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Uzbekistan Powerpoint

Undergraduate presentation for American Foreign Policy class, delivered 2008

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Uzbekistan Powerpoint

  1. 1. Uzbekistan: A Brief Country Study<br />Seth Banks<br />
  2. 2. Brief History<br />Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization. <br /><br />
  3. 3. Geographic Info<br />Area:total: 447,400 sq km land: 425,400 sq km water: 22,000 sq km<br />Area - comparative: slightly larger than California<br />Land boundaries: total: 6,221 km border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km<br />Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline<br />Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)<br />Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east<br />Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west <br /><br />
  4. 4.<br />
  5. 5. People<br />Population: 27,606,007 (July 2009 est.)<br />Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.1% (male 3,970,386/female 3,787,371) 15-64 years: 67% (male 9,191,439/female 9,309,791) 65 years and over: 4.9% (male 576,191/female 770,829) (2009 est.)<br />Median age:total: 24.7 years male: 24.2 years female: 25.2 years (2008 est.)<br />Population growth rate: 0.935% (2009 est.)<br />Birth rate: 17.99 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)<br />Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)<br />Net migration rate: -2.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)<br />Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)<br />Infant mortality rate: total: 23.43 deaths/1,000 live births male: 27.7 deaths/1,000 live births female: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)<br />Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.96 years <br /> male: 68.95 years female: 75.15 years (2009 est.)<br /><br />
  6. 6. People (cont’d.)<br />Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)<br />Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%<br />Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1<br />Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.3% male: 99.6% female: 99% (2003 est.)<br />School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):<br /> total: 11 years male: 12 years female: 11 years (2007)<br />Education expenditures: 9.4% of GDP (1991) <br /><br />
  7. 7. Economy<br />GDP (purchasing power parity):<br /> $71.63 billion (2008 est.) $65.77 billion (2007) $60.07 billion (2006)<br />GDP - real growth rate: 8.9% (2008 est.)<br />GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2008 est.)<br />GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 28.2% industry: 33.9% services: 37.9% (2008 est.)<br />Labor force: 15.28 million (2008 est.)<br />Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 44% industry: 20% services: 36% (1995)<br />Unemployment rate: 0.9% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2008 est.) <br /><br />
  8. 8. Economy (Cont’d.)<br />Budget:revenues: $8.005 billion expenditures: $8.127 billion (2008 est.)<br />Public debt: 13.6% of GDP (2008 est.)<br />Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.5% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2008 est.)<br />Market value of publicly traded shares: $36.89 million (2005)<br />Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock<br />Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals<br />Industrial production growth rate: 11.2% (2008 est.) <br /><br />
  9. 9. Economic Partnerships<br />Exports: $9.96 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)<br />Exports - commodities: cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles<br />Exports - partners: Russia 22.4%, Poland 10.4%, Turkey 9.4%, Kazakhstan 6.1%, Hungary 6%, China 5.6%, Ukraine 4.8%, Bangladesh 4.3% (2007)<br />Imports: $6.5 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)<br />Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals<br />Imports - partners: Russia 30.1%, China 13.3%, South Korea 13%, Germany 6.3%, Kazakhstan 6.2%, Ukraine 4% (2007)<br />Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar - 1,317 (2008 est.), 1,263.8 (2007), 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004) <br /><br />
  10. 10. Legislature<br />Called OliyMajlis, meaning Supreme Assembly<br />Originally unicameral, with 150 deputies elected by single member territorial districts<br />Constitution amended in 2002, added an upper house with 100 deputies, 84 being appointed by regional councils and 16 by the President, and reduced the lower house to 120 deputies<br />Many of the same powers as the US Congress on paper, but in reality serves merely as the President’s rubber stamp<br />Five year terms<br />
  11. 11. Judiciary<br />Constitutional Court, which reviews constitutionality of laws and acts of government much like the US Supreme Court<br />Supreme Court which supervises the administration of justice in lower courts<br />Higher Economic Court which arbitrates any economic or trade related disputes<br />Various lower courts in the regions and cities which are supervised by the national government<br />Judges are elected by the OliyMajlis every five years, calling their independence into question<br />
  12. 12. Executive<br />President Islam Karimov has been in power since 1990, before the fall of the Soviet Union<br />Elections are rigged and determined not to be legitimate by most international observers<br />While not constitutional, the President controls most state functions including the courts and the OliyMajlis<br />President has a Cabinet of Ministers, which functions much like the US cabinet<br />
  13. 13. Rigged Elections<br />Only pro-government, pro-Karimov parties are allowed to stand for election to the OliyMajlis<br />Only pro-Karimov candidates are allowed to challenge him in presidential elections. These “opponents” have openly endorsed him while campaigning<br />Karimov uses voter intimidation to secure more votes, including forcing pilgrims en route to Mecca for the Hajj to fill out absentee ballots voting for him or risk being denied an exit visa<br />
  14. 14. Andijan<br />On May 13th, during the trial of 23 businessmen being accused of being Islamic extremists, riots broke out during a protest against the unfair treatment of the dissidents<br />While there was violence from the crowd, including the storming of the prison holding the businessmen and the killing of some government officials, the army opened fire indiscriminately on the crowd<br />Uzbek government figures cite 180 dead, but independent observers estimate up to 800 civilians were killed, including women and children<br />Subsequent roundups of suspected protest leaders resulted in show trials, many of which were in secret and most of which denied the defendants access to counsel<br />Andijan led to heavy criticism by the West, which led Karimov to seek to renew close ties with Russia, as well as strengthening ties with China<br /> (5 mins)<br />
  15. 15. Other Human Rights Abuses<br />Journalists go missing or turn up dead<br />Human rights advocates are often illegally detained, brought up on false charges, and given lengthy prison sentences<br />Torture, including beatings, asphyxiation, and sexual humiliation is common to extract confessions from detainees facing trial and to secure compliance from prisoners<br />
  16. 16. Works Cited<br />Amnesty International. (2008). In Danger for Speaking Out: Human Rights Defenders in Europe and Central Asia. Retrieved April 13 from<br />Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). Uzbekistan. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from<br />Embassy of Uzbekistan to the United States. (2009). About Uzbekistan - History. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from<br />Embassy of Uzbekistan to the United States. (2009). About Uzbekistan - Political Structure: Constitution and Government. Retrieved April 10, 2009 from<br />Freedom House. (2008). Freedom in the world: Uzbekistan (2008). Retrieved April 12, 2009 from<br />Hill, F. & Jones, K. (2006). Fear of Democracy or Revolution: The Reaction to Andijon. Washington Quarterly, 29 (3). Retrieved April 12, 2009 from Brookings Institute web site:<br />Mirovalev, M. (2007). Uzbekistan’s president seeks third term. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from<br />Neuss, S. (2008). Country Profile: Uzbekistan. The New Internationalist. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from<br />Republic of Uzbekistan. (1992). Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from<br />