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  1. 1. PPT- 054-01 1 Bureau of Workers’ Comp PA Training for Health & Safety (PATHS) 29 CFR 1910.303 29 CFR 1910.305 29 CFR 1926.400-449,Subpart K NFPA 70E ARC FLASH SAFETY
  2. 2. PPT- 054-01 2 OSHA Cited Violations: FY 2010 OSHA has long understood the importance of safety in this area and tracks electrical violations OSHA Most Cited Violations (2010) • Electrical-General Requirements (1910.303): 2,770 • Lock-out/Tag-out (1910.147): 3,531
  3. 3. PPT- 054-01 3 OSHA Violations FY 2010 1926.400-449, Subpart K • 404(f)(6) Grounding path 473 • 404(b)(1)(i) Ground fault protection 338 • 405(g)(2)(iv) Flexible cords-strain relief 277 • 416(e)(1) Worn/frayed cords or Cables 256 • 403(b)(2) Equipment installation and use 241
  4. 4. PPT- 054-01 4 OSHA Violations FY 2011 • 1910.147 Lock-out/Tag-out 3,639 • 1910.305 Electrical-wiring Methods 3,584 • 1910.303 Electrical-General Requirements 2,863
  5. 5. PPT- 054-01 5 Electrical Hazards • Shock • Electrocution: 4th leading cause of industrial fatalities • Fires • Burns • Arc Flash • Arc Blast
  6. 6. PPT- 054-01 6 Arc Flash Defined • Electrical work may cause injury or death • One severe occurrence is the Arc Flash event “Arc Flash: an electrical discharge that uses the air as a conductor, exploding from a high voltage source to another conductor or ground nearby. The release can be 5,000oF or hotter, melting nearby metals and damaging the electric circuits involved. The brightness, heat and force of the arc flash can cause damage to the human body.” Tyler Lacoma, eHow Contributor,
  7. 7. PPT- 054-01 7 Arc Flash Hazards resulting from arch flash: • Heat • Shrapnel • Pressure • Sound • Intense light  UV  IR
  8. 8. PPT- 054-01 8 Arc Flash Hazards Statistics:* 5 to 10 such serious arc flashes a day occur in the United States Result: 1 to 2 fatalities Although protective clothing exists, there is no guarantee against such severe energy releases *Dr. Mary Capelli-Schellpfeffer, “Arc Flash Presentation,” as quoted in facts, May 30, 2012
  9. 9. PPT- 054-01 9 Causes of Arc Flash • Overloading/overheating of circuits • Damaged circuit breakers • Over-fusing • Wiring in a non workman -like manner • Faulty electrical panels
  10. 10. PPT- 054-01 10 Causes of Arc Flash • System overload • Incorrect wire gauge for system requirements
  11. 11. PPT- 054-01 11 Causes of Arc Flash Faulty panels or overloading panels
  12. 12. PPT- 054-01 12 Arc Blast • Accompanies the flash • Intense radiant heat released • Nearby surfaces (persons and objects) absorb and are instantly heated to vaporizing temperatures
  13. 13. PPT- 054-01 13 Arc Blast Hazards Serious situations!!
  14. 14. PPT- 054-01 14 Electrical System Susceptibility System Hazard Less then 120V Arc flash highly improbable 480V electrical Sufficient capacity to cause services Above 600V Medium-voltage with higher energy/potential for an arc flash event
  15. 15. PPT- 054-01 15 Arc Flash Energy Released Per Wikipedia Example: single phase-to-phase fault on 480V system with 20,000 amps of fault current Resulting power is 9.6 MW If fault lasts 10 cycles at 60Hz, resulting energy would be 1.6 megajoules Comparison: TNT releases 2,175 J/g or more when detonated. This fault is equal to 380 grams (about 0.8 pounds) of TNT !!!
  16. 16. PPT- 054-01 16 Possible “Traps” Beware of a “profusion of electrical confusion”
  17. 17. PPT- 054-01 17 Current/Reaction Chart Current Reaction Below 1 milliampere Generally not perceptible. 1 milliampere Faint tingle. 5 milliampere Slight shock. Not painful-disturbing. Average person can let go. Strong involuntary reactions can lead to other injuries. 6-25 milliamperes Painful shock. Loss of muscular control. (women) 9-30 milliamperes Freezing current (“let-go” range). Person can not let go but can be thrown from the current if extensor muscles are stimulated. 50-150 milliamperes Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular contractions. Death is possible 1,000-4,300 Rhythmic pumping action of heart ceases. Muscular milliamperes contraction and nerve damage occur; death likely. 10,000 milliamperes Cardiac arrest, severe burns; death probable. OSHA Training Institute, “Construction Focus Four: Electrocution Hazards,” April, 2011
  18. 18. PPT- 054-01 18 Need for an Arc Flash Study • Numerous inherent dangers when working around electrical systems • Safety from arc flash should include an Arc Flash Study • Done prior to conducting work on hazardous locations
  19. 19. PPT- 054-01 19 Arc Flash Study Study components per IEEE 1584: Data Collection (steps 1 & 2) System diagrams Modes of operation scenarios Analysis (steps 3-7) Determination of bolted fault currents Protective devices recommended Document system voltages & classes of equipment Determine working distance from arc flash source
  20. 20. PPT- 054-01 20 Arc Flash Study Arc Flash Hazard Analysis (Steps 8 & 9) Incident energy determination (Energy needed for an arc flash to cause second-degree burns) Flash protection boundaries (Distance where the second-degree burns are caused, or where the incident energy is 1.2 calories per centimeter squared or 1.2 cal/cm2) Both may be calculated using NFPA or IEEE equations Diane Bonder, eHow Contributor
  21. 21. PPT- 054-01 21 Aids to Safe Operations • NFPA 70E-2004 Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces • IEEE 1584 Guide for Arc Flash Hazard Calculations
  22. 22. PPT- 054-01 22 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Results aid in determining: Proper PPE, distance- dependent from possible threat: - Shirts - Pants - Underwear - Goggles - Gloves - Hard hats - Shields, face and neck - Heating protection - Shoes
  23. 23. PPT- 054-01 23 Safe Distance Calculations Used to determine safe distances and PPE Variables taken into account: • Voltage • Working distance • Clearing time • Grounding • Gap between conductors • Bolted fault current
  24. 24. PPT- 054-01 24 Arc Flash Boundaries “Distance from an arc flash within which an unprotected person has a 50% chance of receiving a second degree burn”
  25. 25. PPT- 054-01 25 Flash Protection Boundary Arc flash hazard is based on: • Fault current • Arcing time • Distance Preplanning your facility will enhance the safety of your staff
  26. 26. PPT- 054-01 26 PPE Based on Incident Energy Preplan
  27. 27. PPT- 054-01 27 PPE by Hazard Risk Category Findings compared to table which indicates arc thermal performance of clothing Dangers above a 4 is prohibited “No Safe PPE Exists Energized Work Prohibited”
  28. 28. PPT- 054-01 28 Definitions • Voltage (E): electromotive force (emf) that forces electrons to flow through a circuit measured in Volts (V) • Current (I): the number of electrons that flow past a point in a circuit in one second measured in Amperes or Amps (A) • Resistance (R): the opposition to current flow in a circuit that contains only resistance and is measured in ohms
  29. 29. PPT- 054-01 29 • Relationship between E, I, R • “One volt of electromotive force will force one ampere of current to flow through one ohm of resistance” E I R By knowing 2 of these variables, the other can be calculated! Ohm’s Law
  30. 30. PPT- 054-01 30 Power Formula • Power: the rate at which work is done and is measured in Watts (W) (E x I)=Watts • So Power is equal to P= E x I • Power can be measured in the thousands of watts per hour and reads as KWH or kilowatthours
  31. 31. PPT- 054-01 31 Horsepower and Watts • Horsepower is the unit of measure for mechanical energy • 746 Watts = 1 Horsepower (hp) or P = E x I • Flow of Amps= E/R • Additional information
  32. 32. PPT- 054-01 32 Qualified Person • Qualified Person: One who has received training in and has demonstrated skills and knowledge in the construction and operation of electric equipment and installations and the hazards involved • OSHA defines these as specially trained to work on live electrical equipment • Unqualified Person: per 1910.332(b)(2) must still be trained in safe electrical practices for their support jobs (painters, cleaners as examples)
  33. 33. PPT- 054-01 33 Types of Damage Fully understand the hazards related to these activities If possible, review case histories of your industry to devise safe operations
  34. 34. PPT- 054-01 34 Caution!! Abide by distances determined by NFPA or IEEE NO SHORT CUTS!!!
  35. 35. PPT- 054-01 35 Signage Ensure signage fits hazard and conforms to regulatory requirements
  36. 36. PPT- 054-01 36 Hazard Preplan • Use checklists to preplan equipment needs when performing service or maintenance • Label systems for future maintenance and arc flash studies
  37. 37. PPT- 054-01 37 Safety Precautions: PPE • PPE should fit the requirements of the job • Specific level of PPE is required
  38. 38. PPT- 054-01 38 PPE Tests for arc rating of PPE Found in ASTM F1506 “Standard Performance Specifications for Flame Resistant Textile Materials for Wearing Apparel for Use by Electrical Workers Exposed to Momentary Electric Arc and Related Thermal Hazards”
  39. 39. PPT- 054-01 39 Match PPE to Task Level 2 Protective Coverall
  40. 40. PPT- 054-01 40 Match PPE to Task
  41. 41. PPT- 054-01 41 Match PPE to Task Prepare for the possible!
  42. 42. PPT- 054-01 42 Tools • Support equipment rated for the task • Tools properly insulated • Correct support equipment for the job
  43. 43. PPT- 054-01 43 Safety Robotic removal or disengagement devices can do much to maximize personnel safety Also: • Draw-out circuit breakers on a life bus • Remote racking
  44. 44. PPT- 054-01 44 Safe Work Practices Lock-out/Tag-out: Make sure you’re wearing the proper PPE for this job also
  45. 45. PPT- 054-01 45 Avoiding Arc Flash Assign qualified person • Conduct system analysis to determine arc flash hazard • When working, secure all power and enact Lock- out/Tag-out • Proper tools and PPE rated for the job • Assign electrical safety program manager familiar with codes • Properly maintain system and components • Apply warning labels
  46. 46. PPT- 054-01 46 Some Questions OSHA will Ask From EHSToday, March 13, 2008 (and still timely), Kenneth Cybart: OSHA’s goal: for employers to identify all electrical hazards, potential and actual Analyze workplace for shock and arc flash hazards, set safe protection boundaries and define required PPE Circuit or equipment description at job location? Written description, drawing Detailed job description of work?
  47. 47. PPT- 054-01 47 Some Questions OSHA will Ask Can the fact that the equipment cannot be de- energized or job be deferred be justified? 1910.333(a)(1) Live parts must be de-energized before employee works on/near them Less than 50 volts to ground need not be de- energized if there will be no increased exposure to electrical burns or to explosion due to electric arcs However, never work on live circuits unless absolutely necessary
  48. 48. PPT- 054-01 48 Some Questions OSHA will Ask Live circuit work necessary? OSHA 1910.33(a)(2): Safety-related work practices required NFPA 70E Article 110.8(B)(1): Electrical Hazard Analysis required before work performed on live equipment operating at 50 volts and higher Other questions to ask: - Safe work procedures? Detailed work procedure established? Will it be used? Job briefing checklist performed?
  49. 49. PPT- 054-01 49 Some Questions OSHA will Ask Was job briefing given to those doing the job? Proper management approval obtained? NFPA 70E annexes to assist your program: Annex Topic E Electrical Safety Programs F Hazard Risk Evaluation Procedures I Job Briefing Checklists J Energized Work Permits
  50. 50. PPT- 054-01 50 Some Questions OSHA will Ask Electrical safety analyses performed? Arc flash hazard analysis performed? Flash protection boundaries established? Other potential electrical hazards identified? Proper insulated tools and equipment used? Necessary PPE determined? Insulated blankets/sheeting used to cover all live parts?
  51. 51. PPT- 054-01 51 Some Questions OSHA will Ask OSHA: Every employer shall furnish a place of employment free from recognized hazards…causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm… NFPA 70E: Employers to conduct an electrical hazard assessment to include a hazard analysis for shock and arc flash before performing work on live equipment operating at 50 volts and higher Review the following when creating your program: OSHA 1910.132 and 1910.333(a)(1)(i) as well as 1910.269(a)(2)(iii)
  52. 52. PPT- 054-01 52 Summary • Appreciate the severe consequences which are possible when working with electrical systems • Fully plan the job; know and enact safeguards • Match the required PPE and equipment to the task • Consider possible emergency response needs for yourself and your team and include in your plan • Conduct the job safely • Restore safely • GET HOME SAFELY!!!
  53. 53. PPT- 054-01 53 Bibliography Tyler Lacoma, eHow Contributor, flash.html Dr. Mary Capelli-Schellpfeffer, “Arc Flash Presentation,” as quoted in facts, May 30, 2012 Diane Bonder, eHow Contributor OSHA Training Institute, “Construction Focus Four: Electrocution Hazards,” April, 2011
  54. 54. Questions PPT- 054-01 54