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INTRODUCTION
FINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT
China controls the processing of critical materials used for lithium-
ion batteries.
To regain control the DOE needs to incentivize short and long-term
strategies to increase processing of critical materials and decrease
dependence on lithium-ion batteries.
1
ORIGINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT
Supply and production of lithium-ion batteries is centered in
China. How can the U.S. become competitive?
Evian Jiang
B.A. Economics, International
Relations ‘24
Andrew Radford
B.S. Science, Technology, and
Society ‘23.
Rafael A. Vilá
PhD in Material Sciences and
Engineering ‘23.
Interviews: 25
TEAM 9’S TIMELINE
2
MAR
Why should the US
care about lithium-ion
batteries?
Lithium-ion supply
chain and Chinese
dominance
Pivot: Focus on US
midstream
capacities
Propose solutions to
increase domestic
production & minimize
dependence
Initial hypothesis:
just make more
batteries
The problem feels
too vast
Refine problem
statement
Weeks 2-4 Weeks 7-9
Weeks 5-6
WEEKS 2-4:
UNDERSTANDING THE
LITHIUM SUPPLY CHAIN
PROBLEM 3
1
Week 2: Why are Li-ion batteries a national security issue?
1. Military (drones & portable equipment)
1. Economy (US will account for ~20% of demand)
1. Diplomacy (China can use their dominance as leverage)
4
Week 3: Make More Batteries In The US
5
We have a [global] shortage of
lithium-ion batteries today.
- Jigar Shah, Director of DOE’s Loan Programs Office
Weeks 3-4: What does the lithium-ion supply chain look like?
6
Upstream Midstream Downstream
Source: International Energy Agency
90%
75% overall
dominance
Week 4: Why does China dominate the supply chain?
1. US licensed away its lithium-ion technology
1. Chinese government subsidies and investments
a. $60 to $100 billion in EV subsidies
b. Subsidized domestic materials processing Gangfeng and BTR
1. Pro-lithium-ion battery policies
a. CCP’s “Made in 2025” / “World’s Factory” industrial strategy
7
WEEKS 5-6:
NARROWING THE
PROBLEM
8
2
Week 5: Midstream is the Key
In today’s energy world, the expression of
geopolitical power is midstream processing of
lithium, graphite, cobalt, nickel, and
manganese.
9
- Steve LeVine, author of America, China and
The Great Battery War
PIVOT
Week 6: Scaling US midstream capacities
1. JPN, KOR, and AUS partnerships (talent transfer)
1. Improving battery recycling capabilities (Redwood Materials)
1. Domestically viable battery chemistries (sodium-ion)
10
WEEKS 7-9: FINAL
PROBLEM STATEMENT &
PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
11
3
To rely less on China we need to
simultaneously increase production and
do more with less
Week 8: An Offensive and Defensive Strategy Is Required
12
- Battery staff at EVTOL company
Refined Problem Statement
China controls the processing of critical materials used for
lithium-ion batteries.
To regain control, the DOE needs to incentivize short and long-
term strategies to increase processing of critical battery
minerals and decrease dependence on lithium-ion batteries.
13
Increasing battery materials processing capacity
Partnerships with
countries rich in Li-
ion raw materials
Partnerships with
experts in midstream
refining and
manufacturing
Invest in domestic
talent and midstream
manufacturing capacity
14
$400M investment in LG Energy
Solutions to create anode,
cathode, and manufacturing
plants in the US
$150M investment in Albemarle
to increase American lithium
mining and refinement
capacities
$180M investment in Lilac
Solutions (sustainable lithium
extraction); $200M investment
in Group14
Decreasing dependence of Li-ion battery raw materials
EV charging
infrastructure
Domestically viable
battery chemistries
Recycling and raw-
materials reserves
15
DOE standardization of charging
interfaces and protocols; $300M
investment into charging
infrastructure
$200M investment into
commercialization ready battery
chemistries that can be made
100% in the US (sodium-ion)
DOE establishment of a battery-
critical materials reserve and
EPA mandate of lithium-ion
recycling (like lead-acid
batteries)
16
THANKS!
Any questions?
Find us at evianj@stanford.edu, rvila@stanford.edu,
radford4@stanford.edu.

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Team LiOn Batteries - 2022 Technology, Innovation & Great Power Competition

  • 1. INTRODUCTION FINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT China controls the processing of critical materials used for lithium- ion batteries. To regain control the DOE needs to incentivize short and long-term strategies to increase processing of critical materials and decrease dependence on lithium-ion batteries. 1 ORIGINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT Supply and production of lithium-ion batteries is centered in China. How can the U.S. become competitive? Evian Jiang B.A. Economics, International Relations ‘24 Andrew Radford B.S. Science, Technology, and Society ‘23. Rafael A. Vilá PhD in Material Sciences and Engineering ‘23. Interviews: 25
  • 2. TEAM 9’S TIMELINE 2 MAR Why should the US care about lithium-ion batteries? Lithium-ion supply chain and Chinese dominance Pivot: Focus on US midstream capacities Propose solutions to increase domestic production & minimize dependence Initial hypothesis: just make more batteries The problem feels too vast Refine problem statement Weeks 2-4 Weeks 7-9 Weeks 5-6
  • 3. WEEKS 2-4: UNDERSTANDING THE LITHIUM SUPPLY CHAIN PROBLEM 3 1
  • 4. Week 2: Why are Li-ion batteries a national security issue? 1. Military (drones & portable equipment) 1. Economy (US will account for ~20% of demand) 1. Diplomacy (China can use their dominance as leverage) 4
  • 5. Week 3: Make More Batteries In The US 5 We have a [global] shortage of lithium-ion batteries today. - Jigar Shah, Director of DOE’s Loan Programs Office
  • 6. Weeks 3-4: What does the lithium-ion supply chain look like? 6 Upstream Midstream Downstream Source: International Energy Agency 90% 75% overall dominance
  • 7. Week 4: Why does China dominate the supply chain? 1. US licensed away its lithium-ion technology 1. Chinese government subsidies and investments a. $60 to $100 billion in EV subsidies b. Subsidized domestic materials processing Gangfeng and BTR 1. Pro-lithium-ion battery policies a. CCP’s “Made in 2025” / “World’s Factory” industrial strategy 7
  • 9. Week 5: Midstream is the Key In today’s energy world, the expression of geopolitical power is midstream processing of lithium, graphite, cobalt, nickel, and manganese. 9 - Steve LeVine, author of America, China and The Great Battery War
  • 10. PIVOT Week 6: Scaling US midstream capacities 1. JPN, KOR, and AUS partnerships (talent transfer) 1. Improving battery recycling capabilities (Redwood Materials) 1. Domestically viable battery chemistries (sodium-ion) 10
  • 11. WEEKS 7-9: FINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT & PROPOSED SOLUTIONS 11 3
  • 12. To rely less on China we need to simultaneously increase production and do more with less Week 8: An Offensive and Defensive Strategy Is Required 12 - Battery staff at EVTOL company
  • 13. Refined Problem Statement China controls the processing of critical materials used for lithium-ion batteries. To regain control, the DOE needs to incentivize short and long- term strategies to increase processing of critical battery minerals and decrease dependence on lithium-ion batteries. 13
  • 14. Increasing battery materials processing capacity Partnerships with countries rich in Li- ion raw materials Partnerships with experts in midstream refining and manufacturing Invest in domestic talent and midstream manufacturing capacity 14 $400M investment in LG Energy Solutions to create anode, cathode, and manufacturing plants in the US $150M investment in Albemarle to increase American lithium mining and refinement capacities $180M investment in Lilac Solutions (sustainable lithium extraction); $200M investment in Group14
  • 15. Decreasing dependence of Li-ion battery raw materials EV charging infrastructure Domestically viable battery chemistries Recycling and raw- materials reserves 15 DOE standardization of charging interfaces and protocols; $300M investment into charging infrastructure $200M investment into commercialization ready battery chemistries that can be made 100% in the US (sodium-ion) DOE establishment of a battery- critical materials reserve and EPA mandate of lithium-ion recycling (like lead-acid batteries)
  • 16. 16 THANKS! Any questions? Find us at evianj@stanford.edu, rvila@stanford.edu, radford4@stanford.edu.

Editor's Notes

  1. Intro - > li battery team - > ps given by schmidt
  2. E
  3. E
  4. E + R
  5. R
  6. E + R
  7. R + A Sources: think tanks, Joe Walsh, Institute for Defense Analysis, DOE reports
  8. E
  9. R + A Discouraged. We didn’t know where to go because there’s issues all along the supply chain/constrained by 10 week quarter.
  10. E Discouraged. We didn’t know where to go because there’s issues all along the supply chain/constrained by 10 week quarter.
  11. E
  12. R
  13. A
  14. E
  15. R