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AAMUG Color Mgt Mar2010

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Introduction to color theory, or Why Your Printer is Jealous of Your Monitor

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AAMUG Color Mgt Mar2010

  1. 1. Or “Why Your InkJet Printer is Jealous of Your Monitor” Steven Bernstein
  2. 3. <ul><ul><li>Why is the Monitor so happy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And why the printer is so sad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t we all just get along? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we level the playing field? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we predict the output? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And they all lived happily ever after… sort of. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><ul><li>Monitor = RGB = Additive = Millions of colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer = CMYK = Subtractive = Only thousands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow, workflow, workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographers, set your white balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers, know your rendering intent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile the monitor & linearize the printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to create predictable results = Priceless </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><ul><li>Millions of Colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backlit looks good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additive Color Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May actually display more color than you can see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks stylish when showing off family photos </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><ul><li>CMYK = Thousands of colors, not Millions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtractive Color Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires proper lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper ink and paper may be expensive </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><ul><li>Additive = All colors equal white = Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtractive = All colors equal ‘black’ = Printers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><ul><li>Additive refers to color that is generate by mixing together colored light to generate a final color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Televisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portable devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as RGB based on the red, green and blue colors used to generate the colors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All colors together equals White </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><ul><li>Subtractive color is used by mixing together dyes that prevent reflection of light that then produce a color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All printed media </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photos, magazines and books. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as CMYK based on the cyan, magenta, yellow and black colors used. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All colors together make Black </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><ul><li>The Gamut refers to the various levels of colors that can potentially be displayed by a device. </li></ul></ul>The 1931 model of the visual spectrum. The Yellow triangle shows what TV can reproduce. The black triangle is what sRGB can reproduce.
  10. 11. <ul><ul><li>Gamut – a range of colors achievable on a given color reproduction medium [...] under a given set of viewing conditions </li></ul></ul>Here’s the 1975 version showing the amount of colors different light sources can reproduce. Ever wonder why some monitors cost more than others?
  11. 12. <ul><ul><li>Lab color space is a color-opponent space with dimension L for lightness and a and b for the color-opponent dimensions, based on nonlinearly-compressed CIE XYZ color space coordinates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The real power of Lab is that tones and colors are held separately  - you can adjust one without upsetting the other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The LAB color space is also the only &quot;device independent&quot; color space in Photoshop and the only one representing the way the human eye sees color. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><ul><li>Lab Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L= Lightness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a and b = coordinates of colors in a 3-D ‘space’ represent. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tones and Colors are separate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible to adjust one without upsetting the other. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only &quot;device independent&quot; color space in Photoshop and represents the way the human eye sees color. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. So how do we get an idea of what will print versus what is being shown on the monitor? Enter the concept of using ICC Profiles to linearize devices.
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>For Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to help produce the most colors or widest gamut possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to ensure accurate color representation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras and scanners, too (input devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That’s what the Custom White Balance is for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are these profiles made? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><ul><li>ICC Profiles are files containing information about the color characteristics of input, display, and output devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have the profiles for a source device and a destination device? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can convert from source device colors to destination colors on the screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is known as Soft Proofing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><ul><li>For Printing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency = Density of ink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calibration = Linearization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterization = Building a device profile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion = the ICC Profile in action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still curious? Down the rabbit hole… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.color.org/ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><ul><li>Buy a monitor calibrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example – The i1 LT from X-Rite (GretagMacbeth) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The device is the same as the more expensive package </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The difference is the software… So… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenSource may help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://sourceforge.net/projects/lprof/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.littlecms.com/ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><ul><li>A Wealth of Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Papers (substrates) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Inks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting for viewing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Calibration of the input devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom line: Check to see if the Device Manufacturer or Place of business offers color profiles! </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Gamut Mapping is what linearization is good for. It’s a way to compensate for differences between the colors in the original image and the ability of a printer to reproduce them.
  20. 22. Soft Proofing uses an simulates what the image might look like coming out of a color inkjet printer.
  21. 23. <ul><ul><li>Monitor = RGB = Additive = Millions of colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer = CMYK = Subtractive = Only thousands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow, workflow, workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographers, set your white balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers, know your rendering intent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile the monitor & linearize the printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to create predictable results = Priceless </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><ul><li>Why is the Monitor so happy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And why the printer is so sad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t we all just get along? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we level the playing field? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we predict the output? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And they all lived happily ever after… sort of. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><ul><li>LCD Monitors and Color Gamuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://compreviews.about.com/od/monitors/a/LCDColorGamut.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RGB Color Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGB_color_space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft Proofing Example and Color Gamut Mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://blogs.mathworks.com/steve/2008/12/24/soft-proofing-example/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://blogs.mathworks.com/steve/2008/11/19/color-gamut-mapping/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important Information About RGB and CMYK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://www.printingforless.com/rgb-cmyk.html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About.com: Desktop Publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://desktoppub.about.com/cs/basic/g/cmyk.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia: Lab Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIELAB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer Profiling- Matching What You See To What You Get </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://www.signindustry.com/outdoor/articles/2004-07-29-GIA-PrinterProfiling.php3 </li></ul></ul></ul>

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