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31 ch45brain2007


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31 ch45brain2007

  1. 1. 2007-2008AP BiologyNervous SystemsBrain Development
  2. 2. AP BiologyNervous systemCentralnervoussystemBrainSpinalcordPeripheralnervoussystemSomatic(voluntary)nervous systemMotorpathwaysSensorypathwaysAutonomic(involuntary)nervous systemSympatheticdivisionParasympatheticdivision Sympatheticarousal & energy production“fight or flight” Parasympatheticcalming & back to maintenance“rest & digest” Sympatheticarousal & energy production“fight or flight” Parasympatheticcalming & back to maintenance“rest & digest”
  3. 3. AP BiologyTypes of neuronsdendritessensory neuroncell bodyaxoncell bodyinterneuroncellbodymotor neurondendrites“associative”
  4. 4. AP BiologyCephalization = Brain evolutionCnidariannervenetSimplestnervous systemno control ofcomplex actionsSimplestnervous systemno control ofcomplex actionsMore organizationbut still based on nervenets; supports morecomplex movementMore organizationbut still based on nervenets; supports morecomplex movementCephalization = clustering of neurons in “brain” at front (anterior)end of bilaterally symmetrical animalsCephalization = clustering of neurons in “brain” at front (anterior)end of bilaterally symmetrical animalsFlatwormPlatyhelminthesnerve cordsassociativeneuronsSimplest, definedcentral nervous systemmore complex musclecontrolSimplest, definedcentral nervous systemmore complex musclecontrolEchinodermradialnervenerveribs→→ where sense organs are
  5. 5. AP BiologyMolluskbraingiantaxon brainventralnervecordsArthropodFurther braindevelopmentganglia = neuronclusters alongCNSFurther braindevelopmentganglia = neuronclusters alongCNSincrease in interneurons in brain regionincrease in interneurons in brain regionEarthwormcentral nervous systemperipheralnervesMore complex brainsconnected to all otherparts of body byperipheral nervesMore complex brainsconnected to all otherparts of body byperipheral nervesMore complex brainsin predatorsmost sophisticatedinvertebrate nervoussystemMore complex brainsin predatorsmost sophisticatedinvertebrate nervoussystemCephalization = Brain evolution
  6. 6. AP BiologyEvolution of vertebrate brainSharkFrogCatBirdHumanSpinal cordHind: Medulla oblongataOptic tectumHind: CerebellumMidbrainFore: CerebrumOlfactory tractCrocodilehindbrain↑forebrain↑↑forebrain↑↑↑forebraindominant cerebrum
  7. 7. AP BiologyHuman brain
  8. 8. AP BiologyFunctional divisions of brain Hindbrain evolutionary older structures of the brain regulate essential autonomic & integrativefunctions brainstem pons medulla oblongata midbrain cerebellum thalamus, hypothalamus
  9. 9. AP BiologyBrainstem The “lower brain” medulla oblongata pons midbrain Functions homeostasis coordination of movement conduction of impulses to higher braincenters
  10. 10. AP BiologyMedulla oblongata & Pons Controls autonomic homeostaticfunctions heart & blood vessel activity breathing swallowing vomiting digestion Relays informationto & from higherbrain centers
  11. 11. AP BiologyMidbrain Involved in the integration of sensoryinformation regulation ofvisual reflexes regulation ofauditoryreflexes
  12. 12. AP BiologyReticular Formation Sleep & wakefulness produces patternsof electrical activity in the brain recorded as an ElectroEncephaloGram(EEG) most dreamingduring REM(rapid eyemovement)sleep
  13. 13. AP BiologyCerebrum Most highly evolved structure ofmammalian brain Cerebrum divided hemispheres left = right side ofbody right = left side ofbody Corpus callosum major connectionbetween 2 hemispheres
  14. 14. AP BiologyLateralization of Brain Function Left hemisphere language, math, logic operations, processingof serial sequences of information, visual &auditory details detailed activities requiredfor motor control Right hemisphere pattern recognition, spatialrelationships, non-verbalideation, emotionalprocessing, parallelprocessing of information
  15. 15. AP BiologyCerebrum specialization Regions of the cerebrum arespecialized for different functions Lobes frontal temporal occipital parietal
  16. 16. AP Biology
  17. 17. AP BiologyLimbic systemMediates basic emotions (fear, anger), involved inemotional bonding, establishes emotional memoryAmygdalainvolved inrecognizingemotional contentof facialexpression
  18. 18. AP BiologySimplest Nerve Circuit Reflex, or automatic responserapid response automatedsignal only goes tospinal cord no higher levelprocessingadaptive value essential actions don’t need to think ormake decisions about blinking balance pupil dilation startle
  19. 19. AP BiologyEye Blink or Pain Withdrawal ReflexEffector(muscle)SpinalcordInterneuronGraymatterWhitematterMotorneuronSensoryneuronReceptorin skinStimulus
  20. 20. 2007-2008AP Biologycerebrumcerebellumspinal cord cervicalnervesthoracicnerveslumbarnervesfemoralnervesciaticnervetibialnerveAny Questions??