Genichi Taguchi – was born on 1st jan 1924 in Tokamachi ,Japan. Is an engineer and statistician. Developed a methodology for applying statistics to improve the quality of manufactured goods. Taguchi argued that the customer is not bothered about a product having a variable just within or just outside the specification limit.
Taguchi proposed that the design of the product should be robust enough so that the any variation in the environment do not affect the performance of the product .
Joseph Juran made contribution in the field of quality management. Juran developed a quality trilogy Trilogy – quality planning , quality control , quality improvement .1.Quality planning – it includes, Identify the customers. Determined customer needs.
Translate the Needs Develop product, process2. Quality control – it includes Evaluate Actual Quality Compare actual with standard Take corrective actions3. Quality Improvement – The organized creation of beneficial change .
Definition as per Industrial dispute act 1947‘Industry’ means any systematic activity carried on by cooperation between an employer and his workmen for the production , supply or distribution of goods or services with a view to satisfy human wants or wishes whether or not any capital has been invested , such activity is carried on with motive to make any profit.
1. Primary industry- natural Resources, Mining, raw material .2. Secondary industry – oil refinery , fish processed , tree- timber .3. Tertiary industry – service industry – Teaching, nursing, police force, transport.4. Quaternary industry / R&D industry – designing new satellite , computers.
Private Enterprises Co operative Enterprises Public sector Enterprises
Individual Ownership – individual entrepreneur supplies entire capital , organizes and manages the business by him self. Partnership b9usiness – is owned by two or more persons (up to 20)who share powers, responsibilities and profits amongst themselves.
Joint stock company – the joint stock company is legal business owned by the shareholders having limited liability and manage by elected Board of Directors .Private limited company – can be formed by minimum 2 and max 50 members . - under companies act 1956. - shares is limited to members only not for general public.Public limited company – membership is open to general public , the minimum 7 and there is no upper limit
Definition - A voluntary organization of persons with unrestricted membership and collectively own funds consisting of wage earners and small producers united on democratic basis for the establishment of enterprises under joint management for the purpose of improving their household . Mini 10
1. Producers cooperative society –2. Consumer cooperative society –3. Housing cooperative society –4. Cooperative credit society –
Government undertakings- Railways , post etc.Public corporations – mini 7 member Air India , oil & natural gas ,Motive – no profit its only sake of social welfare
Project - it deals with products that are tailored to the unique requirements of each customer , satellite launching / making a satellite. Jobbing – job ,are description given to the organization where by complete task is handle by single worker or group of workers., hairdresser, tailor.
Batch production – electronic instruments , Use specialized skills Possibility of high equipment utilization Work completed slowly Difficult to organize Flow production – task is worked on continuously . Types – mass production – automobiles plant,
Process production –crude oil -> gas, petrol , diesel.