Physical science review final 2014


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Physical science review final 2014

  1. 1. Name: ______________________________ Class:_________ Fully completing this review should give you an adequate guide to the topics covered by the midterm exam. It will not provide you the answers – it will provide you with guidance for studying and taking the exam. Most topics included in the exam are represented here. Some topics on the exam may not be. Scientific Method and Metrics 1. What is a measurement system? 2. What is the saying that helps remember the “metric staircase? What are the parts they represent and what do they mean? 3. Convert 2567g into both mg and kg 4. Calculate the area of one side of this square, and the volume of the entire square. Be sure to label your units properly to indicate area and volume: 3cm 3cm 3cm 5. What is special about water in terms of milliliters (mL), grams (g), and cubic centimeters (cc or cm3)? 6. What is the density of water? At what temperature is it at its maximum density 7. Name two ways you can calculate volume 8. Calculate the density of a piece of concrete that is 5 m x 2 m x 1 m that weighs 750 kg 9. What happens if something is less dense than the substance it is contained in? 10. What is a hypothesis? 11. In an experiment, what is a control? 12. In an experiment, what is a constant? 13. In an experiment, what is a variable? 14. What makes for a good experimental design? Thermodynamics 15. What would you expect to see happen to the size of a piece of steel if you heated it? Why does this happen? 16. What is the difference between heat and temperature? 17. Describe how and why thermal energy flows between objects and what helps/prevents its flow.
  2. 2. 18. Describe three ways by which energy flows between objects. 19. State the three laws of thermodynamics. 20.What is absolute zero and why is it important? What scale is it measured in? 21. What are calories – how about Calories? 22.What are the five states of matter and how do the particles behave at each state? 23.What are physical changes? What are chemical changes? How can you tell the difference? 24. Label the following diagram of state changes and states of matter: 25. Which state of matter is in each beaker? 26.What are the melting/freezing and boiling points of water in the Celsius scale? Atoms and the Periodic Table 27.What is the history of the atomic model? 28. Label all the parts of the atom and their charges: +
  3. 3. 29.What are Ions and Isotopes. What causes them? 30. How could you identify a metals, nonmetal, or metalloid from the periodic table? 31. What are some of the other “special” groups of the periodic table? 32.What are valence electrons and where are they located? Use the following figure for questions 33-44 Kr 33.What do the dots represent on this figure? 34.Without looking at the periodic table, what group is it in? 35.What other elements might have similar properties? 36.How many valence electrons does this element have? 37.How many protons does this element have? 38.How many total electrons does this element have? 39.How many neutrons does this element have? 40.What part of the atom determines the element’s properties? 41. What part of this atom contributes mostly to its mass? 42. What family is it in? 43.What period is it in? 44.Is this element a metal or non-metal? 45.Name one Halogen 46. Name one noble gas 47. Is the following element “happy?” Why? 48.Why is Hydrogen placed where it is in Group 1? 49.What happens when electrons jump between energy levels when excited by a burst of energy? Cl Bonding and Reactions 50.What are physical properties? What are chemical properties? How can you tell the difference 51. What are chemical changes? What are physical changes? How can you tell the difference? 52.What is the law of conservation of matter and energy? Explain what it means. 53.What kinds of reactions are there? 54.What do we label any reaction that gives off heat? Ones that take in heat? 55.What can speed up chemical reactions? 56.What kind of chemical bond does this illustrate? Cl Na Step 1 Na Cl + Step 2 -
  4. 4. 57.What special name do we use for the charged atoms in step 2? 58.Which atom is the reactive metal? Which the non-metal? How did you know? Ne 59.Is this atom likely to undergo a chemical reaction? Tell why. 60.What type of bond is represented here when atoms share electrons? O 61. Is this substance a molecule or an ionic compound? C O 62. Using the criss-cross method, determine the correct formulas for the following sets of elements and name the compounds you create: Be F F Li 63. What is the total charge of the completed molecules you have just created? 64. List the polyatomic ions I asked you to remember and their charges: 65. Where are you likely to find an electron? 66.What are the differences between carbohydrates and hydrocarbons? Acids and Bases 67. List the properties of an acid 68.List the properties of a base 69.What is Neutralization 70. What is pH? 71. What does a pH of 7 represent? Of 14? Of 1? 72. What part of the formula for an acid tells you it is an acid? What part of the formula for a base tells you it is a base? 73. Name one acid and one base. 74.Why do strong acids/bases conduct electricity? Waves and Sound 75.What is the source of all waves? 76.What is the relationship between frequency, wavelength, and wave speed? 77.What are the two types of waves? 78.In a transverse wave, in what direction do the vibrations travel? 79.In a longitudinal (compressional wave) what direction do the vibrations travel?; 80.What type of waves are sound waves? 81. What’s the difference between constructive and destructive interference?
  5. 5. 82.In the Doppler effect what changes; frequency, wavelength, and/or wave speed? Light and Color 83.How much of the electromagnetic spectrum does visible light make up? 84.What color do we perceive for the lowest visible frequency? For the highest? 85.What is the difference between black and white in terms of the light that falls on both? 86.Why are red, green, and blue called additive primary colors? 87.What are complementary colors? 88.Why does the sky appear blue? The sunrise and sunset look red? And clouds white? Reflection and Refraction 89.What is the law of reflection? 90.What is the difference between reflection and refraction? 91. What is a converging lens? 92.What is a diverging lens? 93.Compare the eye and camera lens? Electricity 94.What is the equation for current? What is it’s unit? 95.Which part of the atom is negatively charged and which is positively charged? 96.Why is it electrons that “flow” through an electrically charged wire and not protons? 97.What is voltage? What is it’s unit? 98.What is the equation for Power? What unit do we use? 99.Distinguish between ac and dc? 100. What is a series circuit and a parallel circuit? 101. Are household circuits normally wired in series or parallel? Magnetism 102. 103. What is the basic difference between a generator and a motor? What are three ways that voltage can be induced in a wire? 104. Distinguish between magnetic domain, magnetic field, and magnetic force. 105. Since every iron atom is a tiny magnet, why aren’t all iron materials themselves magnets?
  6. 6. 106. A friend says that changing electric and magnetic fields generate each other. Do you agree? Explain.
  7. 7. 106. A friend says that changing electric and magnetic fields generate each other. Do you agree? Explain.