic hypothesis of
     our study is that better concept structures can be
     developed —structures that when mapped into a
     human’s mental structure will significantly
     improve his capability to comprehend and to find
     solutions within his complex-problem solving
     situations.
                          Englebart (1963— reprinted in Greif, 1988: p. 54)


                                                                              13
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Our context (2)


      “With these “minds”, a person will be well equipped
       to deal with what is expected, as well as with what
       cannot be anticipated; without these minds, a
       person will be at the mercy of forces that he or she
       can’t understand, let alone control.

      “The disciplined mind… the synthesizing mind…
       the creating mind… the respectful mind… the
       ethical mind.”

                                 Howard Gardner: Five Minds for the Future.
                                            Harvard Univ. Press, 2006: p.2




                                                                              14
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Hypermedia Discourse Research

                                            published claims
                                            and arguments as
                                            hypermedia
                                            discourse
                                            networks


                                          Scaffold emergent
                                              models of
                                          contested worlds
                                            by scaffolding
                     team deliberations       discourse
                     as hypermedia          about them…
                     discourse networks
                                                               15
© Simon Buckingham Shum
The missing layer: “Web Pragmatics”




                            significance?
                            semantic web
                        grounded in a consensus domain model
                    minimising inconsistency, ambiguity, controversy


                                 metadata
                        grounded in a consensus domain model
                    minimising inconsistency, ambiguity, controversy




                                 resources
                              documents, datasets, etc…
                                                   etc…
                                                                       16
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Hypermedia
                          Discourse

                                      17
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Hypermedia
                          Modelling discourse relations
                          Expressing dierent perspectives on a conceptual space
                          Supporting the incremental formalization of ideas
                          Rendering structural visualizations
                          Connecting heterogeneous content



                                                                                     18
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Discourse
                     Verbal and written workplace communication
                     Discourse communities: “making and taking perspectives”
                     Dialogue
                     Argumentation
                     Claim making
                     Analytical narrative
                     Meetings
                                                                                19
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Hypermedia Discourse research



                                       Discourse
                                       Ontology

                          Literacy/                Notation(s)
                          Fluency



                                              Intuitive
                              Computational
                                            User Interface
                                Services


                                                                 20
© Simon Buckingham Shum
• personal or group
                                         concept mapping
                                       • real time meeting
                          Compendium     capture
                                       • participatory modelling
                                       • discourse as semantic
                                         hypertext




                                                                   21
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Dialogue Map fragment:
   Gary’s keynote QA




                            22
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Discourse grounded in Horst Rittel’s IBIS:
   Issue-Based Information System




                                                23
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Key elements of Compendium


                                                                   •    Shared visual display
                                                                   •    Simple notation
                                                                   •    Template patterns
                                                                   •    Node transclusions
                                    Knowledge                      •    Tagging
                                                                   •    Hypermedia
                                      Media                        •    Interoperability with
                                                                        other data, services
                                                                        and user interfaces




                  Modelling                       Practitioner skills
                  Frameworks                      e.g.
                                                  • Cognitive skills to chunk and link ideas
                  e.g.                              (Buckingham Shum)
                  • IBIS                          • Dialogue Mapping (Conklin)
                  • CommonKADS                    • Conversational Modelling (Sierhuis  Selvin)
                  • World Modelling
                                                  • Participatory Hypermedia Construction
                  • Critical Systems Heuristics     (Selvin)




                                                                                                   24
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Compendium: hypertext discourse
   mapping/conceptual modelling




                                     25
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Compendium: hypertext discourse
   mapping/conceptual modelling




                                     26
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Compendium: Descendent of gIBIS




                                     27
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Modelling using Issue-templates




                                                            28
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Modelling organisational processes in
   Compendium using a Template




                                           29
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Completing a Compendium template




                                      30
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Generating
                                                                                             Custom
                                                                                             Documents and
                                                                                             Diagrams from
                                                                                             Compendium
                                                                                             Templates




                                                     Field
                    Integrated/    Deviations/     Specific     Installation   Assignable
      Approvals       Revised       Changes      Assignments      Details/      Inventory
                   Requirements   (Engr Sched)   /Assignment   Specs/NDO       Notice (E1)
                                                     List




                                      Build
                                   Assignable
                                    Inventory




                                   Assignable
                                    Inventory




                                                                                                             31
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Structure management in Compendium

        Associative linking
   
        nodes in a shared context connected by graphical Map links


        Categorical membership
   
        nodes in dierent contexts connected by common attributes via metadata Tags


        Hypertextual Transclusion
   
        reuse of the same node in dierent views


        Templates
   
        reuse of the same structure in dierent views


        HTML, XML and RDF data exports for interoperability
   

        Java and SQL interfaces to add services
   



                                                                                       32
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Heuristic for balanced Dialogue Mapping
   (from Je Conklin’s book “Dialogue Mapping”, 2003)




                                                         33
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Using Compendium for personnel
                                 recovery planning

                        Example of Conversational Modelling:
              real time dialogue mapping combined with model driven
                                 templates (AI+IA)


                                 Co-OPR Project (with Austin Tate):
                              http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/co-opr



                                                                        34
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Mission Briefing: Intent template

                                  Answers to template issues
                                 provided in the JTFC Briefing.
                                 Answers may be constrained
                                   by predefined options, as
                                 specified in the XML schema




                                                              35
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Capturing political deliberation/rationale




                                          Dialogue Map
                                          capturing the
                                            planners’
                                        discussion of this
                                              option




                                                             36
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Planning Engine input to Compendium




                                   Issues on which the
                                   I-X planning engine
                                   provided candidate
                                   Options




                                                         37
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Modelling a document corpus:
   The Iraq Debate




                             http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq
                                                                         38
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Annotating a document corpus:
   Chomsky’s article in the Iraq Debate




                               http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq
                                                                           39
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Large scale NASA e-science field trials:

             Interoperability with other databases, software
                     agents and collaboration tools




                                          www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/coakting/nasa

                Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Alena, R., Berrios, D., Dowding, J., Graham, J.S., Tyree, K.S., Hirsh,
                R.L., Garry, W.B., Semple, A., Buckingham Shum, S.J., Shadbolt, N. and Rupert, S. (2005).
                “Automating CapCom Using Mobile Agents and Robotic Assistants.” 1st Space Exploration
                Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 31 Jan-1 Feb, 2005, Orlando,
                FL. Available from: AIAA Meeting Papers on Disc [CD-ROM]: Reston, VA, and as Advanced
                Knowledge Technologies ePrint 375: http://eprints.aktors.org/375

                                                                                                                      40
© Simon Buckingham Shum
41
© Simon Buckingham Shum
                          Image Credits--- Mars: NASA/JPL/MSSS; Earth: NASA/JSC; Composite: MSSS
NASA e-science field trials             (2004 and 2005)




          Distributed Mars-Earth planning and data analysis tools
     for Mars Habitat field trial in Utah desert, supported from US+UK
                                              www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/coakting/nasa
                                                                                     42
© Simon Buckingham Shum
NASA Mobile Agents Architecture




                                     43
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Collaboration Configuration

  Compendium used as a collaboration medium at all intersections:
  humans+agents, reading+writing maps




                                               Software Agent
                          Scientist
                                                Architecture
                           (Earth)
                                                   (Mars)



             Scientist                                   Scientist
                                             Scientist
                                 Scientist
              (Earth)                                     (Mars)
                                              (Mars)
                                  (Earth)



                                                                RST-telecon-2005-04-11.i.avi
                                                                                   00:49:08
                                                                                        44
© Simon Buckingham Shum
NASA testbed:
   Compendium activity plans for surface exploration, constructed by
   scientists on ‘Earth’, interpreted by software agents on ‘Mars’




                                                                                                         Copyright, 2004,
                                                                                                         RIACS/NASA Ames, Open
                                                                                                         University, Southampton
                                                                                                         University
                                                                                                         Not to be used without
                                                                                                         permission




   The Compendium nodes and relationships in this plan were interpreted by Brahms software agents for monitoring
   and coordinating astronaut and robot activity during surface explorations.
                                                                                                    RST-telecon-2005-04-11.i.avi
                                                                                                                             45
© Simon Buckingham Shum                                                                                                 1:11:57
CoAKTinG NASA testbed:
  Compendium science data map, generated by software agents, for
  interpretation by Mars+Earth scientists




                                                                                                                          Copyright, 2004,
                                                                                                                          RIACS/NASA Ames, Open
                                                                                                                          University, Southampton
                                                                                                                          University
                                                                                                                          Not to be used without
                                                                                                                          permission




    The Compendium maps were autonomously created and populated with science data by Brahms software agents that use models of the
© Simon Buckingham work process, data flow and science data relationships to create the maps.
    mission plan, Shum
                                                                                                                                             46
CoAKTinG NASA testbed:
   Compendium-based photo analysis by geologists on ‘Mars’




                                                             Copyright, 2004,
                                                             RIACS/NASA Ames,
                                                             Open University,
                                                             Southampton
                                                             University
                                                             Not to be used
                                                             without permission
                                                                              47
© Simon Buckingham Shum
NASA testbed:
   Compendium scientific feedback map from Earth scientists to
   Mars colleagues




                                                                Copyright, 2004,
                                                                RIACS/NASA Ames,
                                                                Open University,
                                                                Southampton
                                                                University
                                                                Not to be used
                                                                without permission
                                                                                 48
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Using Compendium to map
                            and automatically index
                          replayable video conferences




                          CoAKTinG Project: www.aktors.org/coakting

                            Memetic Project: www.memetic-vre.net
                                                                      49
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Collaborative sensemaking in e-Science:
       Meeting Replay tool for Earth scientists, synchronising
       video of Mars crew’s discussion as they annotate their mission plans




                                                                              Copyright, 2004,
                                                                              RIACS/NASA Ames, Open
                                                                              University, Southampton
                                                                              University
                                                                              Not to be used without
                                                                              permission




NASA MR Clip: 00:50                                                                                     50
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Memetic Meeting Replay
     The CoAKTinG project’s results are now mainstreamed in the Access
     Grid by the JISC Memetic VRE project




                                                                         51
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Memetic Meeting Replay
     The CoAKTinG project’s results are now mainstreamed in the Access
     Grid by the JISC Memetic VRE project




                                                                         52
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Compendium ‘literacy’?

                          …understanding how to write, read,
                           talk and think in hypermedia IBIS

                          …approaches from consultancy in the
                          field, and video analysis in the lab…




                                                                 53
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Literacy: significant user community
    www.CompendiumInstitute.org
    www.CompendiumInstitute.org




                                         54
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Literacy: Cognitive task analysis


    Cognitive tasks involved in using a graphical
     argumentation scheme (Buckingham Shum 1996)

    Aordances of graphical DR for coordinating
     group design (Buckingham Shum et al 1997)




                                                     55
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Literacy: the craft skill of IBIS mapping in
   meetings: “Dialogue Mapping”




                              Je Conklin:
                              CogNexus Institute:
                              www.CogNexus.org


                                                    56
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Literacy: expertise analysis
   (Albert Selvin)


              What is the nature of expert human performance in creating
        
              and modifying real time conceptual structures for groups?

         The NASA knowledge mapper role:                                                            Conventional
            Listening and interpreting                                                              facilitation
            Intervening in ‘normal’ conversation flow
                                                                                                     skills
            Getting validation for captured material


                                                                                                     Knowledge
                Building hypertext representations on
                                                                                                     media
                 the fly
                                                                                                     facilitation
                Interrelating data and objects
                Adding metadata                                                                     skills
                Software-specific skills

     Aesthetic and Ethical Implications of Participatory Hypermedia Practice: First Year Report
     Selvin, A. (2005), Technical Report KMI-05-17, Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, UK
                                                                                                                    57
© Simon Buckingham Shum
• Web publishing of
                                       Scholarly              scholarly claims and
                                       Ontologies             argumentation
                                                            • discourse as semantic
                                       Project                hypertext



                          Will scientific publishing in 2020 still depend solely on the
                                    reading, writing, and discovery of written texts?

                          What might a more network-centric complement look like?



                                                                                          58
© Simon Buckingham Shum
In Gutenberg’s shadow
   (or standing on his shoulders)


    Newspapers + Invisible Colleges = Scholarly Journals




                                     Philosophical Transactions of
          Le Journal des Sçavans
                                     the Royal Society of London
          January 1665
                                     March 1665                      59
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Jumping forward 342 years…




Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Digital Research Discourse? Computational Thinking Seminar Series, School of Informatics,
University of Edinburgh, 25 Apr. 2007. http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/hyperdiscourse/docs/Simon-Edin-CompThink.pdf
                                                                                                                        60
© Simon Buckingham Shum
2007: Ideas are now digital

                            …digital paper!




                                              61
© Simon Buckingham Shum
What if we could get search results like this?…
   “What is the Turing Debate?”




                     One of seven maps in the Mapping Great Debates: Can Computers Think? Series.
                     MacroVU Press. www.macrovu.com (Horn, 2003; Yoshimi, 2006)


                                                                                                    62
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Horn (zoomed in)




  MacroVU Press. www.macrovu.com
                                   63
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Beyond document citations…
              These annotations are freeform summaries
             of an idea, as one would find in researchers’
                                                                                           Making formal connections
               journals, fieldnotes, lit. review notes or
                                                                                             between ideas creates a
                              blog entries
                                                                                          semantic citation network —
                                                                                           novel literature navigation,
                                                                                            querying and visualization
                                                             “People try to maximise
                                                             their rate of gaining
                                                                                            “Information scent
                                                             information”
                                                                                            models”




                                                    Method
                                                              applies
                                       “Web User Flow by                                                “Information
                                                                                 Theory
                                       Information Scent
                                                                                                        foraging
                                                               Claim
                                       (WUFIS)”
                                                                                                        theory”



                                                             ?
               Paper: “The Scent of a Site: A System for
             Analyzing and Predicting Information Scent,
                     Usage, and Usability of a Web Site”
                                                    Addressable triple which can be contested
                                                                                            Paper: “Information
                                                           e.g. supported/challenged                  foraging”
                                                                                                                       64
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Combining formal relations with the
   expressive freedom of ‘folksonomies’
   Relational classes and dialects (KMi Scholarly Ontologies project)




                                                                        65
© Simon Buckingham Shum
If we model concepts in a literature as concept
   maps… (KMi’s ClaiMapper, built on Compendium)




                                                     66
© Simon Buckingham Shum
“Semantic del.icio.us”: KMi’s ClaimSpotter
     assigning and linking freeform tags




Sereno, B., Buckingham Shum, S. and Motta, E. (2007). Formalization, User Strategy and Interaction Design: Users’ Behaviour with Discourse Tagging
Semantics. Workshop on Social and Collaborative Construction of Structured Knowledge, 16th Int. World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2007), Banff, 8-12
May 2007. http://www2007.org/workshops/paper_30.pdf                                                                                                67
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Visualising claims and arguments


                                      When multiple
                                      analysts annotate web
                                      documents via a
                                      server, they can
                                      generate a shared
                                      view of how they see
                                      the field, and where
                                      they agree/disagree




                                      claimfinder.open.ac.uk   68
© Simon Buckingham Shum
“Semantic Google Scholar”
    KMi’s ClaimFinder




                               69
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Semantic Literature Analysis                                                      [ClaimFinder expt: 1:59:17]

   Problem: “What advantages and disadvantages does CiteSeer
   have compared to the ISI citation databases?”




  Victoria Uren, Simon Buckingham Shum, Michelle Bachler, Gary Li, (2006) Sensemaking Tools for Understanding Research Literatures:
  Design, Implementation and User Evaluation. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, Vol.64, 5, (420-445).
                                                                                                                                      70
© Simon Buckingham Shum
“What papers contrast with this paper?”

   1.     Extract concepts for this document
   2.     Trace concepts on which they build
   3.     Trace concepts challenging this set
   4.     Show root documents




                                                71
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Focusing on a concept
   incoming+outgoing links




                             72
© Simon Buckingham Shum
“Semantic Google Scholar”
    KMi’s ClaimFinder




                               73
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Lineage tree           (the roots of a concept)




                                                     74
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Example: ‘argumentation’ on YouTube


                                                                                                         Movie posted by
                                                                                                        National Front on
                                                                                                           YouTube to
                                                                                                        demonstrate their
                                                                                                            activities




Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical
Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence  Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007
                                                                                                                            75
http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Example: a “scientific argument” on
   National Front website

    www.natfront.com/prejudic.html




Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical
Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence  Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007
http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm               76
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Mapping the
   structure of the
   National Front’s
   “negro intelligence”
   argument




                          77
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Refuting the NF “negro intelligence”
   argument using argument mapping




Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical
Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence  Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007
http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm               78
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Refuting the NF “negro intelligence”
   argument using argument mapping




Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical
Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence  Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007
http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm               79
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Importing an Argumentation Scheme as
   an IBIS template




 compendium.open.ac.uk
                                          80
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Refuting the NF “negro intelligence”
   argument using argument mapping
                          The structure of an “Argument from
                                 Bias” can be exposed..




                          The structure of an “Argument from
                              Analogy” can be exposed..
                                                               81
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Template for an
                                                     “Argument from
                                                        Analogy”




Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical
Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence  Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007
http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm               82
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Template for an
         “Argument from
            Analogy”




         Instantiating the
         “Argument from
        Analogy” template




                             83
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Semiosis




Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and
© Simon Buckingham Shum International
Cognitive Framework.               Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171             84
Semantic annotation as semiosis in the
   Scholarly Ontologies project




Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and
© Simon Buckingham Shum International
Cognitive Framework.               Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171             85
Primary and secondary claims as semiotic
   and discourse moves
                                                       Secondary claim: a discourse connective




     Primary claim:
     a semiotic move



Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and
© Simon Buckingham Shum International
Cognitive Framework.               Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171             86
Cognitive Coherence Relations
   The hypothesis:

    Our symbol systems are shaped by, and designed
     to convey, conceptual structures: coherence
    There may be some core, primitive coherence
     relations that manifest consistently across symbol
     systems and communities
    Symbol systems can therefore be analysed for
     patterns indicating coherence relations
    In written and spoken language, the cohesive
     devices are evidence of underlying conceptual
     structures
    If we can codify these, we could therefore have
     computationally tractable representations with
     psychological reality

Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and
© Simon Buckingham Shum International
Cognitive Framework.               Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171             87
Cognitive Coherence Relations




Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and
© Simon Buckingham Shum International
Cognitive Framework.               Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171             88
Cognitive Coherence Relations




Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and
© Simon Buckingham Shum International
Cognitive Framework.               Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171             89
Returning to the relational classes and dialects
   derived in a data-driven, bottom up manner…
   (KMi Scholarly Ontologies project)




          …we can now locate these within a ‘relational design space’ defined by CCR dimensions…

                                                                                                  90
© Simon Buckingham Shum
polarity
                    source                type                    comparativeness




                     Cognitive Coherence Relations




Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and
© Simon Buckingham Shum International
Cognitive Framework.               Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171                        91
Returning to Gardner’s
   Five Minds for the Future…

   Perhaps Hypermedia Discourse tools provide a way to move
     fluidly between the dierent minds:
    a way to provide representational scaolding for disciplined
     modelling
    but permitting the creative breaking of patterns when
     needed, and the forging of new syntheses
    a way to show respect for diverse stakeholders’ concerns by
     explicitly integrating them into the conversation
    a way to bring into an analysis ‘messy’ requirements such as
     ethical principles, as well as hard data and constraints

   We have some evidence from our case studies that we’re on the
     right track, but there remains much to do.



                                                                     92
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Ongoing research challenges…


    Hypermedia Discourse at Net scale:
       developing a Web 2.0 style walk-up-and-use tool
        to scaold analysts in the creation of semantic
        networks for deliberation and argumentation
    Cognitive Coherence Relations patterns
       modelling such structures at the CCR level to
        validate the hypothesis that there are generic
        ‘coherence patterns’
    Maturing the Compendium community of practice
       working on a deeper understanding of ‘fluency’

    These ideas/tools and the CS community?…
                                                           93
© Simon Buckingham Shum
web pragmatics?

                          the Pragmatic Web?

                                                          pragmatic webs?

                          “THE PRAGMATIC WEB CONFERENCE is a unique forum to
                          envision and debate how the emerging social, semantic,
                          multimedia Web mediates the ways in which we construct shared
                          meaning. While there is much research and development into
                          topics relevant to this challenge such as collaboration, usability,
                          knowledge representation, and social informatics, the Pragmatic
                          Web conference provides common ground for dialogue at the
                          nexus of these topics.”
                                                                                                94
© Simon Buckingham Shum
Hypermedia Discourse project:
         community / theory / software / screencasts / case studies / user studies
                   www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/hyperdiscourse



                                                                                      Knowledge
                                                                                     Cartography




     Compendium Institute     Dialogue Mapping    Visualizing Argumentation        Springer (2008)
  www.CompendiumInstitute.org www.cognexus.org www.VisualizingArgumentation.info
                                                                                                     95
© Simon Buckingham Shum
96
© Simon Buckingham Shum

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ICCS 2007 Keynote

  • 1. Keynote Address 15th International Conference on Conceptual Structures Sheffield, July 2007 / www.iccs.info Hypermedia Discourse: Contesting Networks of Ideas & Arguments Simon Buckingham Shum Knowledge Media Institute & Computing Research Centre The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK www.kmi.open.ac.uk/people/sbs sbs@acm.org 1 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 2. Acknowledgements Compendium Project: Scholarly Ontologies Project: Al Selvin (Verizon/Open U.) Victoria Uren Maarten Sierhuis (NASA) Gangmin Li Jeff Conklin (CogNexus Inst.) Clara Mancini Michelle Bachler (Open U.) Neil Benn Bertrand Sereno John Domingue Enrico Motta Funding gratefully acknowledged: 2 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 3. Ideas… Foundations for Civilization… Weapons of Mass Destruction… 3 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 4. Ideas… (aren’t everything) So what’s he got that I haven’t got? 4 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 5. Significance?… =? 5 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 6. Significance?… =? 6 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 7. Significance?… =? http://flickr.com/photos/pewari/354960548 http://flickr.com/photos/voetmann/274550156 © http://flickr.com/photos/notorious_indian/540058288 7 Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 8. Significance?… context =? 8 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 9. Significance?… =? =? =? =? =? =? =? 9 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 10. Significance?… = 10 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 11. Significance?… = 11 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 12. Our context (1) “I want to talk about the challenge of our generation. […] Our challenge, our generation’s unique challenge, is learning to live peacefully and sustainably in an extraordinarily crowded world. “The way of solving problems requires one fundamental change, a big one, and that is learning that the challenges of our generation are not us versus them, they are not us versus Islam, us versus the terrorists, us versus Iran, they are us, all of us together on this planet against a set of shared and increasingly urgent problems.” Jerey Sachs: 2007 Reith Lectures http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/reith2007 12 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 13. Doug Engelbart (cont/d)  Engelbart (1963): A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man’s Intellect  A concept structure (...) is something that can be designed or modified, and a basic hypothesis of our study is that better concept structures can be developed —structures that when mapped into a human’s mental structure will significantly improve his capability to comprehend and to find solutions within his complex-problem solving situations. Englebart (1963— reprinted in Greif, 1988: p. 54) 13 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 14. Our context (2) “With these “minds”, a person will be well equipped to deal with what is expected, as well as with what cannot be anticipated; without these minds, a person will be at the mercy of forces that he or she can’t understand, let alone control. “The disciplined mind… the synthesizing mind… the creating mind… the respectful mind… the ethical mind.” Howard Gardner: Five Minds for the Future. Harvard Univ. Press, 2006: p.2 14 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 15. Hypermedia Discourse Research published claims and arguments as hypermedia discourse networks Scaffold emergent models of contested worlds by scaffolding team deliberations discourse as hypermedia about them… discourse networks 15 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 16. The missing layer: “Web Pragmatics” significance? semantic web grounded in a consensus domain model minimising inconsistency, ambiguity, controversy metadata grounded in a consensus domain model minimising inconsistency, ambiguity, controversy resources documents, datasets, etc… etc… 16 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 17. Hypermedia Discourse 17 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 18. Hypermedia Modelling discourse relations Expressing dierent perspectives on a conceptual space Supporting the incremental formalization of ideas Rendering structural visualizations Connecting heterogeneous content 18 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 19. Discourse Verbal and written workplace communication Discourse communities: “making and taking perspectives” Dialogue Argumentation Claim making Analytical narrative Meetings 19 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 20. Hypermedia Discourse research Discourse Ontology Literacy/ Notation(s) Fluency Intuitive Computational User Interface Services 20 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 21. • personal or group concept mapping • real time meeting Compendium capture • participatory modelling • discourse as semantic hypertext 21 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 22. Dialogue Map fragment: Gary’s keynote QA 22 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 23. Discourse grounded in Horst Rittel’s IBIS: Issue-Based Information System 23 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 24. Key elements of Compendium • Shared visual display • Simple notation • Template patterns • Node transclusions Knowledge • Tagging • Hypermedia Media • Interoperability with other data, services and user interfaces Modelling Practitioner skills Frameworks e.g. • Cognitive skills to chunk and link ideas e.g. (Buckingham Shum) • IBIS • Dialogue Mapping (Conklin) • CommonKADS • Conversational Modelling (Sierhuis Selvin) • World Modelling • Participatory Hypermedia Construction • Critical Systems Heuristics (Selvin) 24 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 25. Compendium: hypertext discourse mapping/conceptual modelling 25 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 26. Compendium: hypertext discourse mapping/conceptual modelling 26 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 27. Compendium: Descendent of gIBIS 27 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 28. Modelling using Issue-templates 28 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 29. Modelling organisational processes in Compendium using a Template 29 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 30. Completing a Compendium template 30 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 31. Generating Custom Documents and Diagrams from Compendium Templates Field Integrated/ Deviations/ Specific Installation Assignable Approvals Revised Changes Assignments Details/ Inventory Requirements (Engr Sched) /Assignment Specs/NDO Notice (E1) List Build Assignable Inventory Assignable Inventory 31 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 32. Structure management in Compendium Associative linking  nodes in a shared context connected by graphical Map links Categorical membership  nodes in dierent contexts connected by common attributes via metadata Tags Hypertextual Transclusion  reuse of the same node in dierent views Templates  reuse of the same structure in dierent views HTML, XML and RDF data exports for interoperability  Java and SQL interfaces to add services  32 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 33. Heuristic for balanced Dialogue Mapping (from Je Conklin’s book “Dialogue Mapping”, 2003) 33 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 34. Using Compendium for personnel recovery planning Example of Conversational Modelling: real time dialogue mapping combined with model driven templates (AI+IA) Co-OPR Project (with Austin Tate): http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/co-opr 34 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 35. Mission Briefing: Intent template Answers to template issues provided in the JTFC Briefing. Answers may be constrained by predefined options, as specified in the XML schema 35 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 36. Capturing political deliberation/rationale Dialogue Map capturing the planners’ discussion of this option 36 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 37. Planning Engine input to Compendium Issues on which the I-X planning engine provided candidate Options 37 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 38. Modelling a document corpus: The Iraq Debate http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq 38 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 39. Annotating a document corpus: Chomsky’s article in the Iraq Debate http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/compendium/iraq 39 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 40. Large scale NASA e-science field trials: Interoperability with other databases, software agents and collaboration tools www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/coakting/nasa Clancey, W.J., Sierhuis, M., Alena, R., Berrios, D., Dowding, J., Graham, J.S., Tyree, K.S., Hirsh, R.L., Garry, W.B., Semple, A., Buckingham Shum, S.J., Shadbolt, N. and Rupert, S. (2005). “Automating CapCom Using Mobile Agents and Robotic Assistants.” 1st Space Exploration Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 31 Jan-1 Feb, 2005, Orlando, FL. Available from: AIAA Meeting Papers on Disc [CD-ROM]: Reston, VA, and as Advanced Knowledge Technologies ePrint 375: http://eprints.aktors.org/375 40 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 41. 41 © Simon Buckingham Shum Image Credits--- Mars: NASA/JPL/MSSS; Earth: NASA/JSC; Composite: MSSS
  • 42. NASA e-science field trials (2004 and 2005) Distributed Mars-Earth planning and data analysis tools for Mars Habitat field trial in Utah desert, supported from US+UK www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/coakting/nasa 42 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 43. NASA Mobile Agents Architecture 43 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 44. Collaboration Configuration Compendium used as a collaboration medium at all intersections: humans+agents, reading+writing maps Software Agent Scientist Architecture (Earth) (Mars) Scientist Scientist Scientist Scientist (Earth) (Mars) (Mars) (Earth) RST-telecon-2005-04-11.i.avi 00:49:08 44 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 45. NASA testbed: Compendium activity plans for surface exploration, constructed by scientists on ‘Earth’, interpreted by software agents on ‘Mars’ Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission The Compendium nodes and relationships in this plan were interpreted by Brahms software agents for monitoring and coordinating astronaut and robot activity during surface explorations. RST-telecon-2005-04-11.i.avi 45 © Simon Buckingham Shum 1:11:57
  • 46. CoAKTinG NASA testbed: Compendium science data map, generated by software agents, for interpretation by Mars+Earth scientists Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission The Compendium maps were autonomously created and populated with science data by Brahms software agents that use models of the © Simon Buckingham work process, data flow and science data relationships to create the maps. mission plan, Shum 46
  • 47. CoAKTinG NASA testbed: Compendium-based photo analysis by geologists on ‘Mars’ Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission 47 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 48. NASA testbed: Compendium scientific feedback map from Earth scientists to Mars colleagues Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission 48 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 49. Using Compendium to map and automatically index replayable video conferences CoAKTinG Project: www.aktors.org/coakting Memetic Project: www.memetic-vre.net 49 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 50. Collaborative sensemaking in e-Science: Meeting Replay tool for Earth scientists, synchronising video of Mars crew’s discussion as they annotate their mission plans Copyright, 2004, RIACS/NASA Ames, Open University, Southampton University Not to be used without permission NASA MR Clip: 00:50 50 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 51. Memetic Meeting Replay The CoAKTinG project’s results are now mainstreamed in the Access Grid by the JISC Memetic VRE project 51 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 52. Memetic Meeting Replay The CoAKTinG project’s results are now mainstreamed in the Access Grid by the JISC Memetic VRE project 52 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 53. Compendium ‘literacy’? …understanding how to write, read, talk and think in hypermedia IBIS …approaches from consultancy in the field, and video analysis in the lab… 53 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 54. Literacy: significant user community www.CompendiumInstitute.org www.CompendiumInstitute.org 54 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 55. Literacy: Cognitive task analysis  Cognitive tasks involved in using a graphical argumentation scheme (Buckingham Shum 1996)  Aordances of graphical DR for coordinating group design (Buckingham Shum et al 1997) 55 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 56. Literacy: the craft skill of IBIS mapping in meetings: “Dialogue Mapping” Je Conklin: CogNexus Institute: www.CogNexus.org 56 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 57. Literacy: expertise analysis (Albert Selvin) What is the nature of expert human performance in creating  and modifying real time conceptual structures for groups?  The NASA knowledge mapper role: Conventional  Listening and interpreting facilitation  Intervening in ‘normal’ conversation flow skills  Getting validation for captured material Knowledge  Building hypertext representations on media the fly facilitation  Interrelating data and objects  Adding metadata skills  Software-specific skills Aesthetic and Ethical Implications of Participatory Hypermedia Practice: First Year Report Selvin, A. (2005), Technical Report KMI-05-17, Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, UK 57 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 58. • Web publishing of Scholarly scholarly claims and Ontologies argumentation • discourse as semantic Project hypertext Will scientific publishing in 2020 still depend solely on the reading, writing, and discovery of written texts? What might a more network-centric complement look like? 58 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 59. In Gutenberg’s shadow (or standing on his shoulders) Newspapers + Invisible Colleges = Scholarly Journals Philosophical Transactions of Le Journal des Sçavans the Royal Society of London January 1665 March 1665 59 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 60. Jumping forward 342 years… Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Digital Research Discourse? Computational Thinking Seminar Series, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, 25 Apr. 2007. http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/hyperdiscourse/docs/Simon-Edin-CompThink.pdf 60 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 61. 2007: Ideas are now digital …digital paper! 61 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 62. What if we could get search results like this?… “What is the Turing Debate?” One of seven maps in the Mapping Great Debates: Can Computers Think? Series. MacroVU Press. www.macrovu.com (Horn, 2003; Yoshimi, 2006) 62 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 63. Horn (zoomed in) MacroVU Press. www.macrovu.com 63 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 64. Beyond document citations… These annotations are freeform summaries of an idea, as one would find in researchers’ Making formal connections journals, fieldnotes, lit. review notes or between ideas creates a blog entries semantic citation network — novel literature navigation, querying and visualization “People try to maximise their rate of gaining “Information scent information” models” Method applies “Web User Flow by “Information Theory Information Scent foraging Claim (WUFIS)” theory” ? Paper: “The Scent of a Site: A System for Analyzing and Predicting Information Scent, Usage, and Usability of a Web Site” Addressable triple which can be contested Paper: “Information e.g. supported/challenged foraging” 64 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 65. Combining formal relations with the expressive freedom of ‘folksonomies’ Relational classes and dialects (KMi Scholarly Ontologies project) 65 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 66. If we model concepts in a literature as concept maps… (KMi’s ClaiMapper, built on Compendium) 66 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 67. “Semantic del.icio.us”: KMi’s ClaimSpotter assigning and linking freeform tags Sereno, B., Buckingham Shum, S. and Motta, E. (2007). Formalization, User Strategy and Interaction Design: Users’ Behaviour with Discourse Tagging Semantics. Workshop on Social and Collaborative Construction of Structured Knowledge, 16th Int. World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2007), Banff, 8-12 May 2007. http://www2007.org/workshops/paper_30.pdf 67 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 68. Visualising claims and arguments When multiple analysts annotate web documents via a server, they can generate a shared view of how they see the field, and where they agree/disagree claimfinder.open.ac.uk 68 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 69. “Semantic Google Scholar” KMi’s ClaimFinder 69 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 70. Semantic Literature Analysis [ClaimFinder expt: 1:59:17] Problem: “What advantages and disadvantages does CiteSeer have compared to the ISI citation databases?” Victoria Uren, Simon Buckingham Shum, Michelle Bachler, Gary Li, (2006) Sensemaking Tools for Understanding Research Literatures: Design, Implementation and User Evaluation. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, Vol.64, 5, (420-445). 70 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 71. “What papers contrast with this paper?” 1. Extract concepts for this document 2. Trace concepts on which they build 3. Trace concepts challenging this set 4. Show root documents 71 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 72. Focusing on a concept incoming+outgoing links 72 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 73. “Semantic Google Scholar” KMi’s ClaimFinder 73 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 74. Lineage tree (the roots of a concept) 74 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 75. Example: ‘argumentation’ on YouTube Movie posted by National Front on YouTube to demonstrate their activities Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007 75 http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 76. Example: a “scientific argument” on National Front website www.natfront.com/prejudic.html Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007 http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm 76 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 77. Mapping the structure of the National Front’s “negro intelligence” argument 77 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 78. Refuting the NF “negro intelligence” argument using argument mapping Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007 http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm 78 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 79. Refuting the NF “negro intelligence” argument using argument mapping Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007 http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm 79 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 80. Importing an Argumentation Scheme as an IBIS template compendium.open.ac.uk 80 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 81. Refuting the NF “negro intelligence” argument using argument mapping The structure of an “Argument from Bias” can be exposed.. The structure of an “Argument from Analogy” can be exposed.. 81 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 82. Template for an “Argument from Analogy” Buckingham Shum, S. (2007). Undermining Mimetic Contagion on the Net: Argumentation Tools as Critical Voices. COVR 2007: Colloquium on Violence Religion, Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit July, 4-8 2007 http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/teksten/girard/c/c2007_Buckingham-Shum_Simon_abstract.htm 82 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 83. Template for an “Argument from Analogy” Instantiating the “Argument from Analogy” template 83 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 84. Semiosis Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and © Simon Buckingham Shum International Cognitive Framework. Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171 84
  • 85. Semantic annotation as semiosis in the Scholarly Ontologies project Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and © Simon Buckingham Shum International Cognitive Framework. Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171 85
  • 86. Primary and secondary claims as semiotic and discourse moves Secondary claim: a discourse connective Primary claim: a semiotic move Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and © Simon Buckingham Shum International Cognitive Framework. Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171 86
  • 87. Cognitive Coherence Relations The hypothesis:  Our symbol systems are shaped by, and designed to convey, conceptual structures: coherence  There may be some core, primitive coherence relations that manifest consistently across symbol systems and communities  Symbol systems can therefore be analysed for patterns indicating coherence relations  In written and spoken language, the cohesive devices are evidence of underlying conceptual structures  If we can codify these, we could therefore have computationally tractable representations with psychological reality Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and © Simon Buckingham Shum International Cognitive Framework. Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171 87
  • 88. Cognitive Coherence Relations Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and © Simon Buckingham Shum International Cognitive Framework. Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171 88
  • 89. Cognitive Coherence Relations Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and © Simon Buckingham Shum International Cognitive Framework. Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171 89
  • 90. Returning to the relational classes and dialects derived in a data-driven, bottom up manner… (KMi Scholarly Ontologies project) …we can now locate these within a ‘relational design space’ defined by CCR dimensions… 90 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 91. polarity source type comparativeness Cognitive Coherence Relations Mancini, C. and Buckingham Shum, S.J. (2006). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and © Simon Buckingham Shum International Cognitive Framework. Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64, (11), pp.1154-1171 91
  • 92. Returning to Gardner’s Five Minds for the Future… Perhaps Hypermedia Discourse tools provide a way to move fluidly between the dierent minds:  a way to provide representational scaolding for disciplined modelling  but permitting the creative breaking of patterns when needed, and the forging of new syntheses  a way to show respect for diverse stakeholders’ concerns by explicitly integrating them into the conversation  a way to bring into an analysis ‘messy’ requirements such as ethical principles, as well as hard data and constraints We have some evidence from our case studies that we’re on the right track, but there remains much to do. 92 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 93. Ongoing research challenges…  Hypermedia Discourse at Net scale:  developing a Web 2.0 style walk-up-and-use tool to scaold analysts in the creation of semantic networks for deliberation and argumentation  Cognitive Coherence Relations patterns  modelling such structures at the CCR level to validate the hypothesis that there are generic ‘coherence patterns’  Maturing the Compendium community of practice  working on a deeper understanding of ‘fluency’  These ideas/tools and the CS community?… 93 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 94. web pragmatics? the Pragmatic Web? pragmatic webs? “THE PRAGMATIC WEB CONFERENCE is a unique forum to envision and debate how the emerging social, semantic, multimedia Web mediates the ways in which we construct shared meaning. While there is much research and development into topics relevant to this challenge such as collaboration, usability, knowledge representation, and social informatics, the Pragmatic Web conference provides common ground for dialogue at the nexus of these topics.” 94 © Simon Buckingham Shum
  • 95. Hypermedia Discourse project: community / theory / software / screencasts / case studies / user studies www.kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/hyperdiscourse Knowledge Cartography Compendium Institute Dialogue Mapping Visualizing Argumentation Springer (2008) www.CompendiumInstitute.org www.cognexus.org www.VisualizingArgumentation.info 95 © Simon Buckingham Shum