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Team LiOn Batteries - 2022 Technology, Innovation & Great Power Competition

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Team LiOn Batteries - 2022 Technology, Innovation & Great Power Competition

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Technology Innovation and Great Power Competition,TIGPC, Gordian knot Center, DIME-FIL, department of defense, dod, intlpol 340, joe felter, ms&e296, raj shah, stanford, Steve blank, AI, ML, AI/ML, china, LiOn Batteries

Technology Innovation and Great Power Competition,TIGPC, Gordian knot Center, DIME-FIL, department of defense, dod, intlpol 340, joe felter, ms&e296, raj shah, stanford, Steve blank, AI, ML, AI/ML, china, LiOn Batteries

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Team LiOn Batteries - 2022 Technology, Innovation & Great Power Competition

  1. INTRODUCTION FINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT China controls the processing of critical materials used for lithium- ion batteries. To regain control the DOE needs to incentivize short and long-term strategies to increase processing of critical materials and decrease dependence on lithium-ion batteries. 1 ORIGINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT Supply and production of lithium-ion batteries is centered in China. How can the U.S. become competitive? Evian Jiang B.A. Economics, International Relations ‘24 Andrew Radford B.S. Science, Technology, and Society ‘23. Rafael A. Vilá PhD in Material Sciences and Engineering ‘23. Interviews: 25
  2. TEAM 9’S TIMELINE 2 MAR Why should the US care about lithium-ion batteries? Lithium-ion supply chain and Chinese dominance Pivot: Focus on US midstream capacities Propose solutions to increase domestic production & minimize dependence Initial hypothesis: just make more batteries The problem feels too vast Refine problem statement Weeks 2-4 Weeks 7-9 Weeks 5-6
  3. WEEKS 2-4: UNDERSTANDING THE LITHIUM SUPPLY CHAIN PROBLEM 3 1
  4. Week 2: Why are Li-ion batteries a national security issue? 1. Military (drones & portable equipment) 1. Economy (US will account for ~20% of demand) 1. Diplomacy (China can use their dominance as leverage) 4
  5. Week 3: Make More Batteries In The US 5 We have a [global] shortage of lithium-ion batteries today. - Jigar Shah, Director of DOE’s Loan Programs Office
  6. Weeks 3-4: What does the lithium-ion supply chain look like? 6 Upstream Midstream Downstream Source: International Energy Agency 90% 75% overall dominance
  7. Week 4: Why does China dominate the supply chain? 1. US licensed away its lithium-ion technology 1. Chinese government subsidies and investments a. $60 to $100 billion in EV subsidies b. Subsidized domestic materials processing Gangfeng and BTR 1. Pro-lithium-ion battery policies a. CCP’s “Made in 2025” / “World’s Factory” industrial strategy 7
  8. WEEKS 5-6: NARROWING THE PROBLEM 8 2
  9. Week 5: Midstream is the Key In today’s energy world, the expression of geopolitical power is midstream processing of lithium, graphite, cobalt, nickel, and manganese. 9 - Steve LeVine, author of America, China and The Great Battery War
  10. PIVOT Week 6: Scaling US midstream capacities 1. JPN, KOR, and AUS partnerships (talent transfer) 1. Improving battery recycling capabilities (Redwood Materials) 1. Domestically viable battery chemistries (sodium-ion) 10
  11. WEEKS 7-9: FINAL PROBLEM STATEMENT & PROPOSED SOLUTIONS 11 3
  12. To rely less on China we need to simultaneously increase production and do more with less Week 8: An Offensive and Defensive Strategy Is Required 12 - Battery staff at EVTOL company
  13. Refined Problem Statement China controls the processing of critical materials used for lithium-ion batteries. To regain control, the DOE needs to incentivize short and long- term strategies to increase processing of critical battery minerals and decrease dependence on lithium-ion batteries. 13
  14. Increasing battery materials processing capacity Partnerships with countries rich in Li- ion raw materials Partnerships with experts in midstream refining and manufacturing Invest in domestic talent and midstream manufacturing capacity 14 $400M investment in LG Energy Solutions to create anode, cathode, and manufacturing plants in the US $150M investment in Albemarle to increase American lithium mining and refinement capacities $180M investment in Lilac Solutions (sustainable lithium extraction); $200M investment in Group14
  15. Decreasing dependence of Li-ion battery raw materials EV charging infrastructure Domestically viable battery chemistries Recycling and raw- materials reserves 15 DOE standardization of charging interfaces and protocols; $300M investment into charging infrastructure $200M investment into commercialization ready battery chemistries that can be made 100% in the US (sodium-ion) DOE establishment of a battery- critical materials reserve and EPA mandate of lithium-ion recycling (like lead-acid batteries)
  16. 16 THANKS! Any questions? Find us at evianj@stanford.edu, rvila@stanford.edu, radford4@stanford.edu.

Editor's Notes

  • Intro - > li battery team - > ps given by schmidt
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    Sources: think tanks, Joe Walsh, Institute for Defense Analysis, DOE reports
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    Discouraged. We didn’t know where to go because there’s issues all along the supply chain/constrained by 10 week quarter.
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    Discouraged. We didn’t know where to go because there’s issues all along the supply chain/constrained by 10 week quarter.
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