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Trafficking In Persons

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Older over view of Trafficking in Humans

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Trafficking In Persons

  1. 1. International Training Associates, Inc Jonesboro, Arkansas Trafficking in Persons: An Investigative and Prosecutorial Training Program ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Trafficking in Persons: An Investigative and Prosecutorial Training Program
  3. 3. “It is incomprehensible that trafficking in human beings is taking place in the 21st Century incomprehensible but true.” “Trafficking leaves no land untouched, including our own.” Colin L. Powell Secretary of State ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. TIER Countries  There are 116 countries in Tiers 1-3  Tier 1= 26  Tier 2= 75  Tier 3=15 800,000 – 900,000 persons are trafficked across borders annually. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  5. 5.  Tier 1, Governments that comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking of persons.  Tier 2, Those governments making significant progress to bring themselves into compliance with the minimum standards.  Tier 3, Those countries not making significant progress themselves into compliance with the minimum standards. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Trafficking in Persons Overview  Trafficking in persons is generally defined as:  Situations wherein individuals traveling to seek work or residence somewhere else are forced, threatened, or otherwise controlled by another person. That person often receives money or some other benefit when the individual is trafficked. (United Nations Fact Sheet) ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Trafficking v. Smuggling  Trafficking in people differ from smuggling illegal aliens and illegal immigration in that with smuggling those wish to move pay the smuggler for their services.  There is a voluntary relationship between the smuggler and the individual wishing to cross a national border. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  8. 8.  Generally, people for trafficked for three reasons, though there are many. 1. Prostitution and Pornography 2. Debt bondage 3. Sex Tourism ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Sexual Exploitation Prostitution and Pornography  Economic and sexual slavery is a highly lucrative global industry controlled by criminal organizations as well as by loose knit groups and individuals  Trafficking in persons is one of the fastest growing form of organized crime. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Trafficking in Persons  Is a $7 to $9 billion dollar a year industry and growing.  According to the United Nations, between 700K and 900K people a year are trafficked.  The U.S. State Department estimates that in 1997, more than 100K women were trafficked from the former Soviet Union alone. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Thailand In the Trafficking Industry  In Thailand, trafficking is a 500 billion baht business annually, more lucrative than the drug trade and encompasses much less risk.  Twenty years ago, Thailand was in the forefront as a source country for trafficked women, but now has become a destination country with victims coming from Eastern Europe. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. Russia, Yugoslavia, Poland, and the Czech and Slovak Republics To Bangkok and Pattaya ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Statistics and Cases  An ILO report estimates 200K to 300K women are trafficked for prostitution into Thailand each year.  UNICEF estimates approximately 16K foreign women in prostitution in Thailand of whom a significant number are trafficked and about 1/3 are under 18 yoa. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. How traffickers recruit and gain control  An attractive woman is enticed with a promise of an overseas job that pays substantially more than her current situation.  She is promised that an agency will take care of her work permit, visa, and travel which she agrees to reimburse. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  15. 15.  Trafficking networks in Russia charge women anywhere from $1,500 to $3,000 US (60K-120K baht) and once in Thailand are kept in constant fear.  Passport are taken from them for “safekeeping”.  The victims are forced to work long hours (up to 18 hours a day) servicing many men and are not paid enough to ever repay their debt to those who trafficked then or who purchased them ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  16. 16.  Women in several cases have told investigators of being beaten, raped, burned with cigarettes and ordered to have sex with hundreds of men to work- off transportation “fees” of up to $60K. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Approximately 10,000 women are trafficked for sexual exploitation each year from nearby countries to replace Thai women who have moved on to other roles in the sex industry. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  18. 18.  The Cambodian Ministry of Women’s Affairs estimates that 40K Cambodian women have been sold into slavery in Thailand.  The Cambodian Immigration Office rescues 1.650 women who have been trafficked into Thailand every month.  Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) claims 40K Burmese women and girls are in brothels in Thailand. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. Ukraine as a source country ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. Ukraine  Ukraine is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Central and Western Europe and the middle East for purposes of sexual exploitation.  The Government of Ukraine does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant strides to do so. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. Ukraine  Traffickers can get up to $25,000US for Ukrainian women in Israel.  Women are brought from Russia to Cairo and then taken to villages in Sinai where Bedouin guides escort them through the desert on foot to Israel. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. Ukraine Countries that traffic in Ukrainian women  Turkey  Hungry  Greece  Czech Republic  Cyprus  Croatia  Italy  Germany  Spain  UAE  Yugoslavia  Syria  Bosnia &  Japan  Herzegovina  Israel ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. Ukraine estimates that 400K of its female citizens have been sold into prostitution in the last decade. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  25. 25. Case Example A trafficking ring operating for 2 years flew women from Kiev to Mexico and then by foot, car, train or boat to Los Angles, CA. These women were forced in prostitution for 6 months or longer to pay off their travel debt and were sold by their traffickers to pimps and madams. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  26. 26. The United States as a destination country It is estimated that between 18,000 and 20,000 people are trafficked into the U.S. each year (June 2003). ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  27. 27. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  28. 28.  Once escorted into the United States her passport and other documents are taken from her for “safekeeping”.  She is typically rotated from city to city to evade law enforcement and to keep the women disoriented. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  29. 29. Case Example Araya Sangsida  Young Thai woman fled off a Southwest Airlines jet leaving El Paso, TX bound for San Francisco, CA.  Sangsida had agreed to pay $34K to be smuggled from Thailand to the U.S. and to work off her debt as a prostitute.  She was taken to a brothel in Houston where she was eventually sold by the brothel’s owner to her importer for $15K who said she would have to work in off in San Francisco. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  30. 30.  She would have to have sex with over 500 men at $93 each for 45 minutes per man, servicing 10 men per day.  U.S. agents eventually arrested her escort and located $22K in cash, airline ticket stubs, and Thai passports for five other women. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  31. 31.  Since 2001, the Justice Department has charged, convicted, or secured sentences for 65 traffickers in 14 cases involving sex trafficking and abuse. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  32. 32.  In FY 2001 and 2003, the Criminal Section of the Department of Justice and the U.S. Attorney’s Office’s initiated prosecutions of 76 traffickers . . . .three times as many as in the previous two years. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  33. 33.  Sex trafficking operations occur in highly visible venues such as street prostitution, as well as more underground locations like closed-brothel systems that work out of residential homes and apartments  “Operation White Lace” was a 2 year investigation from which five immigrants from the Ukraine and Latvia were indicted.  The ringleaders made about $5 million to $8 million dollars during 22 months of operation in Los Angles, Beverly Hills, Marina Del Ray, and Hollywood. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  34. 34.  The difficulty in investigating these crimes are that the women are constantly moved from location to location by those criminals who have purchased them.  Once women are no longer profitable they may be resold to another who will offer her at a lower cost at a lower class brothel. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  35. 35.  These victims have a great mistrust of the police.  They have no documentation as to who they truly are, or what country they are a citizen of.  Some countries do not consider this a problem and do not recognize the activity as criminal, or the police authorities are part of the problem. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  36. 36. Attitudes of Traffickers  Victims are a commodity to bought and sold.  Those buying the trafficking victim have a right to be compensated if victim is freed and for expenses associated for their transport and maintenance.  Victims can be sold and resold when they no longer profitable for their specific operation. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  37. 37. Attitudes of Traffickers  Bosnian Milorad Milakovic (runs several brothels in Bosnia) “ Is it a crime to sell women? They sell footballers, don’t they?”.  After his brothels were raided in November 2000, freeing 34 young women victims of trafficking and sexual slavery, Milakovic demanded compensation because they had cost him a lot of money. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  38. 38. Case Study “Victoria”  When 17 yoa Victoria left her home in Chisinau, Moldova to find work with a friend. This friend turned her over to a group of Serbian men to gave her a new passport indicating she was 18. Taken to Bosnia Victoria was sold to new “owners” ten times over the next 2 years for the average price of $1,500US. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved
  39. 39. Case Study “Victoria”  Victoria was a debt slave. Forced into prostitution to repay the debt paid by her “owner” at the time.  Most of the money Victoria went directly to whomever controlled her at the time to reduce her debt.  She would then be resold to someone else compounding the amount she owed. ITA copyright@2009 All Rights Reserved

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