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Fatal journeys (Team 621) Lessons Learned H4Dip Stanford 2016

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agile, mission model, corporate innovation, customer development, h4d, h4dip, hacking for diplomacy, lean, lean launchpad, lean startup, stanford, steve blank, state department

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Fatal journeys (Team 621) Lessons Learned H4Dip Stanford 2016

  1. FATAL JOURNEYS i m p r o v i n g d a t a o n m i s s i n g a n d p e r i s h e d r e f u g e e s T e a m 6 2 1
  2. MS ’17 CS A N T O N A P O S T O L A T O S MS ’17 Statistics L E N N Y B R O N N E R BS ’17 MS&E A S A D K H A L I Q MS ’17 CS Q U E N T I N P E R R O T
  3. INTERVIEWS Improving Data on Missing and Perished Refugees US Department of State Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration Policy 51% Data 19% Action 29% Lack of data on refugee flows, particularly the missing and perished, was preventing efficient policy & strategy decisions and limiting resource allocation A missing link between key stakeholders limits identification of perished refugees, preventing human & legal closure for families
  4. WAY FINDING1 HONING DOWN2 OUR SOLUTION3 NEXT STEPS4
  5. WAY FINDING
  6. CENTRAL DATA STORE W A Y F I N D I N G Combine on-the-ground data collected by existing organizations in Europe
  7. LARGE NGOS HUMANITARIAN FLEET FIRST RESPONDER NGOS COAST GUARD
  8. LARGE NGOS HUMANITARIAN FLEET FIRST RESPONDER NGOS COAST GUARD
  9. LARGE NGOS HUMANITARIAN FLEET FIRST RESPONDER NGOS COAST GUARD Data isn’t really being collected Organizations don’t have the bandwidth to do so Even if they did, they’re reluctant to share it
  10. Data does not exist
  11. Data does not exist Data needs to be generated
  12. Data does not exist Data needs to be generated Orgs can’t know who is leaving and traveling
  13. Data does not exist Data needs to be generated Orgs can’t know who is leaving and traveling Collect data from smugglers
  14. Data does not exist Data needs to be generated Orgs can’t know who is leaving and traveling Collect data from smugglers “Don’t do that. Don’t work with smugglers. If you talk to them, then don’t tell anyone you talked to me about this. Just don’t do it. You will go to jail.” - One of our mentors
  15. Data does not exist Data needs to be generated Orgs can’t know who is leaving and traveling Collect data from smugglers Collect data from refugees
  16. I N S I G H T S - C E N T R A L D A T A S T O R E Detailed data on refugee movements, doesn’t really exist; so we’d need to generate it ourselves Only smugglers and refugees themselves have exact knowledge of refugee movements — so we’d need to source it there
  17. Detailed data on refugee movements, doesn’t really exist; so we’d need to generate it ourselves Only smugglers and refugees themselves have exact knowledge of refugee movements — so we’d need to source it there I N S I G H T S - C E N T R A L D A T A S T O R E “People arriving in Greece, everyone was using WhatsApp — the refugees, their families, the smugglers, everyone. They were always in touch.” - NGO Volunteer, Lesvos, Greece
  18. WHATSAPP MVP W A Y F I N D I N G
  19. WHATSAPP MVP W A Y F I N D I N G WhatsApp Bot Refugees use it when they’re departing Share data on who’s leaving and when Enables faster first response
  20. Khartoum Sebha Agadez Tamanrasset Ghat Gatroun Faya-Largeau Nyala Cairo AlexandriaBenghazi Salloum Tripoli Ghadames Niamey Tazerbo Dirkou NIGERIA MALI WEST AFRICA ERITREA SOMALIA SOUTH SUDAN SUDANCHAD EGYPT LIBYA ALGERIA TUNISIA NIGER ETHIOPIA SYRIA PALESTINEZawiya Lampedusa MALTA Sicily ITALY Source: IOM, IFRC Addis Ababa N’Djamena Tunis Algiers Damascus Abuja Legend AFFECTED COUNTRY Transit/Relevant Cities Smuggling Hub Main Route Secondary Route Red Cross Hub and Lang. Sea Route
  21. Khartoum Sebha Agadez Tamanrasset Ghat Gatroun Faya-Largeau Nyala Cairo AlexandriaBenghazi Salloum Tripoli Ghadames Niamey Tazerbo Dirkou NIGERIA MALI WEST AFRICA ERITREA SOMALIA SOUTH SUDAN SUDANCHAD EGYPT LIBYA ALGERIA TUNISIA NIGER ETHIOPIA SYRIA PALESTINEZawiya Lampedusa MALTA Sicily ITALY Source: IOM, IFRC Addis Ababa N’Djamena Tunis Algiers Damascus Abuja Legend AFFECTED COUNTRY Transit/Relevant Cities Smuggling Hub Main Route Secondary Route Red Cross Hub and Lang. Sea Route “I didn’t have a phone. I didn't talk to my family for three months.” - Samuel, Eritrean Refugee
  22. Khartoum Sebha Agadez Tamanrasset Ghat Gatroun Faya-Largeau Nyala Cairo AlexandriaBenghazi Salloum Tripoli Ghadames Niamey Tazerbo Dirkou NIGERIA MALI WEST AFRICA ERITREA SOMALIA SOUTH SUDAN SUDANCHAD EGYPT LIBYA ALGERIA TUNISIA NIGER ETHIOPIA SYRIA PALESTINEZawiya Lampedusa MALTA Sicily ITALY Source: IOM, IFRC Addis Ababa N’Djamena Tunis Algiers Damascus Abuja Legend AFFECTED COUNTRY Transit/Relevant Cities Smuggling Hub Main Route Secondary Route Red Cross Hub and Lang. Sea Route “We had a translator, an Arabic speaker, on the boats — to help give instructions for refugees to come on board. Turned out, most of them didn’t speak any Arabic at all.” - Doctors Without Borders sea rescue
  23. “People often lie about where they’re from — they’re scared they’ll be denied asylum and sent back.” - Researcher in Jordan
  24. Huge differences in language, culture, resources, and norms along different refugee routes; so our solution needs to be broadly applicable Refugees are very wary of what data they share and with whom; so ideally, our solution would be as simple as possible I N S I G H T S - W H A T S A P P M V P
  25. Generate data from refugees who are traveling Generate data from refugees who are traveling with minimal friction
  26. First MMC Notes for each Mission Model Canvas section are in the “slide notes” section Key Partners Key Activities Key Resources Value Propositions Buy-in & Support Beneficiaries/Stakeholders Deployment Mission Budget / Costs Mission Achievement / Success Factors UNHCR and on the ground NGOs for distribution and information European Governments for information, access and accreditation State Department for information and distribution Governments of safe third-party states for on-the-ground information, including the Turkish government Coast guard for some of the identification process NGOs in the water (e.g. DWB) for some identification process Hospitals/morgues for better information on missing people Key suppliers Amazon Web Servers What problem? For refugees and their families: (1) we consolidate information about missing persons across on-the-ground orgs and (2) develop means to identify perished persons. Value? This will increase the chances of finding loved ones (part 1 only) or being able to determine that an individual has perished (part 1 and 2). Asylum seekers and their families State Department European governments On-the-ground orgs collecting missing persons information (including hospitals) At-sea orgs rescuing people Access to existing resources: -missing persons databases -access to at-sea orgs Better communication and cooperation between beneficiaries and partners Existence of support for refugees Convincing stakeholders of additional benefit of working with us Buy-in to the shared information will be difficult to achieve. Instead, discover stakeholder problems and identify unique solutions enabling data collection and support Relationship with refugees will be supplied by on the ground NGOs and the UNHCR Relationship with State Department will be supplied through mentor Buy-in, support, and accreditation from European Governments Existing missing and deceased persons databases Data on migration flows and information on on- the-ground situation Data security for sensitive data Accreditation for work in Europe On the ground task force Accessible database for both entities and people, with easy information placement and retrieval Key partnerships with existing on the ground practitioners, integrating with existing practices Potential set up by European governments Indirectly achieving buy-in for adoption and data sharing by directly solving unique stakeholder problems More effective resource management, more informed decision making, and greater humanitarian advocacy among partners Not only lessen inefficiencies with data consolidation, but inform efforts in the field and ensure safer passage Metrics: # of refugees found, # of families reunified, # of deceased or missing refugees identified The budget comes from organizations that are on the ground (NGOs, UNHCR) but also from other beneficiaries such as the State Dept. and European Governments Data capture and information retrieval Opportunity cost for resources spent on potentially dead vs. living Data capture hardware, servers, initial awareness and distribution
  27. First MMC Notes for each Mission Model Canvas section are in the “slide notes” section Key Partners Key Activities Key Resources Value Propositions Buy-in & Support Beneficiaries/Stakeholders Deployment Mission Budget / Costs Mission Achievement / Success Factors UNHCR and on the ground NGOs for distribution and information European Governments for information, access and accreditation State Department for information and distribution Governments of safe third-party states for on-the-ground information, including the Turkish government Coast guard for some of the identification process NGOs in the water (e.g. DWB) for some identification process Hospitals/morgues for better information on missing people Key suppliers Amazon Web Servers What problem? For refugees and their families: (1) we consolidate information about missing persons across on-the-ground orgs and (2) develop means to identify perished persons. Value? This will increase the chances of finding loved ones (part 1 only) or being able to determine that an individual has perished (part 1 and 2). Asylum seekers and their families State Department European governments On-the-ground orgs collecting missing persons information (including hospitals) At-sea orgs rescuing people Access to existing resources: -missing persons databases -access to at-sea orgs Better communication and cooperation between beneficiaries and partners Existence of support for refugees Convincing stakeholders of additional benefit of working with us Buy-in to the shared information will be difficult to achieve. Instead, discover stakeholder problems and identify unique solutions enabling data collection and support Relationship with refugees will be supplied by on the ground NGOs and the UNHCR Relationship with State Department will be supplied through mentor Buy-in, support, and accreditation from European Governments Existing missing and deceased persons databases Data on migration flows and information on on- the-ground situation Data security for sensitive data Accreditation for work in Europe On the ground task force Accessible database for both entities and people, with easy information placement and retrieval Key partnerships with existing on the ground practitioners, integrating with existing practices Potential set up by European governments Indirectly achieving buy-in for adoption and data sharing by directly solving unique stakeholder problems More effective resource management, more informed decision making, and greater humanitarian advocacy among partners Not only lessen inefficiencies with data consolidation, but inform efforts in the field and ensure safer passage Metrics: # of refugees found, # of families reunified, # of deceased or missing refugees identified The budget comes from organizations that are on the ground (NGOs, UNHCR) but also from other beneficiaries such as the State Dept. and European Governments Data capture and information retrieval Opportunity cost for resources spent on potentially dead vs. living Data capture hardware, servers, initial awareness and distribution RE-EXAMINE OUR BENEFICIARIES
  28. First MMC Notes for each Mission Model Canvas section are in the “slide notes” section Key Partners Key Activities Key Resources Value Propositions Buy-in & Support Beneficiaries/Stakeholders Deployment Mission Budget / Costs Mission Achievement / Success Factors UNHCR and on the ground NGOs for distribution and information European Governments for information, access and accreditation State Department for information and distribution Governments of safe third-party states for on-the-ground information, including the Turkish government Coast guard for some of the identification process NGOs in the water (e.g. DWB) for some identification process Hospitals/morgues for better information on missing people Key suppliers Amazon Web Servers What problem? For refugees and their families: (1) we consolidate information about missing persons across on-the-ground orgs and (2) develop means to identify perished persons. Value? This will increase the chances of finding loved ones (part 1 only) or being able to determine that an individual has perished (part 1 and 2). Asylum seekers and their families State Department European governments On-the-ground orgs collecting missing persons information (including hospitals) At-sea orgs rescuing people Access to existing resources: -missing persons databases -access to at-sea orgs Better communication and cooperation between beneficiaries and partners Existence of support for refugees Convincing stakeholders of additional benefit of working with us Buy-in to the shared information will be difficult to achieve. Instead, discover stakeholder problems and identify unique solutions enabling data collection and support Relationship with refugees will be supplied by on the ground NGOs and the UNHCR Relationship with State Department will be supplied through mentor Buy-in, support, and accreditation from European Governments Existing missing and deceased persons databases Data on migration flows and information on on- the-ground situation Data security for sensitive data Accreditation for work in Europe On the ground task force Accessible database for both entities and people, with easy information placement and retrieval Key partnerships with existing on the ground practitioners, integrating with existing practices Potential set up by European governments Indirectly achieving buy-in for adoption and data sharing by directly solving unique stakeholder problems More effective resource management, more informed decision making, and greater humanitarian advocacy among partners Not only lessen inefficiencies with data consolidation, but inform efforts in the field and ensure safer passage Metrics: # of refugees found, # of families reunified, # of deceased or missing refugees identified The budget comes from organizations that are on the ground (NGOs, UNHCR) but also from other beneficiaries such as the State Dept. and European Governments Data capture and information retrieval Opportunity cost for resources spent on potentially dead vs. living Data capture hardware, servers, initial awareness and distribution RE-EXAMINE OUR BENEFICIARIES RE-EXAMINE OUR PROBLEM
  29. Problem
  30. Missing & Perished
  31. PerishedAlive Missing & Perished
  32. PerishedAlive Missing & Perished
  33. PerishedAlive Missing & Perished Bodies Found Bodies Missing
  34. PerishedAlive Missing & Perished Bodies Found Bodies Missing
  35. HONING DOWN
  36. z 1990-2013: 35% of refugee bodies in Europe identified 4700+ dead refugees in the Mediterranean since the beginning of 2016 200 000 refugees and refugees crossed the Mediterranean in 2015
  37. FORENSICS AGENTS
  38. “Every body coming into Italy is being DNA tested. Many in Greece. This is expensive, and currently it isn’t getting us good results.” - MOAS Official
  39. “These tests are useless unless you have something to link the results back to. A point of reference.” - Head of Forensics, ICRC
  40. REFUGEES’ FAMILY & COMMUNITY
  41. Develop link between those with bodies and refugees’ families in order to provide closure — all with less friction! Generate data from refugees who are traveling with minimal friction FORENSICS AGENTS FAMILY & COMMUNITY PIVOT
  42. Less dependence on… Smartphones Battery Language Connectivity Trust Incentives
  43. Less dependence on… Smartphones Battery Language Connectivity Trust Incentives We needed the lowest fidelity way to test that we had honed down correctly.
  44. SHARPIE ON T-SHIRT H O N I N G D O W N
  45. SHARPIE ON T-SHIRT H O N I N G D O W N Essentially, a dogtag Refugees write family member’s phone number on their shirt In case the worst happens, forensics agents receive the body Number acts as a bridge back to the family
  46. “On a T-Shirt? Yes, I don’t mind putting this information — my name, phone numbers, it’s fine. But I don’t want to wear that if I get to Europe.” - Samuel, Eritrean Refugee
  47. “T-shirts can fade, or come off, and they may not hold up for too long in water. The concept works, but the T-shirts may not.” - Forensics expert
  48. T-Shirts can be damaged or exchanged, we would need something more rigorous Writing a number on your shirt could be irreversible; and refugees don’t always want to share this information, so we need a more flexible solution to allow the refugee more control I N S I G H T S - T - S H I R T M V P
  49. Develop link between those with bodies and refugees’ families in order to provide closure
  50. OUR SOLUTION
  51. WRISTBAND S O L U T I O N
  52. WRISTBAND S O L U T I O N Works very similarly to the T-Shirt But much more robust - tamperproof and waterproof Offers flexibility and control to the refugee
  53. why this works and is good Refugee’s Home RC Chapter Embarks Perish Forensics
  54. NEXT STEPS
  55. PILOT
  56. “T-Shirts can get lost, exchanged, or fade away — bracelets are much more robust.” - Forensics Expert, US Army
  57. Khartoum Sebha Agadez Tamanrasset Ghat Gatroun Faya-Largeau Nyala Cairo AlexandriaBenghazi Salloum Tripoli Ghadames Niamey Tazerbo Dirkou NIGERIA MALI WEST AFRICA ERITREA SOMALIA SOUTH SUDAN SUDANCHAD EGYPT LIBYA ALGERIA TUNISIA NIGER ETHIOPIA SYRIA PALESTINEZawiya Lampedusa MALTA Sicily ITALY Source: IOM, IFRC Addis Ababa N’Djamena Tunis Algiers Damascus Abuja Legend AFFECTED COUNTRY Transit/Relevant Cities Smuggling Hub Main Route Secondary Route Red Cross Hub and Lang. Sea Route
  58. z “How many bracelets can you give to us and when can you get them to us?” - Turkish Red Crescent Official
  59. “No problems — almost all refugees get information on crossing from Facebook groups or informal networks like WhatsApp. So you can advertise there for free.” - Syrian Stringer/Fixer
  60. DEFINING CLOSURE N E X T S T E P S
  61. There’s more than just a human and emotional aspect to closure It’s also legal and logistical
  62. We have to prove out our basic solution, and gain enough traction to make it viable
  63. THANK YOU

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