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Placement of additional drip lines
to enhance soil fumigation and
irrigation efficiency and minimize
environmental impacts...
Collaborators:
• Dole (Watsonville), Manzanita Berry Farms (Santa
Maria), and Ito Bros. (Oxnard), and Solimar Farms
(Camar...
California strawberries
• $ 2.6 billion annual value in California (~90% of US)
• #6 crop in California
• Neighbors: urban...
Two problems: lack of water and soil pathogens
Macrophomina
phaseolina
Fusarium
oxysporum
Using drought tolerant plants
Taking
shower with friends
Harvesting rainwater
From United Water CD report:
Water Pumping through pipeline, Ventura County, CA
Why are sprinklers used instead of drip?
Used for other purposes: wet
soil before bed shaping,
‘settling furrows and beds’...
Placement of drip: Deliver water to roots
and move salts away
VS
X XX
X X X
6 in
12 in
F. oxysporum inoculum buried in beds prior to fumigation
Drip lines
Effect of location on F. oxysporum survival
Sporespergramofsoil
Beds fumigated with 200 lbs/a PicClor-60
6” depth
12” depth
2013-14 NSSI project
Oxnard and Camarillo
Santa Maria
Watsonville
Drip Fumigation
• Camarillo (200 lbs /A InLine): native Fusarium
oxysporum in soil: no symptoms in plants
observed as of M...
Oxnard: irrigation affecting plant
mortality due to F. oxysporum
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
7-Apr
8-Apr
9-Apr
10-Apr...
Oxnard, CA, Oct 28, 2014
What was % of plant establishment?
98.45 surface drip, 98.6 buried drip and 98.3%
in sprinkler ir...
0.00 bulk mS/cm
0.20 bulk mS/cm
0.40 bulk mS/cm
0.60 bulk mS/cm
0.80 bulk mS/cm
1.00 bulk mS/cm
1.20 bulk mS/cm
1.40 bulk ...
4 drip surface 4 drip buried Sprinkler, then 3 drip
chloride 0.64 meq/L 0.79 meq/L 2.74 meq/L
sodium 5.89 meq/L 7.09 meq/L...
Buried 4 lines = Sprinkler
Surface 4 lines
(22% smaller)
Nov 26, 2014 canopy size
Plant dry biomass, Dec 12
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Surface 4 drips Buried 4 drips Sprinkler
g/plant
Dry biomass of new leaves
0
0.2...
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
16-Jan 23-Jan 30-Jan 6-Feb 13-Feb 20-Feb 27-Feb 6-Mar 13-Mar 20-Mar 27-Mar
g/20plamts
Marke...
Water use/acre by Nov 12 (before
removal of sprinklers):
• 4-DRIP block: 11, 200 gal (by drip) + 4, 060 gal
(2 sprinkler r...
Sprinklers for cooling plants
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 2 4 6
oC
minutes after end of overhead irrigation
Temperature
Air Leaf
...
Santa Maria and Watsonville
• 20-30% water savings (reduced sprinkler + 4
drips vs standard sprinkler)
• Similar among tre...
Outreach so far:
• 3 field days (14 speakers) and 2 meetings (380
participants),
• >30 individual contacts with growers an...
Prácticas Agrícolas para
Proteger la Calidad del Agua
Grower responses:
• “improved fumigant distribution/wetting pattern in 4-
drip beds” (Solimar Farms)
• “next year plan is ...
Placement of Additional Drip Lines to Enhance Soil Fumigation and Irrigation Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Impacts
Placement of Additional Drip Lines to Enhance Soil Fumigation and Irrigation Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Impacts
Placement of Additional Drip Lines to Enhance Soil Fumigation and Irrigation Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Impacts
Placement of Additional Drip Lines to Enhance Soil Fumigation and Irrigation Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Impacts
Placement of Additional Drip Lines to Enhance Soil Fumigation and Irrigation Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Impacts
Placement of Additional Drip Lines to Enhance Soil Fumigation and Irrigation Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Impacts
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Placement of Additional Drip Lines to Enhance Soil Fumigation and Irrigation Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Impacts

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2014 National Sustainable Strawberry Initiative Project Leader Meeting

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Placement of Additional Drip Lines to Enhance Soil Fumigation and Irrigation Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Impacts

  1. 1. Placement of additional drip lines to enhance soil fumigation and irrigation efficiency and minimize environmental impacts Oleg Daugovish, Ben Faber, Surendra Dara, Mike Cahn, Steve Koike and Husein Ajwa (Univ. of California Cooperative Extension farm advisors and specialist)
  2. 2. Collaborators: • Dole (Watsonville), Manzanita Berry Farms (Santa Maria), and Ito Bros. (Oxnard), and Solimar Farms (Camarillo) • California Strawberry Commission • Farm Bureau, Resource Conservation Districts, Natural Resource Conservation Service, United Water and other stakeholders
  3. 3. California strawberries • $ 2.6 billion annual value in California (~90% of US) • #6 crop in California • Neighbors: urban and natural environments
  4. 4. Two problems: lack of water and soil pathogens Macrophomina phaseolina Fusarium oxysporum
  5. 5. Using drought tolerant plants Taking shower with friends Harvesting rainwater
  6. 6. From United Water CD report: Water Pumping through pipeline, Ventura County, CA
  7. 7. Why are sprinklers used instead of drip? Used for other purposes: wet soil before bed shaping, ‘settling furrows and beds’, frost protection, fast plant hydration during hot wind conditions Used for fumigation and fertigation only Water delivered into planting holes from the top aids in leaching salts Water delivered at drip burial depth, salts above drip not leached Immediate plant-water contact aids secondary root development Risk of plants ‘drying out’ SPRINKLERS DRIP
  8. 8. Placement of drip: Deliver water to roots and move salts away VS
  9. 9. X XX X X X 6 in 12 in F. oxysporum inoculum buried in beds prior to fumigation Drip lines
  10. 10. Effect of location on F. oxysporum survival Sporespergramofsoil Beds fumigated with 200 lbs/a PicClor-60 6” depth 12” depth
  11. 11. 2013-14 NSSI project Oxnard and Camarillo Santa Maria Watsonville
  12. 12. Drip Fumigation • Camarillo (200 lbs /A InLine): native Fusarium oxysporum in soil: no symptoms in plants observed as of May 15 • Watsonville (300 lbs /A Piclor 60): buried inoculum – no survivorship in 2 or 4 lines per bed at 2 depth for both M. phaseolina and F. oxysporum • Oxnard: did not fumigate with 4 lines but irrigated with 4 or 3 in season
  13. 13. Oxnard: irrigation affecting plant mortality due to F. oxysporum 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 7-Apr 8-Apr 9-Apr 10-Apr 11-Apr 12-Apr 13-Apr 14-Apr 15-Apr 16-Apr 17-Apr 18-Apr 19-Apr 20-Apr 21-Apr 22-Apr 23-Apr 24-Apr 25-Apr 26-Apr 27-Apr 28-Apr 29-Apr 30-Apr 1-May #dead/1200plants Surface 4 drips-only Buried 4 drips- only Sprinkler, then 3 drips
  14. 14. Oxnard, CA, Oct 28, 2014 What was % of plant establishment? 98.45 surface drip, 98.6 buried drip and 98.3% in sprinkler irrigation
  15. 15. 0.00 bulk mS/cm 0.20 bulk mS/cm 0.40 bulk mS/cm 0.60 bulk mS/cm 0.80 bulk mS/cm 1.00 bulk mS/cm 1.20 bulk mS/cm 1.40 bulk mS/cm 21-Oct 28-Oct 4-Nov 11-Nov 18-Nov 25-Nov 2-Dec 9-Dec 16-Dec 23-Dec 30-Dec 6-Jan 13-Jan 20-Jan 27-Jan 3-Feb EC in root zone, bulk soil sprinkler, then 3 tapes 4 tapes surface or buried 0.000 m³/m³ 0.050 m³/m³ 0.100 m³/m³ 0.150 m³/m³ 0.200 m³/m³ 0.250 m³/m³ 0.300 m³/m³ 0.350 m³/m³ 21-Oct 28-Oct 4-Nov 11-Nov 18-Nov 25-Nov 2-Dec 9-Dec 16-Dec 23-Dec 30-Dec 6-Jan 13-Jan 20-Jan 27-Jan 3-Feb Volumetric moisture in root zone avg buried drip avg surface drip avg overhead Establishment period
  16. 16. 4 drip surface 4 drip buried Sprinkler, then 3 drip chloride 0.64 meq/L 0.79 meq/L 2.74 meq/L sodium 5.89 meq/L 7.09 meq/L 9.97 meq/L EC sat paste 3.66 dS/m 4.21 dS/m 3.99 dS/m sulfate 39.2 meq/L 36.3 meq/L 45.2 meq/L 4 drip surface 4 drip buried Sprinkler, then 3 drip Nitrate -N 931 ppm 668 ppm 905 ppm Phosphate -P 2030 ppm 2040 ppm 2450 ppm Zinc 21.9 ppm 24.1ppm 27.7 ppm Manganese 76 ppm 109 ppm 174 ppm Soil Analyses 0-6 “ Nov 19 No differences in Ca, Mg, K or B, slightly heavier soil in sprinkler block No differences in Ca, Mg, K, Fe, or Na slightly heavier soil in sprinkler block Plant Tissue Analyses, Feb 18
  17. 17. Buried 4 lines = Sprinkler Surface 4 lines (22% smaller) Nov 26, 2014 canopy size
  18. 18. Plant dry biomass, Dec 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Surface 4 drips Buried 4 drips Sprinkler g/plant Dry biomass of new leaves 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Surface 4 drips Buried 4 drips Sprinkler g/plant Dry biomass of new roots 0 5 10 15 Surface 4 drips Buried 4 drips Sprinkler g/plant Dry biomass of old crowns
  19. 19. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 16-Jan 23-Jan 30-Jan 6-Feb 13-Feb 20-Feb 27-Feb 6-Mar 13-Mar 20-Mar 27-Mar g/20plamts Marketable fruit yield- Oxnard Surface 4 drips-only Buried 4 drips- only Sprinkler, then 3 drips total by Apr 1 9,622 10,548 8,696
  20. 20. Water use/acre by Nov 12 (before removal of sprinklers): • 4-DRIP block: 11, 200 gal (by drip) + 4, 060 gal (2 sprinkler runs during Santa Ana conditions, 1st week of Nov) = 15,260 gal • SPRINKLER block: 47, 250 gal (collected by cans)
  21. 21. Sprinklers for cooling plants 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 2 4 6 oC minutes after end of overhead irrigation Temperature Air Leaf End of sprinkler irrigation
  22. 22. Santa Maria and Watsonville • 20-30% water savings (reduced sprinkler + 4 drips vs standard sprinkler) • Similar among treatments: plant performance, soil water and salt parameters
  23. 23. Outreach so far: • 3 field days (14 speakers) and 2 meetings (380 participants), • >30 individual contacts with growers and industry stakeholders • Electronic: web site and blog >6000 hits/month • Ventura County Star: 2 publications, reached >0.5 mln people (paper and on-line) • Video on UCCE –Ventura web site (loaded May 25th) • Doubling number of tapes included in UC water quality BMP guidelines publication (bi-lingual)
  24. 24. Prácticas Agrícolas para Proteger la Calidad del Agua
  25. 25. Grower responses: • “improved fumigant distribution/wetting pattern in 4- drip beds” (Solimar Farms) • “next year plan is to increase area with 4-drip use for establishment at least 10 times” (Ito Bros.) • Dole: “doubling drip tape is becoming increasingly common in Central Coast” and “will help South Coats grower with salts management” • Manzanita Berry Farms: “ 4 tapes and reduced sprinkler use” is a standard. • Driscoll’s: Additional drip tapes and micro-sprinkler used for grower demonstrations to save water and minimize runoff (first time in summer strawberry)

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