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Improving Fumigant Efficiency and
Reducing Fumigant Emission in
Plastic Mulched Raised-Bed
Systems for Strawberry Producti...
Raised-bed strawberry production
• California strawberries are grown mainly in raised-bed
systems tarped with standard pol...
Pest problems of strawberry production
• Increasing number of
pathogen-infested fields
and areas.
• Weed problem.
• Diffic...
Plastic film
• Traditional tarp:
– Polyethylene tarp (PE)
• Low permeable tarp:
– Virtually Impermeable Film (VIF)
– Total...
Fumigation in raised-beds
• Can totally impermeable film (TIF) covering and/or deep
application improve fumigant distribut...
Objective
Develop effective fumigation strategies that increase
fumigation efficiency, sustain strawberry production,
and ...
Field trial
 Time: August 16-30, 2013
 Location: Strawberry field in Camarillo (coastal area of
Southern CA)
 Soil: San...
Field set-up
Setting up beds
Fertilization
Firming beds
Installing drip tape
Two drip tapes
Four drip tapes
Treatments
1) Two shallow drip lines - non-fumigation under TIF
2) Two shallow drip lines - full rate under TIF
3) Two sha...
Drip fumigation
• Fumigant: Pic-Clor 60 EC (a mixture
of 56.7% CP, 37.1% 1,3-D, and 6.2%
inert ingredients).
• Full rate: ...
Measurement during fumigation
• Emission (passive chamber): Full rate TIF treatments
(bed and furrow).
• Soil gas sampling...
Fumigant emission
• Deep- vs. shallow-application:
Averaged fumigant concentration under film
Fumigant distribution in soil
Fumigant concentration time exposure index
(g cm-3 h-1)
Pest control
• Fusarium was detected
in 3 non-fumigated beds,
especially at the bed-
center.
• All the fumigation
treatmen...
Strawberry transplantation
• One month after
fumigation.
• Early flowering strawberry
variety, San Andreas
(Lassen Canyon ...
No difference was found on plant growth
among TIF treatment during the early
growth stage.
Plant cover on bed
Canopy size
...
Marketable berry yields
during 8 harvest from
January 30 to March 18
were slightly higher in
deep fumigation
treatments.
*...
Sumarry
• Low emissions occurred from the TIF mulched
raised-bed systems.
• TIF retained fumigants more effectively than P...
Outreach activities
• Regular communication with the cooperating growers, the principle
stakeholders (e.g., California Str...
Acknowledgment
• This project is funded by a grant from the Walmart
Foundation and administered by the University of
Arkan...
Thank you
• Ruijun (Ray) QIN
• University of California-Davis/
USDA-ARS
• 9611 S. Riverbend Ave., Parlier,
CA 93648
• Tel:...
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Improving Fumigant Efficiency and Reducing Fumigant Emissions in Plastic Mulch Raided-Bed Systems for Strawberry Production

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2014 National Sustainable Strawberry Initiative Project Leader Meeting

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Improving Fumigant Efficiency and Reducing Fumigant Emissions in Plastic Mulch Raided-Bed Systems for Strawberry Production

  1. 1. Improving Fumigant Efficiency and Reducing Fumigant Emission in Plastic Mulched Raised-Bed Systems for Strawberry Production Ruijun Qin, Oleg Daugovish, Suduan Gao, Brad Hanson, James Gerik and Husein Ajwa
  2. 2. Raised-bed strawberry production • California strawberries are grown mainly in raised-bed systems tarped with standard polyethylene film (PE). • Over 55% of strawberry fields are treated with fumigants applied through drip irrigation lines buried near the bed surface prior to planting. • Soil fumigation is an important tool in controlling soil- borne pathogens, nematodes, and weeds. • Use of fumigants are highly regulated by governmental agencies because of fumigant emissions.
  3. 3. Pest problems of strawberry production • Increasing number of pathogen-infested fields and areas. • Weed problem. • Difficulty in controlling pests at bed-center or shoulder.
  4. 4. Plastic film • Traditional tarp: – Polyethylene tarp (PE) • Low permeable tarp: – Virtually Impermeable Film (VIF) – Totally Impermeable Film (TIF) • Tarp permeability: – PE > VIF > TIF VIF TIF
  5. 5. Fumigation in raised-beds • Can totally impermeable film (TIF) covering and/or deep application improve fumigant distribution, fumigation efficacy, and reduce fumigant emission? • Will the emission from the uncovered furrow be a concern? If true, can water seal control the emissions from furrow. 2 in 7 in Drip lines
  6. 6. Objective Develop effective fumigation strategies that increase fumigation efficiency, sustain strawberry production, and reduce environmental pollution by TIF covering and deep drip-fumigation in raised-beds of the coastal regions.
  7. 7. Field trial  Time: August 16-30, 2013  Location: Strawberry field in Camarillo (coastal area of Southern CA)  Soil: Sandy loam  Bed dimension: 47 inch W, 14 inch H.  Bed center-center: 69 inch.
  8. 8. Field set-up Setting up beds Fertilization Firming beds Installing drip tape Two drip tapes Four drip tapes
  9. 9. Treatments 1) Two shallow drip lines - non-fumigation under TIF 2) Two shallow drip lines - full rate under TIF 3) Two shallow drip lines - 1/2 rate under TIF 4) Four drip lines (2 shallow & 2 deep) - full rate under TIF 5) Four drip lines (2 shallow & 2 deep) - 1/2 rate under TIF 6) Two shallow drip lines – full rate under PE * Deep drip lines at 7 inch deep spaced 27 inch in apart beneath shallow drip lines installed at 2 inch deep. ** 24 tarped beds including 6 treatments and 4 replicates. ** PE plots and TIF plots are not at same location.
  10. 10. Drip fumigation • Fumigant: Pic-Clor 60 EC (a mixture of 56.7% CP, 37.1% 1,3-D, and 6.2% inert ingredients). • Full rate: 25 gallon/ac (300 lbs/ac). • Application: On August 16 over a 4-h period. • Flushing and water seal. Surface two drip tape Four drip lines
  11. 11. Measurement during fumigation • Emission (passive chamber): Full rate TIF treatments (bed and furrow). • Soil gas sampling. • Fumigant concentration under tarp. • Residual fumigant at the end of trial. • Pathogen survival.
  12. 12. Fumigant emission • Deep- vs. shallow-application:
  13. 13. Averaged fumigant concentration under film
  14. 14. Fumigant distribution in soil
  15. 15. Fumigant concentration time exposure index (g cm-3 h-1)
  16. 16. Pest control • Fusarium was detected in 3 non-fumigated beds, especially at the bed- center. • All the fumigation treatments provided 100% control on fusarium, both at bed- center or near bed edge.
  17. 17. Strawberry transplantation • One month after fumigation. • Early flowering strawberry variety, San Andreas (Lassen Canyon Nursery, CA). • The planting intensity: 25,000 plants/ac. • 4 rows of plants/bed. • Irrigation and fertilization was applied regularly to promote plant growth.
  18. 18. No difference was found on plant growth among TIF treatment during the early growth stage. Plant cover on bed Canopy size Leaf greenness Stomatal conductance 11/27/2013 1/24/2014 5/2/2014
  19. 19. Marketable berry yields during 8 harvest from January 30 to March 18 were slightly higher in deep fumigation treatments. * The measurement was on 20 plants per beds.
  20. 20. Sumarry • Low emissions occurred from the TIF mulched raised-bed systems. • TIF retained fumigants more effectively than PE; half- rate fumigant under TIF may achieve same pest control result as full rate fumigant under PE. • Deep application provided better emission control and contributed to more uniform fumigant distribution than shallow application. • Data on pest control, plant growth, and berry yield further suggest that deep fumigation and TIF covering will be the optimized fumigation technology in raised-bed production systems.
  21. 21. Outreach activities • Regular communication with the cooperating growers, the principle stakeholders (e.g., California Strawberry Commission, Trical, Inc.). • Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions on November 4-6, 2013 in San Diego, CA. • Organic Strawberry Workshop on January 21, 2014 in Tennessee State University. • California Plant & Soil Conference on February 4-5, 2014, in Fresno, CA. • Field day entitled “Water management in strawberry” on March 26, 2014 in Ventura, CA. • Central Coast California Association of Pest Control Advisers (CAPCA) Chapter’s Spring CE Meeting on May 1, 2014, at Santa Maria, CA. • Ventura CAPCA members meeting on June 11, 2014, San Paula, CA. • American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference on July 27-August 1, in Orlando, FL. • ASA, CSSA & SSSA International Annual Meetings on November 2-5, 2014 in Long beach, CA
  22. 22. Acknowledgment • This project is funded by a grant from the Walmart Foundation and administered by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability. • Cooperating growers, Steve Imoto, Glen Imoto, and their field crew providing the tested field, field equipment, and field preparation. • Crop Production Service (CPS) provided fumigation service. • Technical assistance was provided by Water Management Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Parlier, CA and the Department of Plant Sciences, UC Davis.
  23. 23. Thank you • Ruijun (Ray) QIN • University of California-Davis/ USDA-ARS • 9611 S. Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648 • Tel: 559-596-2904 • Cell: 559-905-9286 • Email: ruijun.qin@ars.usda.gov

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