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DCLA14: 2nd International Workshop on Discourse-Centric Learning Analytics at LAK14: http://dcla14.wordpress.com

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  1. 1. Challenges for Learning Analytics: Visualisation for Feedback Denise Whitelock Institute of Educational Technology The Open University denise.whitelock@open.ac.uk
  2. 2. Learning Analytics and Student Feedback •  Assessment drives learning (Rowntree, 1987) •  Communicating assessment in a meaningful way •  What, when and How? DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  3. 3. SAFeSEA! Professor Denise Whitelock! Professor John Richardson! ! Professor Stephen Pulman! ! An automated tool supporting! online writing and assessment
 of essays providing! accurate targeted feedback! SAFeSEA: Supportive Automated Feedback for Short Essay Answers http://www.open.ac.uk/researchprojects/safesea/ DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  4. 4. DMW LAK Workshop March 2014 Grand Challenge representing analysis that can be readily understood
  5. 5. Feedback to prompt Self Reflection •  Analysis must prompt “Advice for Action” •  Self reflective discourse with computer feedback •  Visual representation of feedback can open a discourse between tutor and student •  Prompt peer to peer discourse DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  6. 6. Don’t forget the Human Reaction DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  7. 7. DMW LAK Workshop March 2014 www.storiesabout.com www.storiesabout.com/ creativepdp c.mckillop@rgu.ac.uk
  8. 8. DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  9. 9. Computer Feedback •  Non-judgemental/ objective •  Is not the tutor who marks the final essay •  Feedback can be accessed many times •  Can lead to contact with tutor with more questions DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  10. 10. Talk Back •  Checking understanding by ‘talk back’ •  Summaries in OpenEssayist •  Key words = key ideas •  http://www.open.ac.uk/ researchprojects/ safesea/ DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  11. 11. OpenEssayist: What it tells you •  The system’s focus is to present summaries of students’ own work in different ways, to encourage them to reflect constructively on what they have written. •  In other words Open Essayist tells them from its analysis what are the most important or key points in their essay. They can then think about whether that was what they intended to emphasise in their essay. If not then they can make the appropriate changes. •  A very important aspect of the OpenEssayist system is that it will not tell students what to write, or how to rewrite sections of their essay, or even what is correct or incorrect in their essay. DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  12. 12. OpenEssayist: A tool for reflection •  Different views with distinct roles presented •  The purpose of this feedback is to encourage you •  to reflect on the draft text you submitted, •  to help you consider how your essay is organised, •  how the key terms are being used across the essay •  how they combine to form a cohesive discussion. DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  13. 13. OpenEssayist: How it gives feedback •  Three aspects of the students’ essays are analysed by the system: •  the structure of the essay (which paragraphs constitute the introduction, the conclusion, the discussion sections, etc.), •  the key words and key phrases of their essay (which are the most important words and phrases, the ones that are most representative of the essay's overall meaning) •  the key sentences of their essay (which are whole sentences that are most representative of the essay's overall meaning). DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  15. 15. Key Sentences •  Do you think OpenEssayist identified the parts of your assignment correctly? •  Did it find the introduction and conclusion and main text? •  If not, why do you think that happened? •  Is anything missing from your essay? DMW BUiD January 2014
  16. 16. Key Words •  Are you surprised about any of the words in the top row? •  Do you think some important words are missing? DMW BUiD January 2014
  17. 17. Overview •  All the analyses i.e. keywords and summaries are shown on the main text •  The results of individual analysis are shown together •  Note where key words and key sentences appear in your essay DMW BUiD January 2014
  18. 18. Think about the structure of the essay •  Think about whether the key words identified by OpenEssayist are the ones you need to answer the question in your assignment. If they appear in the introduction, are they helping the reader to understand that this is what you are going to be writing about in the main text? •  Are the key words in the conclusion similar to those in the rest of the text but provide a summary of your answer? •  Can you pick out the three biggest words or phrases? DMW BUiD January 2014
  19. 19. Hints when using the system •  Do you agree with OpenEssayist that these sentences are a good summary of your assignment? •  Are any important ideas that you want to convey missing from this summary? •  Are there lots of sentences in the summary that are about something that you think is unimportant or irrelevant to your assignment? •  Do you think there are important themes in your assignment? Are they mentioned in your draft? •  Do you think the introduction section as recognised by OpenEssayist is about the right size, or has OpenEssayist go it wrong? •  Do you think you should try to lengthen the introduction? Or the conclusion? •  Is your draft long enough? Too short? DMW BUiD January 2014
  20. 20. Key word spring DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  21. 21. Chord diagram DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  22. 22. Key sentence adjacency matrix DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  23. 23. Middle Space •  Develop new analytic methods •  Computational •  Representational •  Statistical •  Visualisation DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  24. 24. Visualisations as a Thinking Tool •  Visualising text (Bertin, 1981; Johnson et al, 1993) •  Free text visualisation still problematic •  Do users need training with visualisations? •  Convention vs. Instruction? DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  25. 25. Short text for illustration of Rainbow Diagrams DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  26. 26. Sentence graph of short text DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  27. 27. OU essay awarded high grade DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  28. 28. OU essay awarded low grade DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  29. 29. Stanford University Boothe Prize essay DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  30. 30. Pretend essay: 50 identical sentences DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  31. 31. Pretend essay: 10 identical paragraphs DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  32. 32. Participants for Empirical Study Occupation   University   Professor of Teaching & Learning   OUC   Senior Lecturer Computer Science   OUC   Administrator x 2   OUC   Professor   OUC   Ph.D student x 6   OUC   Professor of Computer Science   OUC   Vice Rector   OUC   Senior Lecturer x 2   OU UK   Learning & Teaching Officer x 3   OU UK   Project Manager   OU UK   OU student x 2   OU UK   Professor   OU UK   Senior Administrator   OU UK   Course Administrator   OU UK   DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  33. 33. Findings DMW LAK Workshop March 2014 “One of the clues was talking about the way the color nodes, that the red ones are at the end. If they are a good connection with a good explanation for each paragraph. They should be connected together but the darker ones should be in the middle. But you see the color groups together so for me it automatically pulls my eye to this page because all the colors are closer together and more in the middle. So that would be the student course assignment essay with the highest mark.” “You don’t show me anybody’s text. You are not revealing anyone else’s essay. So students cannot plagiarize. But you are saying ‘Look hang on, this is the way this essay connects together.’ That’s what telling a good story is about this linking.”
  34. 34. Creating teaching and learning dialogues: towards guided learning supported by technology •  Learning to judge •  Providing reassurance •  Providing a variety of signposted routes to achieve learning goals DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  35. 35. Challenges •  Visualisation •  Social network analysis •  Communication and collaboration, •  Discourse analytics •  Interpretation training •  What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for successful implementation of learning analytics? DMW LAK Workshop March 2014
  36. 36. References •  Van Labeke, N., Whitelock, D., Field, D., Pulman, S. & Richardson, J. (2013) ‘OpenEssayist: Extractive Summarisation & Formative Assessment of Free-Text Essays’. Workshop on Discourse-Centric Learning Analytics, 3rd Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK 2013), Leuven, Belgium •  Whitelock, D. (2011) Activating Assessment for Learning: are we on the way with Web 2.0? In M.J.W. Lee & C. McLoughlin (Eds.) Web 2.0-Based-E-Learning: Applying Social Informatics for Tertiary Teaching. IGI Global. pp. 319–342. •  Field, D., Pulman, S., Van Labeke, N., Whitelock, D. and Richardson, J.T.E. 2013. Did I really mean that? Applying automatic summarisation techniques to formative feedback. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (Hissar, Bulgaria, Sep. 2013). •  Van Labeke, N., Whitelock, D., Field, D., Pulman, S. and Richardson, J.T.E. 2013. What is my essay really saying? Using extractive summarization to motivate reflection and redrafting. Proceedings of the AIED Workshop on Formative Feedback in Interactive Learning Environments (Memphis, TN, Jul. 2013). •  Alden, B., Van Labeke, N., Field, D., Pulman, S., Richardson, J.T.E. and Whitelock, D. 2013. Using student experience to inform the design of an automated feedback system for essay answers. Proceedings of the 2013 International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference (Southampton, UK, Jul. 2013). •  Field, D., Richardson, J.T.E., Pulman, S., Van Labeke, N. and Whitelock, D. 2013. Reflections on characteristics of university students’ essays through experimentation with domain- independent natural language processing techniques. Proceedings of the 2013 International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference (Southampton, UK, Jul. 2013). •  Van Labeke, N., Whitelock, D., Field, D., Pulman, S. and Richardson, J.T.E. 2013. OpenEssayist: extractive summarisation and formative assessment of free-text essays. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Discourse-Centric Learning Analytics (Leuven, Belgium, Apr. 2013). DMW LAK Workshop March 2014