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  1. 1. Mutations AP Biology 2007-2008
  2. 2. Mutations  Point mutations single base change  base-pair substitution   silent mutation  no amino acid change  redundancy in code  missense  change amino acid  nonsense  change to stop codon AP Biology When do mutations affect the next generation?
  3. 3. Point mutation leads to Sickle cell anemia What kind of mutation? AP Biology Missense!
  4. 4. Sickle cell anemia  Primarily Africans recessive inheritance pattern  strikes 1 out of 400 African Americans  AP Biology hydrophilic amino acid hydrophobic amino acid
  5. 5. Mutations  Frameshift  shift in the reading frame   insertions   changes everything “downstream” adding base(s) deletions  AP Biology losing base(s) Where would this mutation cause the most change: beginning or end of gene?
  6. 6. Cystic fibrosis  Primarily whites of European descent  strikes 1 in 2500 births   normal allele codes for a membrane protein that transports Cl- across cell membrane     AP Biology 1 in 25 whites is a carrier (Aa) defective or absent channels limit transport of Cl- (& H2O) across cell membrane thicker & stickier mucus coats around cells mucus build-up in the pancreas, lungs, digestive tract & causes bacterial infections without treatment children die before 5; with treatment can live past their late 20s
  7. 7. Chloride channel Effect on Lungs normal lungs airway Cl- transports chloride through protein channel out of cell Osmotic effects: H2O follows ClCl- channel H2O cells lining lungs cystic fibrosis ClH2O bacteria & mucus build up thickened mucus hard to secrete AP Biology mucus secreting glands
  8. 8. Deletion leads to Cystic fibrosis delta F508 loss of one amino acid AP Biology
  9. 9. What’s the value of mutations? AP Biology 2007-2008
  10. 10. What’s the value of mutations? AP Biology 2007-2008