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Hidden in Plain Sight:
The Secret History of Silicon Valley




                             Steve Blank
     http://www.stanford.edu/dept/MSandE/people/teaching/blank/index.html
                 http://www.haas.berkeley.edu/faculty/blank.html
The Genesis of Silicon Valley Entrepreneurship

                                          Marc Andreessen
                                                               Internet


                          Steve Jobs
                                             Personal
                                            Computers

          Gordon Moore
                             Integrated
                               Circuits             Innovation Networks


Hewlett & Packard
                Defense




   1950        1960          1970           1980        1990          2000

    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
A few caveats

• Not a professional historian
• Some of this is probably wrong
• All “secrets” are from open-source literature




 Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Six Short Stories




Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Story 1: WWII The First Electronic War




Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Strategic Bombing of Germany
           The Combined Bomber Offensive

• British bombed at Night
   – Area Bombing
      • Lancaster's
      • Halifax
      • Flew at 7 - 17 thousand feet


• The American’s by Day
   – Precision Bombing
     • B-17’s
     • B-24’s
     • Flew at 15 - 25 thousand feet




      Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
British and American Air War in Europe

            28,000 Active Combat Planes

  40,000 planes lost or damaged beyond repair:
       18,000 American and 22,000 British

    79,265 Americans and 79,281 British killed




  Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
The German Air Defense System
              The Kammhuber Line

• Integrated Electronic air defense network
   – Covered France, the Low Countries, and into
     northern Germany


• Protection from British/US bomber raids
   – Warn and Detect
   – Target and Aim
   – Destroy




    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Early Warning Radars in Occupied France




Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Mammoth
                       Early Warning Radar

• 200 mile range
    – 150 MHz, 200KW, PRF 500hz,
      PW 3µs, accuracy 0.5°
•   100’ wide, 33’ high
•   1st phased-array radar
•   Operational 1942
•   20 built



       Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Wasserman
      Early Warning Radar

• 150 mile range
  – 150 MHz, 100KW, PRF 500hz,
    PW 3µs, accuracy 0.25°
• Backbone of the German
  early warning network
• Steerable tower 190’
• Operational 1942
• 150 built


    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Early Warning Radar Range




Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Himmelbelt
Local Air Defense
    Network


• Box ~30 x 20 miles
• Integrated network
  of radars, flak,
  fighters,
  searchlights




     Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Himmelbelt
                     Radar Order of Battle

• Freya
  – early warning radar
  – detect allied bombers
• Giant Wurzburg
  – Ground Controlled Intercept radar
  – direct fighters to bombers
  – fighters could then intercept with
    their on-board radar
• Lichtenstein BC & SN2
  – Airborne radar on German fighters




      Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Freya
                  Early Warning Radar
• 90 mile range
  – 150 MHz, 15KW, PRF 500hz,
    PW 3 µs, accuracy 1.5°
• Steerable and mobile
• Over 1000 deployed




    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Giant Wurzburg
            Ground Control Intercept Radar

• 45 mile range
  – 533-566mhz frequency
    agile, 10KW, PRF 1875hz,
    PW 2 µs
• GCI radar
• 25’ wide
• over 1,500 deployed




    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Himmelbett
                Air Battle Air Traffic Control
• Radars fed Himmelbett centers
• Operators worked from rows of
  seats in front of a huge screen
• Fighters would fly orbits around
  a radio beacon
   – fighter controller talked it to the
     vicinity of the target
• Fighters would turn on its radar,
  acquire the target, and attack




       Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Flak - Radar Controlled Anti Aircraft Guns

• 15,000 Flak Guns
  – 400,000 soldiers in flak batteries
• Radar-directed flak to 30,000’
  – 128mm: 10 shells/minute
  – 105mm: 15 rounds/minute
  – 88mm: 15-20 rounds/minute
• Fused for time
  – Fragmentation rounds                                            105 mm flak
                                      Flak: an abbreviation for Fliegerabwehrkanonen, german for anti-aircraft guns

  – No Proximity Fuses



    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Wurzburg
                       Anti-Aircraft Radar

• Fire control of flak batteries
• 15 mile range
   – 533-566 MHz frequency agile
   – 10KW, PRF 3750hz, PW 2us,
     Accuracy 25 meters
• 10 feet wide
• Steerable and Mobile
• ~ 5,000 deployed



      Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
German Night-Fighters
                     On-board Radar




• Directed to vicinity by ground radar
• Dornier Do 17, Junkers Ju 88,
  Messerschmitt Bf 110
• “Lichtenstein” B/C then SN2 Radar
   – Range 2.5 miles, 400mhz then 90mhz




      Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
German Day Fighters
               Vectored by Ground Radar



• Ground Control
  Intercept radar talked
  the fighters into visual
  range of the bombers
• Messerschmitt BF-109,
  Focke Wolf 190




     Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Not many clear days a month in winter
            over Europe

        How did they see the target?




Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Bombing Through Overcast
          Solution: Air to Ground Bombing Radar

• Radar aimed at the ground
   – Targets could be seen under
     clouds and rain
   – Outlines of major ground features
   – map overlays
• British in Mid 1943
   – H2S 300mhz
• Americans in late 1943
   – H2X / APS-15 3ghz
   – B-24 & P-38 Pathfinders
• Oops - Naxos


       Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Math Challenge

  For every 100 bombers on a mission
        4 - 20% would not return

Crews had to fly 25 mission to go home




Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Story 2: The Electronic Shield -
          Electronic Warfare




Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Harvard Radio Research Lab (RRL)
    Signals Intelligence and Electronic Warfare

• Reduce losses to fighters and flak
• Find/understand German Air Defense
  – Electronic and Signals Intelligence
• Jam/confuse German Air Defense
  – Radar Order of Battle
  – Chaff
  – Jammers
• Top Secret 800 person lab


     Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
ELINT – Electronic Intelligence
         The Line of Sight Problem




             You got to get close!

Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
ELINT using Ferret’s
        Find and understand German Air Defense

• Ferret’s and Crows
• B-24J flights inside Germany to
  intercept German radar signals
• Fitted with receivers & displays
• Wire and strip recorders
   – Frequency, pulse rate, power, etc.
   – 50 MHz to 3 GHz




       Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Window/Chaff
             Jam Wurzburg AAA & GCI Radar

• Strips of aluminum foil
   – 1/2 Wurzburg frequency
• 46,000 packets tossed out by hand
   – Each packet contained 2,000 strips
   – Automatic dispensers came later
• First used July 1943
   – Raid on Hamburg
   – Shut down German air defense
• Used 3/4’s of Aluminum Foil in the US



       Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Blind German Early Warning Radar
    Jam Wassermann, Mammoth and Freya

                                                                  MANDREL
• Put Jammers on Airplanes                                         Jammer

• Mandrel/APT-3
• DINA/APT-1
  – First on escort fighters
  – Later on bombers
  – 12 watts
                                                                   DINA
                                                                  Jammer




    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Shut down Flak & Ground Control Radar
                     Jam the Wurzburg’s


• “Carpet” AN/APT-2 Jammer
  – Confuse Wurzburg radar
  – Shut down flak
  – Shut down GCI
  – 5 Watts
• 24,000 built
  – On all bombers                              Carpet Jammer




     Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Shut down and Spoof Fighter Ground Control
     Jam Fighter/Ground VHF Radio Links
• quot;Tinsel”
  – Microphones in the engine nacelles of a bomber broadcast noise
• quot;Coronaquot;
  – German-speaking RAF personnel, broadcast fake controller instructions
• “Airborne Cigar”
  – Jammed VHF Nightfighter Ground Control Intercept comm
  – Flew in special ops Lancasters
• “Jostle IV”
  – Jammed VHF Ground Control Intercept comm
  – Took up the entire bomb bay of a B-17




       Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
British Jam German Night Fighter Radar

• Airborne Grocer
  – Jam Lichtenstein
    Night Fighter radar
• On all British bombers
• Monica
  – Tail warning system
  – Oops, German
    Flensburg


                                        MANDREL jamming equipment



     Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Electronic Warfare 1944/45

chaff
ELINT
GCI Jamming
Flak Jamming




        Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Who Ran this Secret Lab and became
     the Father of Electronic Warfare?

• Harvard Radio Research Lab
  – Separate from MIT's Radiation Laboratory
  – Ran all electronic warfare in WWII
  – 800 people
  – 1941-1944
• Director: Fredrick Terman - Stanford



 Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Fredrick Terman
       “the Father of Silicon Valley”


• Stanford Professor of engineering 1926
  – encouraged his students, William Hewlett
    and David Packard to start a company
• Dean of Engineering 1946
• Provost 1955



 Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Story 3: Spook Entrepreneurship




Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
WWII Office of Scientific Research and
        Development (OSRD)

• $450 million spent on weapons R&D
  – MIT $117 million
  – Caltech $83 million
  – Harvard and Columbia ~ $30 million
• Stanford ~ $50K




 Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Terman’s Postwar Strategy


• Focus on microwaves and electronics
  – Not going to be left out of gov’t $’s this time
• Recruits 11 former members of RRL as faculty
• Set up the Electronics Research Laboratory (ERL)
  – “Basic” and Unclassified Research
• First Office of Naval Research (ONR) contract 1946
• By 1950 Stanford was the MIT of the West



    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Korean War Changes the Game
        Spook Work Comes to Stanford

• Applied Electronics Laboratory (AEL)
  – “Applied” and Classified Military programs
  – Doubles the size of the electronics program
  – Separate from the unclassified Electronics
    Research Laboratory
  – Made the university, for the first time, a full
    partner in the military-industrial complex



Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
The Cold War and the “Black” Valley

• The Cold War battlefield
  moves 500 miles east
• Fear of a “nuclear Pearl
  Harbor”
• Countermeasures, Elint
  and Sigint, become critical
• Stanford becomes a center
  of excellence for the NSA,
  CIA, Navy, Air Force




      Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
The Cold War is an Electronic War

• Russian air defense modeled after Germans
  – add surface to air missiles, fighter radar, IFF
  – Understand and defeat (ELINT)
• Soviet strategic missile and bomber threat
  – Monitor telemetry (SIGINT) to understand performance
  – Photo reconnaissance to find silo’s and bombers
• Soviet Naval threat
  – Monitor and track soviet submarines
• Soviet Nuclear threat
  – Identify and understand production facilities

   Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Stanford Helps Understand the
         Electronic Order of Battle (EOB)

• Where are the Soviet radars?
  – Consumers; SAC, CIA.
• Details of the radars
  – NSA/CIA to contractors
• Periphery of Soviet Union
  known
• Interior terra incognito



     Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
Problem: Understand the Soviet
          Radar Order of Battle

Solution: A Fleet of ELINT Planes
• PB4Y2, P2V, C-97, RB-47, EC-121,C-130, EA-3B, RC-135
• Flew around periphery of Soviet bloc
• Joint NSA/CIA/Air Force
• Measured Soviet Air Defense
• Revealed low-altitude coverage was good
  – Changed SAC SIOP plan to go even lower




    Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
ELINT – The Line of Sight Problem
               You got to get close!




      You got to get them turned on!!

Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
The Cost: 23 ELINT Planes
 Date         Victim     Service   Aircraft            Pilot         Weapon
 8Apr50       PB4Y - 2     USN        La-11           B.Do k i n     23/37mm
 24Apr50       F-82       USA F      MiG-15          Keleinikov      23/37mm
  Apr50       F-51D       USA F      MiG-15           N.Guzhov       23/37mm
 May50        F-51D       USA F       La-11           Yefremov        20mm
11May50        B-24       USA F      MiG-15         I.Shinkarenko    23/37mm
 26Dec50      RB-29       USA F      MiG-15          S.Bhakae v      23/37mm
 6Nov51       P2V - 2      USN       MiG-15          M.Schukin       23/37mm
 13Jun52      RB-29       USA F      MiG-15          O.Fedot o v     23/37mm
 7Oct52       RB-29       USA F      MiG-15          Zheryakov       23/37mm
 7Oct52       RB-29       USA F      MiG-15            Lesnov        23/37mm
 29Jul53      RB-50       USA F      MiG-15          A.Ryba k o v    23/37mm
 4Sep54       P2V - 5      USN       MiG-15               ?          23/37mm
 7Nov54       RB-29       USA F      MiG-15            Kosti n       23/37mm
 17Apr55      RB-47H      USA F      MiG-15           Korot k o v    23/37mm
 22Jun55      P2V - 5      USN       MiG-15               ?          23/37mm
 10Sep5 6     RB-50       USA F      MiG-15               ?          23/37mm
 27Jun58       C-118      USA F     MiG-17 P        Sevetlichnikov   23/37mm
 2Sep58       C-130A      USA F      MiG-17          H.Gavrilo v     23/37mm
  1Jul60      RB-47       USA F     MiG-17 F         V.Polyakov      23/37mm
  1

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Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley

  • 1. Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley Steve Blank http://www.stanford.edu/dept/MSandE/people/teaching/blank/index.html http://www.haas.berkeley.edu/faculty/blank.html
  • 2. The Genesis of Silicon Valley Entrepreneurship Marc Andreessen Internet Steve Jobs Personal Computers Gordon Moore Integrated Circuits Innovation Networks Hewlett & Packard Defense 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 3. A few caveats • Not a professional historian • Some of this is probably wrong • All “secrets” are from open-source literature Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 4. Six Short Stories Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 5. Story 1: WWII The First Electronic War Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 6. Strategic Bombing of Germany The Combined Bomber Offensive • British bombed at Night – Area Bombing • Lancaster's • Halifax • Flew at 7 - 17 thousand feet • The American’s by Day – Precision Bombing • B-17’s • B-24’s • Flew at 15 - 25 thousand feet Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 7. British and American Air War in Europe 28,000 Active Combat Planes 40,000 planes lost or damaged beyond repair: 18,000 American and 22,000 British 79,265 Americans and 79,281 British killed Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 8. Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 9. The German Air Defense System The Kammhuber Line • Integrated Electronic air defense network – Covered France, the Low Countries, and into northern Germany • Protection from British/US bomber raids – Warn and Detect – Target and Aim – Destroy Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 10. Early Warning Radars in Occupied France Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 11. Mammoth Early Warning Radar • 200 mile range – 150 MHz, 200KW, PRF 500hz, PW 3µs, accuracy 0.5° • 100’ wide, 33’ high • 1st phased-array radar • Operational 1942 • 20 built Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 12. Wasserman Early Warning Radar • 150 mile range – 150 MHz, 100KW, PRF 500hz, PW 3µs, accuracy 0.25° • Backbone of the German early warning network • Steerable tower 190’ • Operational 1942 • 150 built Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 13. Early Warning Radar Range Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 14. Himmelbelt Local Air Defense Network • Box ~30 x 20 miles • Integrated network of radars, flak, fighters, searchlights Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 15. Himmelbelt Radar Order of Battle • Freya – early warning radar – detect allied bombers • Giant Wurzburg – Ground Controlled Intercept radar – direct fighters to bombers – fighters could then intercept with their on-board radar • Lichtenstein BC & SN2 – Airborne radar on German fighters Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 16. Freya Early Warning Radar • 90 mile range – 150 MHz, 15KW, PRF 500hz, PW 3 µs, accuracy 1.5° • Steerable and mobile • Over 1000 deployed Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 17. Giant Wurzburg Ground Control Intercept Radar • 45 mile range – 533-566mhz frequency agile, 10KW, PRF 1875hz, PW 2 µs • GCI radar • 25’ wide • over 1,500 deployed Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 18. Himmelbett Air Battle Air Traffic Control • Radars fed Himmelbett centers • Operators worked from rows of seats in front of a huge screen • Fighters would fly orbits around a radio beacon – fighter controller talked it to the vicinity of the target • Fighters would turn on its radar, acquire the target, and attack Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 19. Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 20. Flak - Radar Controlled Anti Aircraft Guns • 15,000 Flak Guns – 400,000 soldiers in flak batteries • Radar-directed flak to 30,000’ – 128mm: 10 shells/minute – 105mm: 15 rounds/minute – 88mm: 15-20 rounds/minute • Fused for time – Fragmentation rounds 105 mm flak Flak: an abbreviation for Fliegerabwehrkanonen, german for anti-aircraft guns – No Proximity Fuses Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 21. Wurzburg Anti-Aircraft Radar • Fire control of flak batteries • 15 mile range – 533-566 MHz frequency agile – 10KW, PRF 3750hz, PW 2us, Accuracy 25 meters • 10 feet wide • Steerable and Mobile • ~ 5,000 deployed Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 22. German Night-Fighters On-board Radar • Directed to vicinity by ground radar • Dornier Do 17, Junkers Ju 88, Messerschmitt Bf 110 • “Lichtenstein” B/C then SN2 Radar – Range 2.5 miles, 400mhz then 90mhz Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 23. Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 24. German Day Fighters Vectored by Ground Radar • Ground Control Intercept radar talked the fighters into visual range of the bombers • Messerschmitt BF-109, Focke Wolf 190 Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 25. Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 26. Not many clear days a month in winter over Europe How did they see the target? Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 27. Bombing Through Overcast Solution: Air to Ground Bombing Radar • Radar aimed at the ground – Targets could be seen under clouds and rain – Outlines of major ground features – map overlays • British in Mid 1943 – H2S 300mhz • Americans in late 1943 – H2X / APS-15 3ghz – B-24 & P-38 Pathfinders • Oops - Naxos Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 28. Math Challenge For every 100 bombers on a mission 4 - 20% would not return Crews had to fly 25 mission to go home Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 29. Story 2: The Electronic Shield - Electronic Warfare Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 30. Harvard Radio Research Lab (RRL) Signals Intelligence and Electronic Warfare • Reduce losses to fighters and flak • Find/understand German Air Defense – Electronic and Signals Intelligence • Jam/confuse German Air Defense – Radar Order of Battle – Chaff – Jammers • Top Secret 800 person lab Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 31. ELINT – Electronic Intelligence The Line of Sight Problem You got to get close! Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 32. ELINT using Ferret’s Find and understand German Air Defense • Ferret’s and Crows • B-24J flights inside Germany to intercept German radar signals • Fitted with receivers & displays • Wire and strip recorders – Frequency, pulse rate, power, etc. – 50 MHz to 3 GHz Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 33. Window/Chaff Jam Wurzburg AAA & GCI Radar • Strips of aluminum foil – 1/2 Wurzburg frequency • 46,000 packets tossed out by hand – Each packet contained 2,000 strips – Automatic dispensers came later • First used July 1943 – Raid on Hamburg – Shut down German air defense • Used 3/4’s of Aluminum Foil in the US Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 34. Blind German Early Warning Radar Jam Wassermann, Mammoth and Freya MANDREL • Put Jammers on Airplanes Jammer • Mandrel/APT-3 • DINA/APT-1 – First on escort fighters – Later on bombers – 12 watts DINA Jammer Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 35. Shut down Flak & Ground Control Radar Jam the Wurzburg’s • “Carpet” AN/APT-2 Jammer – Confuse Wurzburg radar – Shut down flak – Shut down GCI – 5 Watts • 24,000 built – On all bombers Carpet Jammer Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 36. Shut down and Spoof Fighter Ground Control Jam Fighter/Ground VHF Radio Links • quot;Tinsel” – Microphones in the engine nacelles of a bomber broadcast noise • quot;Coronaquot; – German-speaking RAF personnel, broadcast fake controller instructions • “Airborne Cigar” – Jammed VHF Nightfighter Ground Control Intercept comm – Flew in special ops Lancasters • “Jostle IV” – Jammed VHF Ground Control Intercept comm – Took up the entire bomb bay of a B-17 Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 37. British Jam German Night Fighter Radar • Airborne Grocer – Jam Lichtenstein Night Fighter radar • On all British bombers • Monica – Tail warning system – Oops, German Flensburg MANDREL jamming equipment Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 38. Electronic Warfare 1944/45 chaff ELINT GCI Jamming Flak Jamming Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 39. Who Ran this Secret Lab and became the Father of Electronic Warfare? • Harvard Radio Research Lab – Separate from MIT's Radiation Laboratory – Ran all electronic warfare in WWII – 800 people – 1941-1944 • Director: Fredrick Terman - Stanford Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 40. Fredrick Terman “the Father of Silicon Valley” • Stanford Professor of engineering 1926 – encouraged his students, William Hewlett and David Packard to start a company • Dean of Engineering 1946 • Provost 1955 Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 41. Story 3: Spook Entrepreneurship Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 42. WWII Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) • $450 million spent on weapons R&D – MIT $117 million – Caltech $83 million – Harvard and Columbia ~ $30 million • Stanford ~ $50K Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 43. Terman’s Postwar Strategy • Focus on microwaves and electronics – Not going to be left out of gov’t $’s this time • Recruits 11 former members of RRL as faculty • Set up the Electronics Research Laboratory (ERL) – “Basic” and Unclassified Research • First Office of Naval Research (ONR) contract 1946 • By 1950 Stanford was the MIT of the West Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 44. Korean War Changes the Game Spook Work Comes to Stanford • Applied Electronics Laboratory (AEL) – “Applied” and Classified Military programs – Doubles the size of the electronics program – Separate from the unclassified Electronics Research Laboratory – Made the university, for the first time, a full partner in the military-industrial complex Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 45. The Cold War and the “Black” Valley • The Cold War battlefield moves 500 miles east • Fear of a “nuclear Pearl Harbor” • Countermeasures, Elint and Sigint, become critical • Stanford becomes a center of excellence for the NSA, CIA, Navy, Air Force Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 46. The Cold War is an Electronic War • Russian air defense modeled after Germans – add surface to air missiles, fighter radar, IFF – Understand and defeat (ELINT) • Soviet strategic missile and bomber threat – Monitor telemetry (SIGINT) to understand performance – Photo reconnaissance to find silo’s and bombers • Soviet Naval threat – Monitor and track soviet submarines • Soviet Nuclear threat – Identify and understand production facilities Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 47. Stanford Helps Understand the Electronic Order of Battle (EOB) • Where are the Soviet radars? – Consumers; SAC, CIA. • Details of the radars – NSA/CIA to contractors • Periphery of Soviet Union known • Interior terra incognito Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 48. Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 49. Problem: Understand the Soviet Radar Order of Battle Solution: A Fleet of ELINT Planes • PB4Y2, P2V, C-97, RB-47, EC-121,C-130, EA-3B, RC-135 • Flew around periphery of Soviet bloc • Joint NSA/CIA/Air Force • Measured Soviet Air Defense • Revealed low-altitude coverage was good – Changed SAC SIOP plan to go even lower Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 50. ELINT – The Line of Sight Problem You got to get close! You got to get them turned on!! Hidden in Plain Sight: The Secret History of Silicon Valley
  • 51. The Cost: 23 ELINT Planes Date Victim Service Aircraft Pilot Weapon 8Apr50 PB4Y - 2 USN La-11 B.Do k i n 23/37mm 24Apr50 F-82 USA F MiG-15 Keleinikov 23/37mm Apr50 F-51D USA F MiG-15 N.Guzhov 23/37mm May50 F-51D USA F La-11 Yefremov 20mm 11May50 B-24 USA F MiG-15 I.Shinkarenko 23/37mm 26Dec50 RB-29 USA F MiG-15 S.Bhakae v 23/37mm 6Nov51 P2V - 2 USN MiG-15 M.Schukin 23/37mm 13Jun52 RB-29 USA F MiG-15 O.Fedot o v 23/37mm 7Oct52 RB-29 USA F MiG-15 Zheryakov 23/37mm 7Oct52 RB-29 USA F MiG-15 Lesnov 23/37mm 29Jul53 RB-50 USA F MiG-15 A.Ryba k o v 23/37mm 4Sep54 P2V - 5 USN MiG-15 ? 23/37mm 7Nov54 RB-29 USA F MiG-15 Kosti n 23/37mm 17Apr55 RB-47H USA F MiG-15 Korot k o v 23/37mm 22Jun55 P2V - 5 USN MiG-15 ? 23/37mm 10Sep5 6 RB-50 USA F MiG-15 ? 23/37mm 27Jun58 C-118 USA F MiG-17 P Sevetlichnikov 23/37mm 2Sep58 C-130A USA F MiG-17 H.Gavrilo v 23/37mm 1Jul60 RB-47 USA F MiG-17 F V.Polyakov 23/37mm 1